ME 211 TERMODYNAMICS I


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1 ME 211 TERMODYNAMICS I Prof. Dr. Haşmet Türkoğlu Asst. Prof. Dr. Ekin Özgirgin YAPICI Çankaya University Faculty of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Fall,
2 CHAPTER 1: INTORDUCTION Thermodynamics  is the science dealing with the relationships between heat, work, and the properties of materials.  is the study of energy.  can be defined as the science of energy. The formal study of thermodynamics began in the early nineteenth century through consideration of the hot bodies to produce work. Thermodynamics is both a branch of science and engineering. The scientist are generally interested in understanding the physical and chemical behavior of material properties and relation between the properties. Engineers are generally interested in studying systems and how they interact with their surroundings. 2
3 APPLICATIONS INVOLVING THERMODYNAMICS Thermodynamics cover a wide range of applications. Selected applications of thermodynamics can be listed as follow: Refrigeration and air conditioning systems Combustion systems Automobile engines Compressors, fans and pumps Steam and gas turbines Fossil and nuclear fueled power stations Aircraft and rocket propulsion Alternative energy systems  Fuel cell  Geothermal systems  Wind turbines  Solar activated heating, cooling and power generation Bioengineering applications Biomedical applications  3
4 Heating, vantilating, and air conditioning systems (HVAC) Energy (work) is supplied to the system to cool air Combustion systems Chemical energy of fuel is converted to thermal energy and transferred to a fluid. 4
5 Automobile engines (internalcombustion engines): Chemical energy of fuel is converted into mechanical energy. 5
6 Steam turbines Thermal energy of steam is converted to mechanical energy Compressors Energy (work) is supplied to the system to compress a gas (air). 6
7 Biomedical Application Steam power plant A given engineering system may consist of more than one components. Main components of this system are  Boiler  Steam turbine  Pump  Condenser  Generator Thermodynamically this whole system and/or each component is analyzed separately to determine the interaction between system and surrounding. 7
8 Two approaches to study thermodynamics: To study the thermodynamics problems two approahes are employed: 1) Statistical Thermodynamics: It is microscopic aproach and based on the average behaviour of large groups of individual particles. 2) Classical Thermodynamics: It is based on macroscopic approach. It does not require knowledge of large groups of individual particles. Engineers use the classical thermodynamics to analyze the interaction between a system and surrounding and the efficiency of the system. This course deals with clasical thermodynamics 8
9 Definition of a System The term system is used to identify the subject of the analysis. The system is quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study. The mass or region outside the system is called surroundings. The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary. Surface separating a system from its surroundings may be real or imaginary, fixed or moveable system surroundings boundary Types of Systems Systems may be considered to be closed or open. A closed system (control mass) is defined when a particular quantity of matter is under study. A closed system always contains the same matter. There can be no transfer of mass across its boundary. Energy can cross the boundary. Volume is not fixed. An open system (control volume): With this approach, a region within a prescribed boundary is studied. The region is called a control volume. Mass may cross the boundary of a control volume. Energy can also cross the boundary. 9
10 Closed Systems If no mass can enter or leave a closed system and also if energy is not allowed to cross the boundary, that system is called an isolated system. If system is thermally isolated, it is called adiabatic system (work can cross boundary). Open System (Control Volume)  Mass may cross system boundary (control surface)  Volume may/may not be fixed  Energy may cross system boundary  Control Volumes may operate at steady or unsteady state conditions.  Usually encloses devices which involve mass flow  10
11 Steady state system: A system is said to be at steady state if none of its properties changes with time. Unsteady (transient) system: A system is said to be at unsteady state if one of its properties changes with time. WARNING: The thermodynamic relations that are applicable to closed and open systems are different. It is important to recognize the type of system before you start analyzing it. 11
12 Describing Systems and Their Behavior Engineers are interested in studying systems and how they interact with their surroundings. Describing the system and predicting its behavior requires knowledge of its properties and how those properties are related. Property: Any characteristic of a system is called property. Some common thermodynamic properties are mass, volume, energy, pressure and temperature to which a numerical value can be assigned without knowledge of the previous history. Some common thermodynamic properties pressure p, temperature T, volume V, mass m density, r=m/v (kg/m 3 ) specific volume, v=v/m=1/r (m 3 /kg) Thermodynamic properties can be placed in two general classes: extensive and intensive properties. Extensive Property: Dependent on the size and extent of the system such as mass m, volume V, energy E. Additive over the system Intensive Property: Independent of the size and extent of the system such as temperature, T, pressure P, density r, spesific volume v. Not additive over the system T= P= u= The relation between intensive and extensive property can be expressed as b=b/m where b is intensive, B is extensive property Specific properties: Extensive properties per unit mass v, e, etc. 12
