PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS., a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table.

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1 PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS, a Russian scientist is credited with creating the periodic table. Periods tell us how many are in the atoms of each element. Groups help us to know how many electrons are in the electron level. Outer electrons are also called electrons.

2 Metals Nonmetals location on periodic table how well do they conduct heat and electricity gain or lose electrons shiny or dull state of matter at room temperature What group are the most reactive metals? What group are the most reactive non-metals? Describe metalloids. Noble gases are unreactive because they have complete outer energy levels of. Metal Nonmetal Metalloid Potassium (K) Selenium (Se) Nickel (Ni) Silicon (Si) Xenon (Xe) Phosphorus (P) Calcium (Ca) Arsenic (As) Boron (B) Carbon (C) Aluminium (Al) Chlorine (Cl)

3 PERIODIC TABLE PRACTICE Name the elements in each of the following Group 4 Period 4 Group 13 Period 3 Group 11 Period 5 Group 17 Period 3 Group 2 Period 6 Group 15 Period 2 Group 1 Period 3 Group 18 Period 2 Circle the elements that will lose valence electrons. sodium sulfur chlorine argon calcium nitrogen potassium magnesium bromine copper iron oxygen Circle the elements that will be poor conductors of heat and electricity. manganese carbon fluorine chromium zirconium zinc sulfur nickel phosphorus beryllium iodine cobalt Circle the elements that are unreactive and will not form compounds? neon iron nitrogen helium calcium barium krypton boron Circle which two of the following elements that contain the same number of valence electrons. magnesium aluminum barium neon

4 Circle which two of the following elements that contain the same number of energy levels of electrons. lithium sodium argon calcium Circle which of the following elements most likely have properties of both metals and non-metals. magnesium boron argon chlorine cadmium arsenic silicon bromine Matching 1. metals a. families or vertical columns of elements 2. noble gases b. lose electrons; good conductors of heat and electricity 3. periods c. outermost electrons that can be lost or gained 4. valence d. number of protons in the atoms of elements 5. non-metals e. properties of both metals and non-metals 6. metalloids f. inert; un-reactive; complete number of valence electrons 7. groups g. gain electrons; usually solids or gases 8. atomic number h. horizontal rows of elements; same number of energy levels 9. alkali metals i. most reactive non-metals; family halogens j. most reactive metals; family 1 How many energy levels of electrons does the atom on the right contain? What is the name of the element? What period does the element belong to? What family does the element belong to? The element is which of the following? metal non-metal noble gas metalloid

5 The Periodic Table Objectives: to identify general trends on the periodic table to use the periodic table to find an element s valence electrons to identify several groups on the periodic table and the importance of an element s group Materials: 1. An individual copy of the periodic table. 2. Colored pencils Directions: 1. In the upper right-hand corner of your periodic table, write your name and class period. 2. Looking at your periodic table, you will notice that it is organized into rows and columns. The columns of the periodic table are called groups (or families). The groups are labeled with both a number and a Roman numeral with a letter. For example, Group 1 is also known as IA. On your periodic table, label the columns as Groups. You will need to know the names of several groups on the periodic table (we will get to these later). a. How many groups are on the periodic table? b. How many A groups are there? c. How many B groups are there? 3. Groups on the periodic table are very important when determining the chemical behavior of an element. If two elements are in the same group, they will have similar physical and chemical properties. This is why they are sometimes called families just like members of the same family often share characteristics. a. What is one element that would have very similar characteristics to oxygen? b. What is one element that would have similar reactivity as aluminum? c. Sodium is a soft, shiny, white metal. What other element would you predict would also be a soft, shiny, white metal? 4. The elements in the same group will also have the same number of valence electrons (remember: the valence electrons are those found in the outer energy level of an atom and are involved in bonding). We are only concerned with the A group elements (for now). To determine how many valence electrons an element has, look at the Roman numeral in front of the A. The Roman numeral is the same as the number of valence electrons. Above each group number of the A group elements, write the number of valence electrons. a. How many valence electrons does Boron have? b. How many valence electrons does Potassium have? c. How many valence electrons does Xenon have? 5. The rows of the periodic table run left to right. The rows are also called periods. The elements in the same period are not alike in properties. On your periodic table, label the rows as Periods. a. How many periods are on the periodic table?

6 6. Use a black pen or marker to draw the stair step line that separates the two sides of the periodic table. Study the elements found on either side. a. On which side are the metals (left or right?) Label these as metals on your periodic table. b. On which side are the nonmetals (left or right?) Label these as nonmetals on your periodic table. c. Many of the elements that touch the line are called metalloids. Metalloids have properties of both metals and nonmetals. The following elements are metalloids: B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po. Put a small * in the box of each metalloid. In your key box, indicate what the star means. 7. Look at group 18. This group is called the noble gases. These noble gases are inert meaning they very rarely form bonds with other elements. Using the Bohr description of electron shells, these atoms have full outer shells. The fact that their outer shells are full means they are quite happy not gaining or losing electrons. In fact, they rarely combine with other elements. That non-reactivity is why they are called inert. Shade your noble gases purple. In the key, indicate that purple is for the noble gases. a. How many valence electrons do the noble gases contain? b. Helium is used in balloons. Why is it important to use a gas that is non-reactive, like helium, in a balloon? 8. Move to group 17. Notice this group is right next to the noble gases. This is called the halogen group (called halides when they are in compounds). This group has 7 valence electrons. Since they are so close to being like noble gases, they react very easily and readily to get that eighth electron. Fluorine is the most reactive element in the group. Shade the halogens with a red colored pencil. In the key, indicate that red is for the halogens. a. Do the Halogens need to gain or lose electrons to become like the noble gases? b. Halogens are always found as part of a compound in nature never single atoms. How is this explained by their valence? 9. Now, move to the far other end of the periodic table, group 1. This group is the Alkali metals. Notice that hydrogen (H) is on the top of this group. However, hydrogen is NOT in the family. You have learned that members of the same group react in similar ways. Hydrogen is a very special element of the periodic table and doesn't belong to any family. While hydrogen sits in Group I, it is NOT an alkali metal. Like the halogens, alkali metals are very reactive. They are in group IA, so they have just one valence electron. That means they just need to lose one electron in order to have a full outer shell. When you are that close to having a full shell, you want to bond with other elements and lose that electron. An increased desire to bond means you are more reactive. In fact, when you put some of these pure elements in water, they will cause huge explosions. Shade the alkali metals with a blue colored pencil. In the key, indicate that blue is for the alkali metals. a. Why would an alkali metal easily bond with a halogen? b. Would you use an alkali metal to make a metal coin? Explain.

