# Chapter 4. Water Balance of Plants

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Chapter 4 Water Balance of Plants

2 Main driving forces for water flow from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere

3 Water flow in soil The rate of water flow in soil depends on The size of pressure gradient through the soil Soil hydraulic conductivity How easily the water moves through the soil Sandy soil > silt soil > clay soil Water content

4 Field capacity Low Medium High

5 Soil hydraulic conductivity (mh -1 MPa -1 ) For a clay soil (Soil space filled with water) Field capacity Soil water potential (MPa) More soil space filled with air Permanent wilting point for many species The decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity as the soil dries is due primarily to the movement of air into the soil to replace the water. As air moves in, the pathways for water flow between soil particles become smaller and more tortuous, and flow becomes more difficult.

6 Permanent wilting point At this point, plant can not regain turgor pressure even the transpiration stops. w < s

7 Field capacity The capacity of a soil to hold water The water content of a soil after it has been saturated with water and excess water has been allowed to drain away.

8 Concave menisci

9 Soil water potential w = s + p + g s is generally negligible because solute concentration is low ( ~ MPa). p is very close to 0 MPa in wet soil, but decrease as soil dried out.

10 Why p is negative in most soil? Soil dried out or water absorbed by plants Air space expand Because of adhesive force, water tends to cling to the surface of soil particles. Concave menisci developed => surface tension p = -2T/r T : surface tension of water = 7.28 X 10-8 MPa r : the radius of curvature of the menisci The radius of curvature of air-water surface become very small in drying soils.

11 Water flow in the soil Plants absorb water from the soil, and they deplete water near the surface of the roots. Ψ p decrease The depletion reduces p in the water near the root surface and establishes a pressure gradient with respect to neighboring region of soil that have higher p.

12 Water absorption by the root : Three pathways that water moves through the roots apoplast symplast transmembrane pathway

13 Suberin exists mainly in roots and contains very long chain (C20- C26) fatty acids and fatty alcohols and high phenol contents.

14

15 Root hydraulic conductance Jv = Lroot X Δ w Jv : the rate of water flow Lroot : root hydraulic conductance Δ w : the radial water potential difference across the root Lroot is low when roots are subjected to low temp or anaerobic conditions, or treated with respiratory inhibitors; that is water uptake of roots decreases in these conditions.

16 Regulation of aquaporins

17 Regulation of aquaporins Permeability of aquaporins can be regulated in response to intracellular ph. Decreased rate of respiration leads to increases in intracellular ph. This increase in cytoplasmic ph alters the conductance of aquaporins involved in the movement of water across roots, resulting in roots that are less permeable to water. Closure in response to drought results from the dephosphorylation of two highly conserved serine residues, whereas closure during flooding results from the protonation of a conserved histidine.

18 Root pressure A positive hydrostatic pressure ( p ) builds in the xylem of roots. For example : The cut stump will exude sap from the cut xylem. Guttation, liquid droplets on the edges of their leaves. Most of the time, the transpiration rates are high, and water is taken up so rapidly into the leaves and lost to the atmosphere that a positive pressure never develops in the xylem. Root pressure usually occurs when soil water potentials are high and transpiration rates are low.

19 Dewdrops Transpiration is suppressed, and RH is high. Guttation in leaves from strawberry in the early morning. Leaves secrete water droplets through the hydathodes.

20 Root pressure A positive hydrostatic pressure ( p ) in the xylem of roots Mechanism : Root absorb ions from the dilute soil solution Transport ions into the xylem Build up the solute in the xylem sap Decrease the xylem osmotic potential ( s ) s = -RTC s Decrease the xylem water potential ( w ) C s increase => s decrease The lowering of xylem w provides a driving force for water absorption, which in turn leads to a positive hydrostatic pressure in the xylem.

21 Note Well hydrated plants, high humidity and less transpiration => root pressure increase (but usually less than 0.1 MPa) Dried condition, transpiration rate increase => negative hydrostatic pressure in xylem

22 Tracheary elements Tracheids angiosperms and gymnosperms Vessel elements angiosperms and a small group of gymnosperms (usually found in higher plants)

23 Preventing gas bubbles from spreading into neighboring tracheids Two primary walls & a middle lamella

24 Cavitation (or embolism) As the tension in water increase there is a tendency for air to be pulled through microscopic pores in the xylem cell walls and finally formed an air bubble => cavitation or embolism.

