Chemical Equations. What is a chemical equation? How do you balance a chemical equation? How do you identify the type of chemical equation?

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemical Equations. What is a chemical equation? How do you balance a chemical equation? How do you identify the type of chemical equation?"

Transcription

1 Chemical Equations What is a chemical equation? How do you balance a chemical equation? How do you identify the type of chemical equation?

2 Chemical Equations A chemical equation is written as an expression similar to a mathematic equation. It is a short-hand representation of a chemical reaction. Eg: carbon and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide C + O 2 CO 2

3 Parts of an Equation: Reactants Products 2Ag + H 2 S Ag 2 S + H 2 Reaction symbol

4 Last night I witnessed a mugging and I saw the Coppers take the mugger away!

5 Reactant The chemical(s) you start with before the reaction. Product The new chemical(s) formed by the reaction.

6 Conservation of mass The law of conservation of mass tells us that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. It is transformed from one form to another. Mass of reactants = mass of products We follow the conservation of matter law when we balance equations.

7 Balancing a Chemical Equation A chemical equation is balanced when the number of ions or atoms found on the reactant side of the equation equals that found on the product side. The arrow can be considered the balance point.

8 Subscript In a chemical equation, the number that shows how many atoms of an element are in a specific molecule. H 2 O There is one atom of oxygen in this water molecule There are two atoms of hydrogen in this water molecule

9 Coefficient In a chemical equation, the number that shows how many molecules there are of this chemical. 3 H 2 O There are three molecules of water

10 What do you call a foolish prisoner? Silicon!!!

11 Rules of the Game 1. We cannot change subscripts because it would create new materials that are not part of reaction process. 2. We use coefficients in front of elements or compounds on either side of the reaction to balance the equation. 3. You must end up with the same number and type of atoms on the reactant and product sides of the equation

12 A balanced chemical equation has the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation. 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 4 Aluminum 6 Oxygen 4 Aluminum 6 Oxygen

13 ** Balancing Demo H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Reactants Products Hydrogen 2 2 Oxygen 2 1

14 H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Reactants Products Hydrogen 2 4 Oxygen 2 2

15 2 H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Reactants Products Hydrogen 4 4 Oxygen 2 2

16 Balance this equation! Na + Cl 2 NaCl Na -1 Na - 1 Cl - 2 Cl - 1 NOTE: The number of sodium atoms balance but the chlorine does not. We will have to use coefficients in order to balance this equation.

17 Inserting coefficients Na + Cl 2 2 NaCl Na-1 Na-1 2 Cl-2 Cl-1 2 Now the chlorine balances but the sodium does not! So we go back and balance the sodium.

18 Finally balanced! 2 Na + Cl 2 2 NaCl Na-1 2 Na-1 2 Cl- 2 Cl-1 2 Since the number of each element on the reactant side and the product side of the equation are equal, the equation is balanced.

19 You try! use a tally if needed! C + O 2 CO 2 Fe + O 2 FeO N 2 O N 2 + O 2 Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3

20 You try! use a tally if needed! C + O 2 CO 2 Already balanced! Write in 1 s or write the word Balanced 2 Fe + O 2 2 FeO 2 N 2 O 2 N 2 + O 2 4Fe + 3O 2 2 Fe 2 O 3

21 Balance this C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 4 H 10 + O 2 4CO 2 + H 2 O C 4 H 10 + O 2 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O C 4 H O 2 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O (but we can t have part of an O 2 molecule) 2C 4 H O 2 8CO H 2 O

22 What do you say when you sit on a tack? Oh my arsenic!

23 Polyatomic Ions If you have the same polyatomic ion on both sides of the equation, balance the whole polyatomic rather than each element in the polyatomic.see below

24 Polyatomic Ions Na 2 SO 4 + Al(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3Na 2 SO 4 + Al(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3Na 2 SO 4 + Al(NO 3 ) 3 6NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3Na 2 SO 4 + 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 6NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3

