Chemical Equations. What is a chemical equation? How do you balance a chemical equation? How do you identify the type of chemical equation?

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1 Chemical Equations What is a chemical equation? How do you balance a chemical equation? How do you identify the type of chemical equation?

2 Chemical Equations A chemical equation is written as an expression similar to a mathematic equation. It is a short-hand representation of a chemical reaction. Eg: carbon and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide C + O 2 CO 2

3 Parts of an Equation: Reactants Products 2Ag + H 2 S Ag 2 S + H 2 Reaction symbol

4 Last night I witnessed a mugging and I saw the Coppers take the mugger away!

5 Reactant The chemical(s) you start with before the reaction. Product The new chemical(s) formed by the reaction.

6 Conservation of mass The law of conservation of mass tells us that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. It is transformed from one form to another. Mass of reactants = mass of products We follow the conservation of matter law when we balance equations.

7 Balancing a Chemical Equation A chemical equation is balanced when the number of ions or atoms found on the reactant side of the equation equals that found on the product side. The arrow can be considered the balance point.

8 Subscript In a chemical equation, the number that shows how many atoms of an element are in a specific molecule. H 2 O There is one atom of oxygen in this water molecule There are two atoms of hydrogen in this water molecule

9 Coefficient In a chemical equation, the number that shows how many molecules there are of this chemical. 3 H 2 O There are three molecules of water

10 What do you call a foolish prisoner? Silicon!!!

11 Rules of the Game 1. We cannot change subscripts because it would create new materials that are not part of reaction process. 2. We use coefficients in front of elements or compounds on either side of the reaction to balance the equation. 3. You must end up with the same number and type of atoms on the reactant and product sides of the equation

12 A balanced chemical equation has the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation. 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 4 Aluminum 6 Oxygen 4 Aluminum 6 Oxygen

13 ** Balancing Demo H 2 + O 2 H 2 O Reactants Products Hydrogen 2 2 Oxygen 2 1

14 H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Reactants Products Hydrogen 2 4 Oxygen 2 2

15 2 H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Reactants Products Hydrogen 4 4 Oxygen 2 2

16 Balance this equation! Na + Cl 2 NaCl Na -1 Na - 1 Cl - 2 Cl - 1 NOTE: The number of sodium atoms balance but the chlorine does not. We will have to use coefficients in order to balance this equation.

17 Inserting coefficients Na + Cl 2 2 NaCl Na-1 Na-1 2 Cl-2 Cl-1 2 Now the chlorine balances but the sodium does not! So we go back and balance the sodium.

18 Finally balanced! 2 Na + Cl 2 2 NaCl Na-1 2 Na-1 2 Cl- 2 Cl-1 2 Since the number of each element on the reactant side and the product side of the equation are equal, the equation is balanced.

19 You try! use a tally if needed! C + O 2 CO 2 Fe + O 2 FeO N 2 O N 2 + O 2 Fe + O 2 Fe 2 O 3

20 You try! use a tally if needed! C + O 2 CO 2 Already balanced! Write in 1 s or write the word Balanced 2 Fe + O 2 2 FeO 2 N 2 O 2 N 2 + O 2 4Fe + 3O 2 2 Fe 2 O 3

21 Balance this C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 4 H 10 + O 2 4CO 2 + H 2 O C 4 H 10 + O 2 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O C 4 H O 2 4CO 2 + 5H 2 O (but we can t have part of an O 2 molecule) 2C 4 H O 2 8CO H 2 O

22 What do you say when you sit on a tack? Oh my arsenic!

23 Polyatomic Ions If you have the same polyatomic ion on both sides of the equation, balance the whole polyatomic rather than each element in the polyatomic.see below

24 Polyatomic Ions Na 2 SO 4 + Al(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3Na 2 SO 4 + Al(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3Na 2 SO 4 + Al(NO 3 ) 3 6NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3Na 2 SO 4 + 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 6NaNO 3 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3

25 Balancing Equation Practice 1. CuCl 3 + Li 2 S Cu 2 S 3 + LiCl 2. NiNO 3 + KCl NiCl + KNO 3 3. FeCl 3 + Na 2 O Fe 2 O 3 + NaCl

26 Answers: 1. 2CuCl 3 + 3Li 2 S Cu 2 S 3 + 6LiCl 2. NiNO 3 + KCl NiCl+ KNO 3 (already balanced) 3. 2FeCl 3 + 3Na 2 O Fe 2 O 3 + 6NaCl

27 PRACTICE PROBLEMS BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Balance the following chemical equations. The answers are found on the next slide. 1. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) + NaCl(aq) 2. Al(s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + H 2 (g) 3. NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) HNO 3 (aq) 4. Al(s) + HCl(aq) AlCl 3 (aq) + H 2 (g) 5. C 3 H 8 (g) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g)

28 BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Answers (blank lines are the same as 1 ) 1. Na 2 SO 4 (aq) + BaCl 2 (aq) BaSO 4 (s) +_2_NaCl(aq) 2. _2_Al(s) +_3_H 2 SO 4 (aq) Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) +_3_H 2 (g) 3. _4_NO 2 (g) +_2_H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) _4_HNO 3 (aq) 4. _2_Al(s) + _6_HCl(aq) _2_AlCl 3 (aq) +_3_H 2 (g) 5. C 3 H 8 (g) + _5_O 2 (g) _3_CO 2 (g) + _4_H 2 O(g)

29 Assignments Do the following worksheets Balancing Equations #1 (answers provided) Balancing Equations #2

30 Identifying Reaction Types Reactions are classified by their products. The 4 basic types of chemical reactions we will study are: synthesis or combination reactions decomposition reactions single replacement reactions double replacement reactions (including neutralization reactions)

31 Synthesis or Combination reactions Synthesis (meaning to make) or combination reactions are identified by their single product. If you have a reaction in which at least 2 elements or compounds are reacted and produce a single product, the reaction is a synthesis reaction.