25 Water movement through the xylem vs. through living cells For trees with wide vessels (r = 100 ~ 200 m), velocity = m/h (=4 13 mm/s) Trees with smaller vessels (r = 25 ~ 75 m), velocity = 1 6 m/h (= mm/s) The driving force of water movement through the xylem is about 0.02 MPa/m. However, the driving force of water movement through a living cell (through membrane) is about 2 X 10 8 MPa/m.

26 High pressure difference is needed to lift water 100 meters to a treetop. A pressure difference of roughly 3 MPa from the base to the top branches, is needed to carry water to the tallest trees of 100 m. How are the water lifted to a treetop?

27 Cohesion-tension theory of sap ascent Because of the transpiration,the water at the top of a tree develops a large tension (a negative hydrostatic pressure), and this tension pulls water up the long water column in the xylem. However, as the tension in water increase there is an tendency for air to be pulled through microscopic pores in the xylem cell walls and finally formed a air bubble => cavitation or embolism.

28 Pushing on the plunger compresses the fluid, and a positive pressure builds up. => positive hydrostatic pressure ( 流體靜壓 ) Pulling on the plunger causes the fluid to develop a tension, or a negative pressure. => negative hydrostatic pressure. The hydrostatic pressure is positive in plant cells and is referred as turgor pressure ( p ).

29 Water evaporation in the leaf generates a negative pressure in the xylem which in turn causes water to move up through the xylem. Venation

30

31

32 As water evaporates from the surface film that covers the cell walls of the mesophyll, water withdraws farther into the interstices of the cell wall, and surface tension causes a negative pressure in the liquid phase. Development of negative hydrostatic pressure at the surface of the cell walls in the leaf causes water to move up through the xylem.

33 Water movement from the leaf to the atmosphere

34 Transpiration diffusion of water vapor Diffusion is primary means of any further movement of the water out of the leaf. That is water movement is controlled by the concentration gradient of water vapor. Two factors determine transpiration : Difference in water vapor concentration (Cwv) Resistance of the pathway for vapor diffusion (Diffusional resistance) Leaf stomatal resistance (rs) Boundary layer resistance (rb)

35 E = Cwv (leaf) Cwv (air) rs + rb E : transpiration rate (mol/m 2 /s) rs : resistance at the stomatal pore (s/m) (leaf stomatal resistance) rb : resistance due to the boundary layer boundary layer : the layer of unstirred air at the leaf surface (boundary layer resistance) However, it is difficult to measure the Cwv (leaf). Sometimes vapor pressure are used instead of concentrations, and the difference is called water vapor pressure deficit. Water vapor pressure deficit = Pwv (leaf) - Pwv (air)

36

37 Air boundary layer A thin film of still air on the surface of leaf and its resistance to water vapor diffusion is proportional to its thickness. The thickness of the boundary layer is determined primarily by wind speed.

38

39 When air surrounding the leaf is still, increases in stomatal aperture have little effect on transpiration rate. The thickness of the boundary layer is the primary deterrent to water vapor loss from the leaf. When wind velocity is high, the stomatal resistance has the largest amount of control over water loss.

40 Relative humidity (RH) RH = Cwv / Cwv (sat.) The Cwv (sat.) is strongly dependent on temp.

41

42

43 Water loss Water loss is regulated by : Difference in water vapor concentration The pathway resistance

44 The concentration gradient for CO 2 uptake is smaller than the concentration gradient driving water loss. How can plant prevent water loss without simultaneously excluding CO 2 uptake? Temporal regulation When water is abundant : At night, no photosynthesis Stomata close, preventing unnecessary loss of water. Sunny morning, photosynthesis is demanding, supply of water is abundant. Stomata are wide open, decreasing the stomatal resistance to CO 2 diffusion. When soil water is less abundant The stomata will open less or even remain closed on a sunny morning.