13 Mass (m) kg Volume(V) m 3 Energy (E) J Power (P) W Density (r):kg/m 3 Spesific volume ( ): m 3 /kg Pressure= Force / area (N/m 2 = Pa) Temperature (T) C,K Internal energy (U) J Enthalpy (H) J Entropy (S) J/k Spesific weight (r g): kg/m 3. m/s 2 kg/m 2 s 2 State: The word state refers to the condition of a system as described by its properties. Since there are normally relations among the properties of a system, the state often can be specified by providing the values of a subset of the properties. If a system exhibits the same values of its properties at two different times, it is in the same state at these times. A system is said to be at steady state if none of its properties changes with time. Process: It is a transformation from one state to another. Whenever any of the properties of a system change, the state of the system changes and the system has undergone a process. However, if a system exhibits the same values of its properties at two different times, it is in the same state at these times. 13
14 Thermodynamic Cycle: A thermodynamic cycle is a sequence of processes that begins and ends at the same state. At the conclusion of a cycle all properties have the same values they had at the beginning. System returns to its initial states at the end of the process. There is no change of state over the cycle. 14
15 Equilibrium In mechanics, equilibrium means a condition of balance maintained by an equality of opposing forces. When a system is isolated from its surroundings; if there are no changes in the properties, we conclude that the system is in equilibrium at the moment it is isolated. The system can be said to be at an equilibrium state if the system is in Thermal equilibrium uniform temperature Mechanical equilibrium uniform pressure Chemical equilibrium no change in chemical composition When a system is isolated, it does not interact with its surroundings; however, its state can change due to its intensive properties, such as temperature and pressure. When all changes cease, the system is in equilibrium. At equilibrium, temperature is uniform throughout the system. Also, pressure can be regarded as uniform throughout as long as the effect of gravity is not significant. A close system is reaching thermal equilibrium. Quasi equilibrium (quasistatic) process A quasiequilibrium process in thermodynamics is a process in which the system only deviates from equilibrium by infinitesimal amounts. Quasiequilibrium processes can be used to closely approximate real processes. Quasiequilibrium processes involve very slow changes, such as the slow compression of a piston. 15
16 State postulate: State postulate is a postulate about the number of properties needed to specify the state of system. According to the state postulate, the state of simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent intensive properties. A system is called simple compressible system in the absence of electrical, magnetic, gravitational, motion, and surface tension effects. Two properties are independent if one property can be varied while the other is kept constant. Temperature and pressure are independent properties for a single phase system, but dependent properties for multiphase systems. Therefore, temperature and pressure are not sufficient to fix state of a twophase system. However, temperature and specific volume are always independent properties. Hence, they can fix the state of a simple compressible twophase system. 16
17 Measuring Mass, Length, Time, and Force When engineering calculations are performed, it is necessary to be concerned with the units of the physical quantities involved. A unit is any specified amount of a quantity by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured. Systems of units:  SI Units  English Engineering Units SI Units SI is the abbreviation for International System of Units. The system of units called SI takes mass, length and time as primary dimensions and regards force as secondary. The SI base units for mass, length and time are listed in Table. The SI base unit for temperature is the kelvin, K. Four primary dimensions suffice in thermodynamics. They are mass (M), length (L), time (t), and temperature (q). Alternatively, Force (F) can be used. In the SI system unit for force can be derived using Newton s second law as follows: F=ma 1 N = (1 kg) (1 m/s 2 ) = 1 kg m/s 2 Basic Dimension Systems: MLTθ (mass length time temperature) FLTθ (force length time temperature) SI units for other physical quantities are also derived in terms of the SI base units. SI units for quantities pertinent to thermodynamics are given in Table. 17
18 English Engineering Units At the present time many segments of the engineering community in the United States regularly use some other units. For many years to come, engineers in the United States will have to be conversant with a variety of units. English Engineering base units:  for mass is pound (lb)  for length is foot (ft)  for time is second (s)  for temperature is Rankine (R) In the English Engineering system unit for force can be derived using Newton s second law as follows: F=ma 1 lbf = (1 lb) ( ft/s 2 ) = lb ft/s 2 18