7 10. Group 2 is home to the Alkaline earth metals. While not as reactive as the alkali metals, this family forms bonds very easily. Each of them has two valence electrons. Sometimes you will see them with two halogen atoms (BeF2) and sometimes they might form a double bond (CaO). When they form bonds, they have a full outer shell. Shade the alkaline earth metals with a green colored pencil. In the key, indicate that green is for the alkaline earth metals. a. Do the alkaline earth metals gain or lose electrons during bonding? b. Explain why they are not quite as reactive as the alkali metals. 11. The transition metals are the B group elements, found in the middle of the periodic table. These elements are more complicated when they form chemical bonds they can form a wide variety of bonds with many different elements. However, they are less reactive than the alkali or alkaline earth metals. The two rows on the very bottom of the periodic table are part of the transition metals that are sometimes called the rare earth elements. Shade the transition metals with a yellow colored pencil. In the key, indicate that yellow is for the transition metals. Now, use your periodic table to answer the following questions. 1. Silver bromide is a type of halide. Elements from which group number in the periodic table are necessary to form halide compounds? 2. According to the periodic table, which of these elements will form an ion with a -2 charge? Sulfur Magnesium Fluorine Rubidium 3. Elements in which of the following shaded are undergo the fewest chemical reactions? 4. The bonding characteristics of oxygen are most similar to the bonding characteristics of hydrogen silicon helium sulfur 5. Which of these elements is most likely to donate one electron? Be Cs Rn He 6. According to the periodic table, which element most readily accepts electrons? Fluorine Nitrogen Arsenic Aluminum 7. An unidentified element has many of the same physical and chemical properties as magnesium and strontium but has a lower atomic mass than either of these elements. What is the most likely identity of this element? Sodium Beryllium Calcium Rubidium

8 WORKSHEET: Interpreting the Periodic Table Use the hypothetical periodic table below to answer the following questions K J F D R X Y Z 1. Which pair(s) of elements has the same number of valence electrons? 2. Which pair(s) of elements is in the same period? 3. Which pair(s) of elements is in the same family? 4. Which element has the smallest atomic number? 5. Which element has the largest atomic number? 6. Which element(s) would be classified as a metal? 7. Which element(s) would be unlikely to form a compound? 8. If the atomic number of element D is 23, what is the atomic number of element R?

9 Periodic Table activity # 3 1. Which of the following groups contains members with similar chemical reactivity? 6. Which shaded area shows the location of elements that are the most reactive metal? A. Be, Al, Sr B. Sc, Y, Zr C. Li, Na, K D. C, N, O 2. According to the Periodic Table, which element most readily gain electrons? A. Fluorine B. Nitrogen C. Arsenic D. Aluminum 3. The bonding characteristic of nitrogen is more similar to the bonding characteristic of A. hydrogen B. oxygen C. arsenic D. sulfur 4. Elements in the 13 group of the periodic table usually A. Form large molecules B. Gain electrons when bonding C. Lose electrons when bonding D. are gases at room temperature 5. Elements found in which shaded area of this periodic table undergo the fewest chemical reactions? 7. Which of the following elements has 5 valence electrons? A. Be B. Al C. P D. O 8. According to the periodic table, which of these elements will form an ion with -2? A. Ca B. Mg C. S D. N 9. According to the periodic table, which of these elements will form an ion of +3? A. Q B. R C. S D. T A. N B. P C. Ca D. Al

10 10. Which of these elements is most likely to donate one electron? A. Be B. Cs C. Rn D. Cl 19. Elements found in which shaded area of this periodic table have -2 as oxidation number when bonding? 11. The elements of which of these groups on the periodic table are most resistant to form compounds? A. 1 B. 9 C. 14 D. 18 E. Q F. R G. S H. T 12. What is the most likely location of an element that gain two electron? A. Group 2 B. Group 14 C. Group 16 D. Group Which subatomic particle is involved in chemical bonds? 20. The elements from which of the following groups are most likely to react with potassium (K)? A. Group 2 B. Group 7 C. Group 13 D. Group 17 a. Valence proton b. Valence neutron c. Valence electron d. Valence isotopes 14. How many valence electrons are in carbon? 15. How many valence electrons are in Beryllium? 16. What is the oxidation number of hydrogen? 21. The picture above show model of the element- 17. What is the oxidation number of nitrogen? 18. How many valence electrons does chlorine have? A. Fluorine B. Helium C. Beryllium D. Oxygen

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