25 Balancing Equation Practice 1. CuCl 3 + Li 2 S Cu 2 S 3 + LiCl 2. NiNO 3 + KCl NiCl + KNO 3 3. FeCl 3 + Na 2 O Fe 2 O 3 + NaCl

26 Answers: 1. 2CuCl 3 + 3Li 2 S Cu 2 S 3 + 6LiCl 2. NiNO 3 + KCl NiCl+ KNO 3 (already balanced) 3. 2FeCl 3 + 3Na 2 O Fe 2 O 3 + 6NaCl

27 PRACTICE PROBLEMS BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Balance the following chemical equations. The answers are found on the next slide. 1. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + NaCl(aq) 2. Al(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + H 2 (g) 3. NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) HNO 3 (aq) 4. Al(s) + HCl(aq) AlCl 3 (aq) + H 2 (g) 5. C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)

28 BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Answers (blank lines are the same as 1 ) 1. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) +_2_NaCl(aq) 2. _2_Al(s) +_3_H 2 SO 4 (aq) Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) +_3_H 2 (g) 3. _4_NO 2 (g) +_2_H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) _4_HNO 3 (aq) 4. _2_Al(s) + _6_HCl(aq) _2_AlCl 3 (aq) +_3_H 2 (g) 5. C 3 H 8 (g) + _5_O 2 (g) _3_CO 2 (g) + _4_H 2 O(g)

29 Assignments Do the following worksheets Balancing Equations #1 (answers provided) Balancing Equations #2

30 Identifying Reaction Types Reactions are classified by their products. The 4 basic types of chemical reactions we will study are: synthesis or combination reactions decomposition reactions single replacement reactions double replacement reactions (including neutralization reactions)

31 Synthesis or Combination reactions Synthesis (meaning to make) or combination reactions are identified by their single product. If you have a reaction in which at least 2 elements or compounds are reacted and produce a single product, the reaction is a synthesis reaction.

32 Synthesis Reactions A + B AB e.g. C + O 2 CO 2 Note: Single Product! This is your clue that this is a synthesis or combination reaction.

33 Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions are really just the opposite of a synthesis reaction. Remember, if you can make a substance, you should be able to break it back apart into its components. A good way to remember decomposition reactions to to remember what happens when something decomposes. It falls apart!

34 Decomposition Reactions AB A + B e.g. CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Note: Single Reactant! The single reactant is your clue that this is a decomposition reaction.

35 Single Replacement Reactions Single replacement reactions occur when one chemical takes the place of another in a reaction. In the typical single replacement reaction, an element trades places with one of the ions in a compound.

36 Single Replacement Reactions A + CD AD + C e.g. Al + CuSO 4 Cu + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Note: Element A replaces ion C in the reaction. The clue in this reaction is: Element + Compound Element + Compound

37 Quick Check Classify each equation as Syn, Dec, or SR 1. F NaCl 2 NaF + Cl NH 3 3H 2 + N 2 3. Cr + I 2 CrI AlO 3 4 Al + 3O 2 5. O H 2 2 H 2 O 6. 2 NH 4 Br + Cl 2 2 NH 4 Cl + Br 7. 3 Sn + 2 Au(NO 3 ) 3 2 Au + 3 Sn(NO 3 ) 2 8. S O 2 8 SO 3 9. CH 4 C + 2 H Br 2 + I 2 2 IBr

38 Double Replacement Reactions Double replacement reactions are identified by two ions trading places and forming new compounds. Two ionic compounds form 2 new ionic compounds, one of which forms a precipitate (solid)

39 Double Replacement Reactions AB + CD AD + CB e.g. NaCO 3 + CaCl 2 NaCl + CaCO 3 Note: Notice that one ion from compound AB replaces one ion from compound CD. Clue: Compound+Compound Compound+Compound

40 Translate the following into a balanced formula equation Aqueous iron(iii) bromide is mixed with aqueous copper(i) sulphate, which forms aqueous iron(iii) sulphate and solid copper(i) bromide. FeBr 3 + Cu 2 SO 4 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + CuBr 2FeBr 3(aq) + 3Cu 2 SO 4(aq) Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3(aq) + 6CuBr (s)

41 Neutralization Reactions A special type of double replacement Reactants are an ACID (HX) and a BASE (XOH) Products are always a SALT and H 2 O

42 Some Common Acids Formula HCl HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 Common Name Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Sulphuric acid Phosphoric acid IUPAC Name Aqueous hydrogen chloride Aqueous hydrogen nitrate Aqueous hydrogen sulphate Aqueous hydrogen phosphate

43 HY (aq) + XOH (aq) HOH (l) + XY (aq) (acid) (base) (water) (salt) E.g. HCl + Mg(OH) 2 HOH +MgCl 2 Usually written as HCl + Mg(OH) 2 H 2 O + MgCl 2

44 Completing Reactions Completing reactions requires knowledge of the different reaction types (sometimes called mechanisms). You must first identify the reaction type by the reactants and/or reactants.

45 First Step: Identify reaction type Example: Al + O 2 Clue: 2 elements Synthesis or combination reaction

46 Second Step: Write the ion charge for the reactants Al + O 2 Al 3+ + O 2-

47 Step 3 Using clues, complete reaction taking care to write each formula correctly by checking charges and criss-crossing if necessary. Al + O 2 Al 3+ O 2- Al + O 2 Al 2 O 3

48 Another Example HBr + KOH Clue: Acid + Base - Neutralization (Double Replacement) H + + Br - + K + + OH - Ions will trade partners (still + with -) HBr + KOH H 2 O + KBr

49 Completion Practice 1. Na + K 2 SO 4 2. PbSO 4 + LiCl 3. Ca + H 2 O 4. HCl

50 Answers to Completion Practice 1. _Na + _K 2 SO 4 _Na 2 SO 4 + _K 2. _PbSO 4 + _LiCl _Li 2 SO 4 + _PbCl 2 3. _Ca + _H 2 O _Ca(OH) 2 + _H 2 4. _HCl _H + 2 _Cl 2

51 Answers to Completion Practice - Balanced 1. 2Na + _K 2 SO 4 _Na 2 SO 4 + 2K 2. _PbSO 4 + 2LiCl _Li 2 SO 4 + _PbCl 2 3. _Ca + 2H 2 O _Ca(OH) 2 + _H HCl _H + 2 _Cl 2

52 The following are acid-base neutralizations: T or F HBr + KOH KBr + H 2 O H 2 + O 2 H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 MgSO 4 + 2HNO 3 H 3 PO 4 + 3NaOH Na 3 PO H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 O + SO 3 H 2 SO 4 Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 4 2H 2 O + CaSO 4

53 Assignment Complete the following worksheets by classifying reactions, completing products where necessary and balancing. 1. Combination & Decomposition Reactions 2. Replacement Reactions 3. Classifying Reactions (all types)

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Intermediate Level

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Intermediate Level Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Intermediate Level Neutralization Reactions Salts are produced by the action of acids. Salts are written metal first, then non-metal. Eg. NaCl not ClNa Acid + Base

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction Worksheet # 11 1. A solution of sodium chloride is mixed with a solution of lead (II) nitrate. A precipitate of lead (II) chloride results, leaving a solution of sodium nitrated. Determine the class of

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Science Objectives Students will describe what reactants and products in a chemical equation mean. Students will explain the difference between coefficients and subscripts in chemical equations. Students

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions CHAPTER 19 REVIEW Oxidation-Reduction Reactions SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. All the following equations involve redox reactions except (a) CaO H 2 O

More information

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS T-33 Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS The efficiency and extent of a chemical reaction is very much dependent upon the physical state (solid, liquid, gas, or solution) of reactants and products. Not surprisingly,

More information

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Reactions in Aqueous Solution CHAPTER 7 1. Water is the most universal of all liquids. Water has a relatively large heat capacity and a relatively large liquid range, which means it can absorb the heat liberated by many reactions while

More information

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Review for Final and Second Quarter Benchmark

Review for Final and Second Quarter Benchmark Review for Final and Second Quarter Benchmark Balance the following Reactions 1. 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 2. 3Ca + N 2 Ca 3 N 2 3. Mg + 2AgNO 3 2Ag + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 4. 2Al + 3CuCl 2 2AlCl 3 + 3Cu 5. What is the

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

More information

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including:

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: 7-5.5 Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: NaCl [salt], H 2 O [water], C 6 H 12 O 6 [simple sugar], O 2 [oxygen

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 7 Answers and Solutions 7 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 7.1 A mole is the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10 23 items. For example, one mole of water contains 6.02 10 23 molecules

More information

Redox and Electrochemistry

Redox and Electrochemistry Name: Thursday, May 08, 2008 Redox and Electrochemistry 1. A diagram of a chemical cell and an equation are shown below. When the switch is closed, electrons will flow from 1. the Pb(s) to the Cu(s) 2+

More information

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Problem Set #10 - Answers

Problem Set #10 - Answers Problem Set #10 - Answers BIG IDEAS Fill in the blanks or circle the correct response in brackets. 1) When a reaction occurs, the stuff you start with is called the _reactants_ and the stuff you end up

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY Complete the following problems to help prepare for the test. Objective 1: Students will know ionic and covalent bonding. 1. Which subatomic

More information

1. What is the molecular formula of a compound with the empirical formula PO and a gram-molecular mass of 284 grams?

1. What is the molecular formula of a compound with the empirical formula PO and a gram-molecular mass of 284 grams? Name: Tuesday, May 20, 2008 1. What is the molecular formula of a compound with the empirical formula PO and a gram-molecular mass of 284 grams? 2 5 1. P2O 5 3. P10O4 2. P5O 2 4. P4O10 2. Which substance

More information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information Introduction CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions We often study chemistry to understand how and why chemicals (reactants) can be transformed into different chemicals (products) via a chemical reaction: Reactants

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

YIELD YIELD REACTANTS PRODUCTS

YIELD YIELD REACTANTS PRODUCTS Balancing Chemical Equations A Chemical Equation: is a representation of a chemical reaction in terms of chemical formulas Example: 1. Word Description of a Chemical Reaction When methane gas (CH 4 ) burns

More information

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS 1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS The Conservation of Matter states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. If this is the case then we must account for all of the atoms in a

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations Academic Success Center Science Tutoring Area Science Tutoring Area Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created nor destroyed Therefore the number of each type of

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

Stoichiometry. Unit Outline 3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

More information

Solutions Review Questions

Solutions Review Questions Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

GCSE Chemistry. Making Salts Instructions and answers for teachers

GCSE Chemistry. Making Salts Instructions and answers for teachers GCSE Chemistry Making Salts Instructions and answers for teachers The Activity: Learning Outcomes: To be able to recall the names and chemical formulae for commonly used acids To understand how salts can

More information

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Introduction This document is intended to help you review the basics of writing

More information

Chapter 5, Calculations and the Chemical Equation

Chapter 5, Calculations and the Chemical Equation 1. How many iron atoms are present in one mole of iron? Ans. 6.02 1023 atoms 2. How many grams of sulfur are found in 0.150 mol of sulfur? [Use atomic weight: S, 32.06 amu] Ans. 4.81 g 3. How many moles

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Word Equations and Balancing Equations. Video Notes

Word Equations and Balancing Equations. Video Notes Word Equations and Balancing Equations Video Notes In this lesson, you will: Use the law of conservation of mass and provide standard rules for writing and balancing equations. Write and balance equations

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells Atomic Structure called nucleons Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells The number of protons equals the atomic number This

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a

More information

Molecular Formula: Example

Molecular Formula: Example Molecular Formula: Example A compound is found to contain 85.63% C and 14.37% H by mass. In another experiment its molar mass is found to be 56.1 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 1 CHAPTER 3 Chemical

More information

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A)

Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. AB A + B. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 A + B C. AB + C AC + B (or AB + C CB + A) 78 Chapter 6: Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. It is convenient to classify chemical reactions into one of several general types. Some of the more common, important, reactions are shown below.

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms.

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms. Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids Chemistry Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids The patterns are related to the chemical properties of the element.

More information

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole LI 1 The chemical formula of a covalent molecular compound tells us the number of atoms of each element present

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

Naming Compounds, Chemical Reactions, and Balancing Chemical Equations. IPS Semester 2 Unit 1.3 Name Teacher Hour

Naming Compounds, Chemical Reactions, and Balancing Chemical Equations. IPS Semester 2 Unit 1.3 Name Teacher Hour 24 Naming Compounds, Chemical Reactions, and Balancing Chemical Equations IPS Semester 2 Unit 1.3 Name Teacher Hour http://www.mononagrove.org/faculty/ips/ Big Ideas in the packet 39 Naming Chemical Formulas

More information

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

Percent Composition and Molecular Formula Worksheet

Percent Composition and Molecular Formula Worksheet Percent Composition and Molecular Formula Worksheet 1. What s the empirical formula of a molecule containing 65.5% carbon, 5.5% hydrogen, and 29.0% 2. If the molar mass of the compound in problem 1 is

More information

Chemistry and the Periodic Table. Level A Investigations. Level B Investigations

Chemistry and the Periodic Table. Level A Investigations. Level B Investigations Chemistry and the Periodic Table Level A Investigations A-1 The Periodic Table What is the periodic table? In this Investigation, students will define atom, element, molecule, and compound; build a periodic

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept 3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

More information

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006 CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. SF 4 has ¼ as many sulfur atoms as fluorine atoms. B. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 has six times as many oxygen atoms as calcium ions. C.

More information

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact).

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). CHAPTER 8 1. 100 washers 0.110 g 1 washer 100. g 1 washer 0.110 g = 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). = 909 washers 2. The empirical formula is CFH from the structure given. The empirical formula

More information

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

More information

Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Section 6.1 2. Which one of the statements below is true concerning an oxidation-reduction reaction?

Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Section 6.1 2. Which one of the statements below is true concerning an oxidation-reduction reaction? Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Oxidation is defined as a. gain of a proton b. loss of a proton c. gain of an electron! d. loss of an electron e. capture of an electron by a neutron 2. Which

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

More information

Science 1194 SAS Curriculum Pathways Chemical Equations: Journal

Science 1194 SAS Curriculum Pathways Chemical Equations: Journal Chemical Equations: Journal NAME: ray CLASS: chem90 DATE: 10/27/2013 FOCUS QUESTION: How and why are chemical equations balanced? TAB 1: Equations Read the questions below. Then complete this Journal by

More information

2. Write a balanced chemical equation which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. 1/2 3/ 2

2. Write a balanced chemical equation which corresponds to the following equilibrium constant expression. 1/2 3/ 2 Practice Problems for Chem. 1B Exam 1 F2011 These represent the concepts covered for exam 1. There may be some additional net ionic equations from chem. 1A. This is not the exact exam! Sections 16.1-16.3

More information

BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS EXERCISE

BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS EXERCISE +5 6 1. Ag + NO3 Ag 1+ + NO 0 +5 2 +1 +2 2 4 +4 +2 2 2. N2H4 + H2O2 N2 + H2O 2 +1 +1 1 0 +1 2 +6 6 +4 4 3. CO + Fe2O3 FeO + CO2 +2 2 +3 2 +2 2 +4 2 +5 6 +4 4 +4 4 4. NO3 + CO CO2 + NO2 +5 2 +2 2 +4 2 +4

More information

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

More information

Study Guide For Chapter 7

Study Guide For Chapter 7 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

More information

Nomenclature and the Periodic Table To name compounds and to determine molecular formulae from names a knowledge of the periodic table is helpful.

Nomenclature and the Periodic Table To name compounds and to determine molecular formulae from names a knowledge of the periodic table is helpful. Nomenclature and the Periodic Table To name compounds and to determine molecular formulae from names a knowledge of the periodic table is helpful. Atomic Number = number of protons Mass Number = number

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

More information