19 Measurable Properties : Specific Volume, Pressure and Temperature Three intensive properties that are particularly important in engineering thermodynamics are specific volume, pressure, and temperature. Specific Volume The density, or local mass per unit volume, is an intensive property that may vary from point to point within the system. Thus the mass associated with a particular volume V is determined in principle by integration m rdv V The specific volume is defined as the reciprocal of the density. It is the volume per unit mass. Like density, specific volume is an intensive property and may vary from point to point. SI units for density and specific volume are kg/m 3 and m 3 /kg, respectively. In certain applications, it is convenient to express properties such as a specific volume on a molar basis rather than on a mass basis. The number of kilomoles of a substance, n, is obtained by dividing the mass, m, in kilograms by the molecular weight, M, in kg/kmol. m n M To signal that a property is on molar basis, a bar is used over its symbol. Thus, signifies the volume per kmol. Relationship between v and v is M where M is the molecular weight in kg/kmol or lb/lbmol. 19
20 PRESSURE The force exerted by a fluid per unit area Pressure = Normal Force / Area= (1 N/m 2 = 1 Pa) Units the SI unit of pressure and stress is the pascal. 1 pascal = 1 N/m 2 1 kpa = 10 3 N/m 2 1 bar = 10 5 N/m 2 1 MPa = 10 6 N/m 2 1 atm = x10 5 N/m 2 The actual pressure at given position is called the absolute pressure, and its measured relative to the absolute vacuum. Most pressure measuring devices however, are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere and so they indicate the difference between absolute pressure and local atmospheric pressure. This difference is called the gage pressure. The pressure below the atmospheric pressure is called vacuum pressure. P(gage) = P(absolute)  P atm P(absolute) = p(gage) + p atm When the local atmospheric pressure is greater than the pressure in the system, the term vacuum pressure is used. P(vacuum) = p atm  p(absolute) The relationship among the various ways of expressing pressure measurements is shown in Figure. 20
21 Pressure Measurement Outside (Atmospheric) Pressure Measurement Outside (atmospheric pressure) is measured using barometer. Pressure Measurement in Systems Pressure of a thermodynamic system is measured using different types of devices. Manometer fluid(mercury, water, oil) P 1 =P 3 = P atm +rgh P tank)abs =p1= P atm +rgh 21
22 Bourdon gauge Pressure Transducer PressurePascal s Law When a force is applied to a contained, incompressible fluid, the pressure increases equally in all directions throughout the fluid. This fundamental characteristic of fluids provides the foundation for hydraulic systems. 22
23 Temperature Temperature is an intensive property that determines whether an object is in thermal equilibrium with other objects. If two bodies are at different temperature in contact with each other, heat is transferred from body at high temperature to the one at low temperature. Temperature is a measure of hotness or coldness. Several properties of materials change with temperatures, so it is very important to measure the temperature. Thermometers and temperature scales have been devised to measure it. Devices to measure temperature:  thermometers,  temperature sensors,  thermocouples,  electrical resistance sensors,  semiconductor types,  termistors Temperature scales: Temperature scales are defined by the numerical value assigned to a standard fixed point. By international agreement, the standard fixed point is the easily reproducible triple point of water: the state of equilibrium between steam, ice, and liquid water. Temperature at this point is defined as K. So, the triple point of water is 0.01 o C. (a) Twopoint scales  Celsius scale or Centigrade scale, o C, (SI) Water at ice point 0 o C Water at steam point 100 o C  Fahrenheit scale, o F, (English system) Water at ice point 32 o F Water at steam point 212 o F  Ice point: a mixture of ice and water that is in equilibrium with air saturated with vapor at 1 atm pressure  Steam point: a mixture of liquid water and water vapor (with no air) in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure (b) Thermodynamic temperature scale  Independent of properties of any substance  Developed based on 2 nd law of thermodynamics  Mostly used in thermodynamic calculations  Kelvin scale, K, (SI)  Rankine scale, R, (English system) 23
24 Temperature scale conversion: T (K) = T ( o C) T (R) = T ( o F) T ( o F) = 1.8 T ( o C) + 32 T (R) = 1.8 T (K) Zeroth law of thermodynamics: When two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are in thermal equilibrium with one another. This statement is called the zeroth law of thermodynamics. That is, when a body is brought into contact with another body that is at a different temperature, heat is transferred from the body at higher temperature to the one at lower temperature until both bodies are at same temperature At that point, the heat transfer stops, and the two bodies are said to have reached thermal equilibrium. 24
25 Methodology for Solving Thermodynamics Problems In teaching thermodynamics, it is essential to teach a systematic problemsolving methodology. Using a systematic solution approach helps students understand the subject and get correct results for thermodynamics problems. The problem solving methodology in thermodynamics has five steps: Step 1: State briefly in your own words what is known and list all given data. Step 2: State conciely in your own words what is to be determined. Step 3: Define the system under consideration and the kind of process involved. This involves specifying the system boundaries and their properties, what kind of material is in the system, and whether the process involves steady flow or a change from one state of the system to another. Draw a sketch that shows the system boundaries and any mass or energy flows across the boundary. Step 4: To form a record for how to model the problem, list all the simplfying assumptions and idealizations made to reduce the problem that is managable. Step 5: Using your assumptions and idealizations, equations and relationships. reduce the approriate governing 25
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