45 Transpiration ratio A measure of the relationship between water loss and carbon gain Transpiration ratio = moles of H 2 O transpired moles of CO 2 fixed The factors that cause large ratio of H 2 O efflux to CO 2 influx : The concentration gradient driving water loss is about 50 times larger than driving CO 2 influx. CO 2 diffuse slower than water does. MW of CO 2 > MW of H 2 O CO 2 has longer diffusion path membrane -> cytoplasm -> chloroplast envelop -> chloroplast

46 Stomata In dicot and non grass monocot Usually no subsidiary cell Kidney-shaped guard cells Grass stomatal complex pore

47 Oat 35 34

48 Ventral wall (thicker ~ 5mm) dorsal wall (thinner)

49 Ion and organic molecules Guard cell s Decrease ( s = -RTCs) w decrease Water moves into the guard cell p increase Stoma open

50

51 END

52

### Transport in Plants Notes AP Biology Mrs. Laux 3 levels of transport occur in plants: 1. Uptake of water and solutes by individual cells

3 levels of transport occur in plants: 1. Uptake of water and solutes by individual cells -for photosynthesis and respiration -ex: absorption of H 2 O /minerals by root hairs 2. Short distance cell-to-cell

### Chapter 36: Resource Acquisition & Transport in Vascular Plants

Chapter 36: Resource Acquisition & Transport in Vascular Plants 1. Overview of Transport in Plants 2. Transport of Water & Minerals 3. Transport of Sugars 1. Overview of Transport in Plants H 2 O CO 2

### Text for Transpiration Water Movement through Plants

Text for Transpiration Water Movement through Plants Tracy M. Sterling, Ph.D., 2004 Department of Entomology, Plant Pathology and Weed Science New Mexico State University tsterlin@nmsu.edu http://croptechnology.unl.edu

### 3) Transpiration creates a force that pulls water upward in. xylem. 2) Water and minerals transported upward form roots to shoots in.

3) Transpiration creates a force that pulls water upward in xylem Figure 36.1 An overview of transport in whole plants (Layer 1) Transport in plants 2) Water and minerals transported upward form roots

### Water movement in the xylem Water moves from roots to leaves through the xylem. But how? Hypotheses: 1. Capillary action - water will move upward in

Transport in Plants Two Transport Processes Occur in Plants 1. Carbohydrates carried from leaves (or storage organs) to where they are needed (from sources to sinks) 2. Water transported from roots to

### Exchange and transport

Exchange and transport Examples of things which need to be interchanged between an organism and its environment include: Respiratory gases Nutrients Excretory products Heat This exchange can take place

### WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VASCULAR AND NON- VASCULAR PLANTS?

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VASCULAR AND NON- VASCULAR PLANTS? Let s take a closer look. What makes them different on the outside and inside? Learning Intentions To understand how vascular plant cells

### 1. The leaf is the main photosynthetic factory (Fig. 36.1, p. 702)

TRANSPORT IN PLANTS A. Introduction 1. The leaf is the main photosynthetic factory (Fig. 36.1, p. 702) a. This requires a transport system to move water and minerals from the roots to the leaf. This is

### 23-5 Transport in Plants Slide 1 of 30

1 of 30 Xylem tissue forms a continuous set of tubes that runs from the roots through stems and out into the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Active transport and root pressure cause water to move from soil

### Exchange & Transport in Vascular Plants. Plant Exchange & Transport

Exchange & Transport in Vascular Plants Plant Exchange & Transport I. II. Local Transport III. Long Distance Transport IV. Gas Exchange Water and Solutes - Uptake by Cells Passive Transport (Diffusion)

### Transport in plants. Unit 1

Unit 1 Transport in plants A knowledge of how plants take in and transport substances is vitally important to agriculture. Using this knowledge, scientists are able to develop more effective ways of applying

### VIII. PLANTS AND WATER

VIII. PLANTS AND WATER Plants play a large role in the hydrologic cycle. Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from leaves of natural and cultivated vegetation, returns to the atmosphere about 60

### Q1. The table shows the composition of blood entering and leaving the lungs. Concentration in arbitrary units. Oxygen Carbon dioxide 46 40

Q. The table shows the composition of blood entering and leaving the lungs. Gas Concentration in arbitrary units Blood entering lungs Blood leaving lungs Oxygen 40 00 Carbon dioxide 46 40 (a) Describe,

### Plant Classification, Structure, Growth and Hormones

Biology SAT II Review Sheet Plants Plant Classification, Structure, Growth and Hormones Multicellular autotrophs (organisms that use the energy of inorganic materials to produce organic materials) Utilize

### Transpiration. C should equal D.BUT SOMETIMES. 1. Loss in mass is greater than volume of water added.

Transpiration Transpiration is the loss of water by evaporation from the leaves through the stomata. The source of water for the plants is soil water. It is taken up by root hair cells by osmosis. Once