32 Synthesis Reactions A + B AB e.g. C + O 2 CO 2 Note: Single Product! This is your clue that this is a synthesis or combination reaction.

33 Decomposition Reactions Decomposition reactions are really just the opposite of a synthesis reaction. Remember, if you can make a substance, you should be able to break it back apart into its components. A good way to remember decomposition reactions to to remember what happens when something decomposes. It falls apart!

34 Decomposition Reactions AB A + B e.g. CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Note: Single Reactant! The single reactant is your clue that this is a decomposition reaction.

35 Single Replacement Reactions Single replacement reactions occur when one chemical takes the place of another in a reaction. In the typical single replacement reaction, an element trades places with one of the ions in a compound.

36 Single Replacement Reactions A + CD AD + C e.g. Al + CuSO 4 Cu + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Note: Element A replaces ion C in the reaction. The clue in this reaction is: Element + Compound Element + Compound

37 Quick Check Classify each equation as Syn, Dec, or SR 1. F NaCl 2 NaF + Cl NH 3 3H 2 + N 2 3. Cr + I 2 CrI AlO 3 4 Al + 3O 2 5. O H 2 2 H 2 O 6. 2 NH 4 Br + Cl 2 2 NH 4 Cl + Br 7. 3 Sn + 2 Au(NO 3 ) 3 2 Au + 3 Sn(NO 3 ) 2 8. S O 2 8 SO 3 9. CH 4 C + 2 H Br 2 + I 2 2 IBr

38 Double Replacement Reactions Double replacement reactions are identified by two ions trading places and forming new compounds. Two ionic compounds form 2 new ionic compounds, one of which forms a precipitate (solid)

39 Double Replacement Reactions AB + CD AD + CB e.g. NaCO 3 + CaCl 2 NaCl + CaCO 3 Note: Notice that one ion from compound AB replaces one ion from compound CD. Clue: Compound+Compound Compound+Compound

40 Translate the following into a balanced formula equation Aqueous iron(iii) bromide is mixed with aqueous copper(i) sulphate, which forms aqueous iron(iii) sulphate and solid copper(i) bromide. FeBr 3 + Cu 2 SO 4 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + CuBr 2FeBr 3(aq) + 3Cu 2 SO 4(aq) Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3(aq) + 6CuBr (s)

41 Neutralization Reactions A special type of double replacement Reactants are an ACID (HX) and a BASE (XOH) Products are always a SALT and H 2 O

42 Some Common Acids Formula HCl HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 Common Name Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Sulphuric acid Phosphoric acid IUPAC Name Aqueous hydrogen chloride Aqueous hydrogen nitrate Aqueous hydrogen sulphate Aqueous hydrogen phosphate

43 HY (aq) + XOH (aq) HOH (l) + XY (aq) (acid) (base) (water) (salt) E.g. HCl + Mg(OH) 2 HOH +MgCl 2 Usually written as HCl + Mg(OH) 2 H 2 O + MgCl 2

44 Completing Reactions Completing reactions requires knowledge of the different reaction types (sometimes called mechanisms). You must first identify the reaction type by the reactants and/or reactants.

45 First Step: Identify reaction type Example: Al + O 2 Clue: 2 elements Synthesis or combination reaction

46 Second Step: Write the ion charge for the reactants Al + O 2 Al 3+ + O 2-

47 Step 3 Using clues, complete reaction taking care to write each formula correctly by checking charges and criss-crossing if necessary. Al + O 2 Al 3+ O 2- Al + O 2 Al 2 O 3

48 Another Example HBr + KOH Clue: Acid + Base - Neutralization (Double Replacement) H + + Br - + K + + OH - Ions will trade partners (still + with -) HBr + KOH H 2 O + KBr

49 Completion Practice 1. Na + K 2 SO 4 2. PbSO 4 + LiCl 3. Ca + H 2 O 4. HCl

50 Answers to Completion Practice 1. _Na + _K 2 SO 4 _Na 2 SO 4 + _K 2. _PbSO 4 + _LiCl _Li 2 SO 4 + _PbCl 2 3. _Ca + _H 2 O _Ca(OH) 2 + _H 2 4. _HCl _H + 2 _Cl 2

51 Answers to Completion Practice - Balanced 1. 2Na + _K 2 SO 4 _Na 2 SO 4 + 2K 2. _PbSO 4 + 2LiCl _Li 2 SO 4 + _PbCl 2 3. _Ca + 2H 2 O _Ca(OH) 2 + _H HCl _H + 2 _Cl 2

52 The following are acid-base neutralizations: T or F HBr + KOH KBr + H 2 O H 2 + O 2 H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 MgSO 4 + 2HNO 3 H 3 PO 4 + 3NaOH Na 3 PO H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H 2 O + CO 2 H 2 O + SO 3 H 2 SO 4 Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 SO 4 2H 2 O + CaSO 4

53 Assignment Complete the following worksheets by classifying reactions, completing products where necessary and balancing. 1. Combination & Decomposition Reactions 2. Replacement Reactions 3. Classifying Reactions (all types)

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