### Transport in Plants. Lab Exercise 25. Introduction. Objectives

Lab Exercise Transport in Plants Objectives - Become familiar and be able to recognize the different types of cells found in the plant s vascular tissue. - Be able to describe root pressure and transpiration

### Two succulent leaf tips are exposed above ground; the rest of the plant lives below ground

Resource Acquisition, Transport, & Plant Nutrition Ch s. 36 & 37 Stone plants (Lithops) are adapted to life in the desert Two succulent leaf tips are exposed above ground; the rest of the plant lives below

### LAB 24 Transpiration

Name: AP Biology Lab 24 LAB 24 Transpiration Objectives: To understand how water moves from roots to leaves in terms of the physical/chemical properties of water and the forces provided by differences

### PLANTS FORM & FUNCTION TRANSPORT IN PLANTS OVERVIEW OF TRANSPORT IN PLANTS. Plant Form & Function Activity #3 page 1

AP BIOLOGY PLANTS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #3 NAME DATE HOUR TRANSPORT IN PLANTS OVERVIEW OF TRANSPORT IN PLANTS Plant Form & Function Activity #3 page 1 PROTON PUMPS Plant Form & Function Activity #3

### Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants

OpenStax-CNX module: m44708 1 Transport of Water and Solutes in Plants OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the end

### Bio Factsheet January 2001 Number 82

January 2001 Number 82 Transport in Flowering Plants This Factsheet covers the relevant AS syllabus content of the major examination boards. By studying this Factsheet candidates will gain a knowledge

### COTTON WATER RELATIONS

COTTON WATER RELATIONS Dan R. Krieg 1 INTRODUCTION Water is the most abundant substance on the Earth s surface and yet is the most limiting to maximum productivity of nearly all crop plants. Land plants,

### Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard. Biology Level 2

Exemplar for internal assessment resource Biology for Achievement Standard 91160 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Biology Level 2 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard

### B4 Learning Outcome Questions

Question Name 4 collection methods: What is the formula used to estimate the population size of an organism: What assumptions need to be made when using capture-recapture data? What could affect the distribution

### Stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis

Water stress induced stomatal limitation to photosynthesis 1. Stomatal resistance in the context of the entire CO2 pathway 2. How to measure stomatal resistance to CO2 uptake. Stomatal limitation of photosynthesis

### AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions. Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions!

AS Biology Unit 2 Key Terms and Definitions Make sure you use these terms when answering exam questions! Chapter 7 Variation 7.1 Random Sampling Sampling a population to eliminate bias e.g. grid square

### 10B Plant Systems Guided Practice

10B Plant Systems Guided Practice Reproduction Station 1 1. Observe Plant A. Locate the following parts of the flower: stamen, stigma, style, ovary. 2. Draw and label the parts of a flower (listed above)

### Impressions of a Stoma

Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Impressions of a Stoma Overview Students use two different methods to view stomata on the underside of leaves. Introduction Plants exchange the

### Figure 1. Basic structure of the leaf, with a close up of the leaf surface showing Stomata and Guard cells.

BIOL100 Laboratory Assignment 3: Analysis of Stomata Name: Stomata (singular=stoma) are the respiratory control structures in plants (see Figure 1 below). They are essentially small holes in the surface

### Photosynthesis. Chemical Energy (e.g. glucose) - They are the ultimate source of chemical energy for all living organisms: directly or indirectly.

Photosynthesis Light Energy transduction Chemical Energy (e.g. glucose) - Only photosynthetic organisms can do this (e.g. plants) - They are the ultimate source of chemical energy for all living organisms:

### 1.1.2. thebiotutor. AS Biology OCR. Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport. Module 1.2 Cell Membranes. Notes & Questions.

thebiotutor AS Biology OCR Unit F211: Cells, Exchange & Transport Module 1.2 Cell Membranes Notes & Questions Andy Todd 1 Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells. The main

### Understanding and Using VPD Argus Application Note

Understanding and Using VPD Argus Application Note Rev. January 2009 PRINTED IN CANADA Introduction This application note is intended as a guide for users of Argus systems in understanding VPD (Vapor Pressure

### 6-5. Pump potential and diffusion potential. How can we determine whether an ion moves in or out by active or passive transport?

3. Transport can be active or passive. Passive transport is movement down an electrochemical gradient. Active transport is movement against an electrochemical gradient. F 6-3 Taiz. Microelectrodes are

### IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions. Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9. Chapter 6 Plant structure and function

1 IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9 Chapter 6 Plant structure and function Page 54 1. a Epidermis. Helps maintain shape, reduces evaporation, resists

### The Processes of Life. Bicester Community College Science Department

B4 The Processes of Life B4 Key Questions How do chemical reactions take place in living things? How do plants make food? How do living organisms obtain energy? How do chemical reactions take place in

### REVIEW UNIT 3: METABOLISM (RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS) SAMPLE QUESTIONS

Period Date REVIEW UNIT 3: METABOLISM (RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS) SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. The carbon that

### Soil Suction. Total Suction

Soil Suction Total Suction Total soil suction is defined in terms of the free energy or the relative vapor pressure (relative humidity) of the soil moisture. Ψ = v RT ln v w 0ω v u v 0 ( u ) u = partial

### COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS SIMILARITIES IN PLANT & ANIMAL CELLS

COMPARISON OF PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS Cells vary widely in structure and function, even within the same organism. The human body, for example, has more than 200 different types of cells, each with a specialized

### Physical and chemical properties of water Gas Laws Chemical Potential of Water Rainfall/Drought

Lecture 14, Water, Humidity, Pressure and Trace Gases, Part 1 Physical and chemical properties of water Gas Laws Chemical Potential of Water Rainfall/Drought Atmospheric Gas Composition constitue nt percent

### Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types

Plant Structure, Growth, & Development Ch. 35 Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types A tissue is a group of cells consisting of one or more

### 8. Study the cladogram underline the derived characteristics and circle the organisms that developed from them.

Seed Plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Answer the questions as you go through the power point, there are also paragraphs to read where you will need to hi-lite or underline as you read. 1. What are the

### 15.2 Stomatal physiology

Published on Plants in Action (http://plantsinaction.science.uq.edu.au/edition1) Home > Printer-friendly PDF > Printer-friendly PDF 15.2 Stomatal physiology CO 2 assimilation necessitates stomatal opening,

### Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis

Chapter 6 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.1

### Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves

I. Leaf Structure and Anatomy Anatomy and Physiology of Leaves A. Structural Features of the Leaf Question: How do plants respire? Plants must take in CO 2 from the atmosphere in order to photosynthesize.

GCSE Additional Science Module B4 The processes of life: What you should know Name: Science Group: Teacher: R.A.G. each of the statements to help focus your revision: R = Red: I don t know this A = Amber:

### Typhoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure. 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings

Typhoon Haiyan 1. Force of wind blowing against vertical structure 2. Destructive Pressure exerted on Buildings 3. Atmospheric Pressure variation driving the Typhoon s winds 4. Energy of Typhoon 5. Height

### 7. A selectively permeable membrane only allows certain molecules to pass through.

CHAPTER 2 GETTING IN & OUT OF CELLS PASSIVE TRANSPORT Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells. Some substances can cross the cell membrane

### BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes

BIOLOGY 12 - Cell Membrane and Cell Wall Function: Chapter Notes The cell membrane is the gateway into the cell, and must allow needed things such as nutrients into the cell without letting them escape.

### Question Bank Respiration in plants

Question Bank Respiration in plants 1. Define the following : (i) Respiration (ii) Breathing (iii) Fermentation Ans. (i) Respiration : It is the process of breakdown of food materials to produce energy.

### Cell Membrane & Tonicity Worksheet

NAME ANSWER KEY DATE PERIOD Cell Membrane & Tonicity Worksheet Composition of the Cell Membrane & Functions The cell membrane is also called the PLASMA membrane and is made of a phospholipid BI-LAYER.

### Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy

Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy Importance of Photosynthesis A. Ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth 1. All producers are photosynthesizers 2. All consumers and decomposers are dependent

### Lecture 7: Plant Structure and Function. I. Background

Lecture 7: Plant Structure and Function I. Background A. Challenges for terrestrial plants 1. Habitat is divided a. Air is the source of CO2 for photosynthesis i. Sunlight cannot penetrate soil b. Soil

### Fluid Mechanics: Static s Kinematics Dynamics Fluid

Fluid Mechanics: Fluid mechanics may be defined as that branch of engineering science that deals with the behavior of fluid under the condition of rest and motion Fluid mechanics may be divided into three

### CELERY LAB - Structure and Function of a Plant

CELERY LAB - Structure and Function of a Plant READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE BEGINNING! YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER ON THIS ACTIVITY, BUT YOU MUST COMPLETE YOUR OWN LAB SHEET! Plants are incredible organisms!

### Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) Docent Jinliang Yuan November, 2008 Department of Energy Sciences Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), Sweden Four PEMFC stacks illustrating developments through

### Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food),

LEARNING FROM LEAVES: A LOOK AT LEAF SIZE Grades 3 6 I. Introduction Plants, like all other living organisms have basic needs: a source of nutrition (food), water, space in which to live, air, and optimal

### Question. Which of the following are necessary in order for photosynthesis to occur? A. water B. light energy C. carbon dioxide D.

Photosynthesis is the process through which plants convert light energy to chemical energy in order to produce food The energy involved in photosynthesis is eventually stored in the chemical bonds of molecules

### Irrigation - How Best to Water Your Desert Trees

Irrigation - How Best to Water Your Desert Trees John Eisenhower, ISA Certified Arborist WE-5213A Integrity Tree Service, Inc. 602-788-0005 www.itreeservice.com How much water do my trees need? How much

### LAB. LEAF STRUCTURE. light energy. light energy

Period Date LAB. LEAF STRUCTURE Plants are incredible organisms! They can make all their own food from the simple inputs of: sunlight air (carbon dioxide) water minerals This biological wizardry is accomplished

### Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals

26 Transport of Materials in Plants and Animals All plants need water. The wilted leaves recover when water is added to the soil, which means that water has been conducted upward into the leaves. You have

### Leaf Structure and Transpiration

10 LESSON Leaf Structure and Transpiration INTRODUCTION Have you wondered what happens to all that water that disappears from the reservoir of your growing system? Although some might have evaporated from

### 2006 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

building science.com 2006 Building Science Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. Building Science Digest 138 Moisture and Materials 2006-10-24 by John Straube Abstract: Moisture is involved

### Cell Membrane Properties

Cell Membrane Properties Purpose of the lab: review the structure and function of the cell membrane understand the three types of transport across a membrane, and the special case of osmosis using Elodea

### Making a Terrarium. fairchild tropical botanic garden 1

Making a Terrarium What is a Terrarium? A terrarium is a collection of small plants growing in a transparent, sealed container. A terrarium is a closed environment, and can actually be used to illustrate

### Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit

Name Class Date Chapter 22 Plant Diversity Section Review 22-1 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions. 1. Describe the main characteristics of plants.

### CELERY LAB - Structure and Function of a Plant

CELERY LAB - Structure and Function of a Plant READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE BEGINNING! YOU MAY WORK WITH A PARTNER ON THIS ACTIVITY, BUT YOU MUST COMPLETE YOUR OWN LAB SHEET! Look at the back of this paper

What is a Terrarium? A terrarium is a collection of small plants growing in a transparent, sealed container. A terrarium is a closed environment, and can actually be used to illustrate how an ecosystem

### Photosynthesis (Life from Light)

Photosynthesis Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy o Heterotrophs (consumers) Animals, fungi, most bacteria Get their energy from other organisms

### Getting the energy the body needs

Getting the energy the body needs Identify the main bones of the skeleton. Describe the role of skeletal joints. Recall that muscles contract to move bones at joints. Investigate the strengths of different

### chemicals > transported from outside to in > waste products created > they need to be removed

1 Transport systems chemicals > transported from outside to in > waste products created > they need to be removed Simple organisms Diffusion the free movement of particles in a liquid or a gas down a concentration

### CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE

CELLS THE CELL IS THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE. ALL ORGANISMS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS. SOME ARE A SINGLE CELL, OTHERS ARE MULTICELLULAR. THE CELL THEORY STATES: 1. ALL ORGANISMS RE COMPOSED OF ONE OR MORE CELLS,

### Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To explain how to plan and schedule your irrigation program CHAPTER CONTENTS factors affecting irrigation intervals influence of soil water using

### Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012. Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each.

Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012 Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each. 1. A soil with 15% clay and 20% sand would belong to what textural class? A. Clay C. Loamy sand

### Plant Growth Processes: Transpiration, Photosynthesis, and Respiration

EXTENSION Know how. Know now. EC1268 Plant Growth Processes: Transpiration, Photosynthesis, and Respiration David R. Holding, Assistant Professor Anne M. Streich, Associate Professor of Practice Extension

### How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion. How Organisms Exchange Gases: Respiratory Organs

How Organisms Exchange Gases: Simple Diffusion Gas is exchanged between respiratory medium and body fluids through diffusion across a respiratory surface To effectively exchange gases, the surface must

### PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES

BIOZONE Assignment #2 Cell Membrane Transport PASSIVE TRANSPORT PROCESSES 1. Describe two properties of an exchange surface that would facilitate rapid diffusion rates*: (a) thin membrane (b) porous membrane

### Energy and Life. Energy= the ability to do work. Autotrophs= use sunlight, CO 2, and water to make their own food (sugars) PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Energy and Life Energy= the ability to do work Autotrophs= use sunlight, CO 2, and water to make their own food (sugars) PHOTOSYNTHESIS Heterotrophs= can t make their own food, they have to eat autotrophs

### Lab Exercise 7: Leaves (also see Atlas pp )

Lab Exercise 7: Leaves (also see Atlas pp. 141-150) In most green plants, leaves are the primary photosynthetic organs. They are well adapted for efficient light absorption, carbon fixation, and conduction

### CHAPTER 2: BLOOD CIRCULATION AND TRANSPORT

CHAPTER 2: BLOOD CIRCULATION AND TRANSPORT BLOOD CIRCULATION AND TRANSPORT HUMAN BEING PLANTS Function of heart Wilting Structure of heart Blood vessels: characteristics and functions Transpiration: function

### Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2

PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). photons SUN

### BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 Name: Section: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, A. the universe

### Introduction to Plants

Introduction to Plants Unity and Diversity of Life Q: What are the five main groups of plants, and how have four of these groups adapted to life on land? 22.1 What are of plants? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER:

### Laboratory. Leaves: Specialized Plant Organs

Laboratory 5 Leaves: Specialized Plant Organs 1 Laboratory 1: Leaves OBJECTIVES After completing this lab you will be able to: 1. Describe and name leaf patterns 2. Identify the structural differences

### CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION. Teacher Packet

AP * BIOLOGY CELL MEMBRANES, TRANSPORT, and COMMUNICATION Teacher Packet AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not involved in the production

### Plant Structure and Function Notes

For plants, when they made the transition from water to land, they had to make adaptations for obtaining water and prevent loss by desiccation (drying out) -water also needed for fertilization of eggs

### Photosynthesis and (Aerobic) Respiration. Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and (Aerobic) Respiration These two processes have many things in common. 1. occur in organelles that seem to be descended from bacteria (endosymbiont theory): chloroplasts and mitochondria

### AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Vol. I - Transport of Water and Nutrients in Plants - W.E. Riedell, T.E. Schumacher TRANSPORT OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS IN PLANTS

TRANSPORT OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS IN PLANTS W.E. Riedell Plant Physiologist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Brookings, South Dakota, USA T.E. Schumacher Professor, Plant

### 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. Starch molecule Glucose molecule The chemical

### KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

### Movement in and out of cells

Movement in and out of cells Cells need to take in oxygen and nutrients for respiration. They also need to remove waste products such as CO 2. The cell membrane controls movement of materials. Generally,

### Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

### Ch 2 Properties of Fluids - II. Ideal Fluids. Real Fluids. Viscosity (1) Viscosity (3) Viscosity (2)

Ch 2 Properties of Fluids - II Ideal Fluids 1 Prepared for CEE 3500 CEE Fluid Mechanics by Gilberto E. Urroz, August 2005 2 Ideal fluid: a fluid with no friction Also referred to as an inviscid (zero viscosity)

### Cell Processes. Chapter Review

Name Date Class Chapter Review Cell Processes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description. active transport energy enzyme inorganic compound

### Hands on an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to measure photosynthesis

University of Toledo - Dept of Envir. Sci., EEES 6660/8960: Biophysical Processes of Ecosystems, Spring 2010 Hands on an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to measure photosynthesis Burkhard Wilske for Jiquan

### Cells, tissues and organs

Chapter 8: Cells, tissues and organs Cells: building blocks of life Living things are made of cells. Many of the chemical reactions that keep organisms alive (metabolic functions) take place in cells.

### Plant Structure, Growth, and Development. Chapter 35

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 35 PLANTS developmental plasticity = ability of plant to alter form to respond to environment Biological heirarchy Cell basic unit of life Tissue group

### Grade 7. Objective. Students will be able to:

Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements