Easy Examples: Hd 10 + Bu 8 HdBu. Introduction. (l) or (aq)? Introduction. Symbols. Yields or Produces. Balancing. (l) or (aq)?

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1 Chemical Equations Chemical Equations Like a recipe: Introduction Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) Introduction Yields or Produces solid liquid aqueous gas (l) or (aq)? The Difference between (l) and (aq) Liquid Pure liquid.nothing is in it. H 2 O(l) Aqueous Dissolved in water. NaCl(aq) = Salt water (l) or (aq)? Balancing (l) or (aq)? Distilled water Tap Water Iced Tea Mouthwash Gasoline Paint Easy Examples: Hd 10 + Bu 8 HdBu 1

2 Balancing Balancing Balancing Balancing Balancing 1. Must balance because of the Law of Cons. of Matter 2. Rules: Can only change the coefficient, never the subscript Coefficient multiplies every atom in a formula 2

3 Balancing Al + Cl 2 AlCl 3 Balancing S + O 2 SO H 2 O + C H 2 + CO P 2 (g) + H 2 (g) PH 3 (g) C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 2 H 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Balancing C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Na 2 SO 4 + Fe(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 + Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 Fe(OH) 3 + H 2 SO 4 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H 2 O Balancing Sodium reacts with water to form sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas Magnesium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form magnesium chloride and water. Calcium reacts with water to form hydrogen and calcium hydroxide Aluminum nitrate reacts with sodium hydroxide to form aluminum hydroxide and sodium nitrate 3

4 Copper(II) chloride reacts with iron(iii) sulfate to form copper(ii)sulfate and iron(iii) chloride Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) reacts with calcium hydroxide to form water and calcium phosphate Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 MgSO 4 + AlPO 4 Fe 2 S 3 + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 + SO 2 Ru 2 O 3 + CO Ru + CO 2 NaBr + Al(NO 3 ) 3 NaNO 3 + AlBr 3 Ba + AlCl 3 BaCl 2 + Al Propane (C 3 H 8 ) is burned in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water Iron(III)nitrate reacts with lithium carbonate to form iron(iii)carbonate and lithium nitrate. Sodium Chlorate decomposes to form sodium chloride and oxygen gas Propane (C 3 H 8 ) is burned in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water Iron(III)nitrate reacts with lithium carbonate to form iron(iii)carbonate and lithium nitrate. Sodium Chlorate decomposes to form sodium chloride and oxygen gas Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3MgSO 4 + 2AlPO 4 2Fe 2 S 3 + 9O 2 2Fe 2 O 3 + 6SO 2 Ru 2 O 3 + 3CO 2Ru + 3CO 2 3NaBr + Al(NO 3 ) 3 3NaNO 3 + AlBr 3 3Ba + 2AlCl 3 3BaCl 2 + 2Al C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O 2Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + 3Li 2 CO 3 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + 6LiNO 3 2NaClO 3 2NaCl + 3O 2 Sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Boron sulfide, B 2 S 3, reacts with water to form boric acid, H 3 BO 3 and hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S. SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 B 2 S 3 + 6H 2 O 2H 3 BO 3 + 3H 2 S 2Hg(NO 3 ) 2 2HgO + 4NO 2 + O 2 3H 2 S + 2Fe(OH) 3 Fe 2 S 3 + 6H 2 O Mercury(II)nitrate decomposes to form mercury(ii) oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen Hydrogen sulfide reacts with iron(iii)hydroxide to form iron(iii)sulfide and water. 4

5 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 MgSO 4 + AlPO 4 Fe 2 S 3 + O 2 Fe 2 O 3 + SO 2 Ru 2 O 3 + CO Ru + CO 2 a. Propane (C 3 H 8 ) is burned in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water b. Iron(III)nitrate reacts with lithium carbonate to form iron(iii)carbonate and lithium nitrate. c. Sodium Chlorate decomposes to form sodium chloride and oxygen gas TYPES OF REACTIONS Synthesis (Combination) Decomposition Combustion Single Replacement Double Replacement Dissolving 1. Synthesis Two or more elements or compounds combine to form a new compound Examples Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) NaCl(s) C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) CaCO 3 (s) 2. Decomposition Opposite of synthesis One compound breaks down, usually requires heat energy Dima, a 40,000 year old frozen mammoth (Alaska) 5

6 Examples: HgO(s) Hg(l) + O 2 (g) CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) KClO 3 (s) KCl(s) + O 2 (g) Duke: In loving memory. 3. Combustion Fast reaction with O 2 (Burning) Hydrocarbons burn to form CO 2 and H 2 O Examples: Mg(s) + O 2 (g) MgO(s) C 8 H 18 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O 4. Single replacement One element replaces another Not every element can replace every other element Zn + CuCl 2 Cu + ZnCl 2 Cr + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Pb + Cr(NO 3 ) 3 Mg + HCl MgCl 2 + H 2 6

7 5. Double replacement Two elements switch places ZnBr 2 + AgNO 3 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + AgBr BaCl 2 + H 2 SO 4 BaSO 4 + HCl Acid/Base Reactions A special type of double replacement (neutralization) Acids a. produce H + b. Often start with H (HCl, H 2 SO 4, H 3 PO 4 ) Na 2 CO 3 + CaCl 2 CaCO 3 + NaCl Bases a. produce OH - b. Hydroxides (Drano, NaOH) NaOH + HCl KOH + HCl 6. Dissolving A. Molecular Compounds 1) Contain all non-metals 2) Do not break up into ions in water 3) Some are still soluble: C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) B. Ionic Compounds (and acids) 1) Contain a metal 2) Break up into ions in water. 3) Examples: NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) CaCl 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) KNO 3 (s) K + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) 4) Different than decomp. because ions are produced. 7

8 What Ions are produced when these dissolve: AlCl 3 (s) What Ions are produced when these dissolve: Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (s) Na 2 CO 3 (s) (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (s) NH 4 Cl(s) MgCl 2 (s) FeBr 2 (s) Li 2 CO 3 (s) (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 (s) Zn(OH) 2 (s) 8

9 BaCO 3 (s) BaO(s) + CO 2 (g) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (s)ca 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) KOH + HBr KBr + H 2 O N 2 + H 2 NH 3 BaCl 2 + MgSO 4 BaSO 4 + MgCl 2 Cr + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Pb + Cr(NO 3 ) 3 C 5 H 12 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Steps: 1. Identify the type of reaction 2. Break all elements into ions (generally keep polyatomic together) 3. Write the products 4. Balance the equation K + O 2 Mg + O 2 Al + Cl 2 Na + N 2 K + F 2 Predicting Reactions CH 4 + O 2 C 2 H 6 + O 2 C 3 H 8 + O 2 C 6 H 6 + O 2 Predicting Reactions CuSO 4 + NaOH BaCl 2 + AgNO 3 Predicting Reactions K + Fe(OH) 2 Al 2 O 3 + Mg HNO 3 + LiOH Fe + CuCl 2 H 2 SO 4 + KOH HCl + Al AgNO 3 + HCl Na + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 9

10 CuCl 2 (s) (placed in water) KNO 3 (s) (placed in water) Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (s) (placed in water) Na 3 PO 4 (s) (placed in water) K 2 CO 3 (s) (Placed in water) HNO 3 + KOH Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 SO 4 Al + O 2 FeCl 3 (Placed in water) H 2 SO 4 + NaOH C 2 H 4 + O 2 Mg + CaCl 2 C 4 H 10 + O 2 Ga + Cl 2 Na + HNO 3 H 3 PO 4 + NaOH Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (s) (Placed in water) AgNO 3 + KCl Li + O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) (placed in water) Barium nitrate reacts with copper(ii) sulfate Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) plus lithium hydroxide Zinc metal reacts with lead(ii)nitrate Propane (C 3 H 8 ) is burned in oxygen Aluminum metal reacts with bromine Magnesium phosphate dissolves in water Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + CuSO 4 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + BaSO 4 H 2 SO 4 + 2LiOH 2H 2 O + Li 2 SO 4 Zn + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + Pb C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O 2Al + 3Br 2 2AlBr 3 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 3Mg 2+ (aq) + 2PO 4 3- (aq) HCl + Ba(OH) 2 HClO 4 + LiOH Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + KI H 3 PO 4 + NaOH H 3 PO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 10

11 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O 2 molecules 4molecules 7molecules 24 molecules Molecule to Molecule CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O 5 molecules 18 molecules 16 molecules Molecule to Molecule Molecule to Molecule 2KBrO 3 2KBr + 3O 2 2 molecules 4 molecules 6molecules 12 molecules 12 molecules 24 molecules H 3 PO 4 + 3NaOH 12 molecules 75 molecules Na 3 PO 4 + 3H 2 O 18 molecs Molecule to Molecule 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O atoms 12 molecules 32 molecules Fe + CuSO Chemical 4 Equations KI + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 NaCl (s) C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) HCl + NaOH C 3 H 7 OH + O 2 Mg + O 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 11

12 a) P 2 + H 2 PH 3 b) B 2 H 6 + H 2 O H 3 BO 3 + H 2 c) C 2 H 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O d) KBrO 3 KBr + O Al + 3H 2 2Al H 3 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 2Al + 3I 2 2AlI 3 2Al + N 2 2AlN 23.2C 4 H O 2 8CO H 2 O H 2 SO 3 SO 2 + H 2 O 2Na + O 2 Na 2 O 2 2Cu 2 O 4Cu + O SbF 5 2Sb + 5F 2 PtO 2 Pt + O 2 3BrF Br 2 + BrF Ca 2+ (aq) + 2ClO 3- (aq) Cs + (aq) + Br - (aq) Al 3+ (aq) + 3Cl - (aq) 2Cs + (aq) + SO 2-3 (aq) 27.LiOH Li + (aq) + OH - (aq) HI H + (aq) + I - (aq) 56.Ca(OH) 2 + 2HI CaI 2 + 2H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + 2LiOH 2H 2 O + Li 2 SO 4 2HClO 4 + Ba(OH) 2 2H 2 O + Ba(ClO 4 ) 2 Fe + CuSO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + KI NaCl(s) C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) HCl + NaOH C 3 H 7 OH + O 2 Mg + O 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (heated) 12

13 Al + F 2 C 2 H 6 + O 2 KCl(s) (in water) H 2 SO 4 + KOH Ba + N 2 KCl + AgNO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (s) (in water) C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Na 2 CO 3 + FeBr 3 Fe(NO 2 ) 2 (s) (in water) Li + S 8 K 2 S + FeC 2 O 4 Mg + I 2 HNO 2 + Mg(OH) 2 C 4 H 6 + O 2 HCl + Al 3. a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) C 6 H 6 O + 7O 2 6CO 2 + 3H 2 O b) Ca(OH) 2 + SO 3 CaSO 4 + H 2 O c) 6Li + N 2 2Li 3 N d) 3Mg + 2Cr(NO 3 ) 3 2Cr + 3Mg(NO 3 ) 2 13 Fe 3 O 4 + CO 3FeO + CO 2 17 a) 2C 2 H 6 O 2 + 5O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O b) 2B 6 H O 2 6B 2 O H 2 O c) C 6 H O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O d) Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 +14O 2 PbO 2 +8CO 2 +10H 2 O 19. 2Al + 3H 2 2AlH 3 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 2Al + 3I 2 2AlI 3 2Al + N 2 2AlN 21. SbF 5 F 2 + SbF 3 PtO 2 Pt + O 2 3BrF Br 2 + BrF Ca(ClO 3 ) 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2ClO 3 - (aq) CsBr(s) Cs + (aq) + Br - (aq) AlCl 3 (s) Al 3+ (aq) + 3Cl - (aq) Cs 2 SO 3 (s) 2Cs + (aq) + SO 3 2- (aq) 13

14 12 a) b) c) d) e) f) g) CaC 2 + 2H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 + C 2 H 2 2KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2 Zn + H 2 SO 4 H 2 + ZnSO 4 PCl 3 + 3H 2 O H 3 PO 3 + 3HCl 3H 2 S + 2Fe(OH) 3 Fe 2 S 3 + 6H 2 O 14. SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 B 2 S 3 + 6H 2 O 2H 3 BO 3 + 3H 2 S Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + 2NaI 2NaNO 3 + PbI 2 2Hg(NO 3 ) 2 2HgO + 4NO 2 + O 2 Cu + 2H 2 SO 4 CuSO 4 + SO 2 + 2H 2 O 19. a)2 3 2 synthesis b) combustion c) synthesis d) decomposition e) combustion 20. a) combustion b) decomposition c) combustion d) synthesis e) synthesis 2Ca + O 2 2CaO C 5 H O 2 5CO 2 + 6H 2 O 3FeSO 4 + 2Al(CN) 3 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Fe(CN) 2 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 N 2 + 3I 2 2NI 3 Ru(NO 3 ) 3 + 3HCl RuCl 3 + 3HNO 3 2HBr + Ca(OH) 2 2H 2 O + CaBr 2 Al 2 O 3 + 2B 2Al + B 2 O 3 2HCl + Ba(OH) 2 BaCl 2 + 2H 2 O 2K + 2H 2 O 2KOH + H 2 CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Zn + H 2 SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H 2 2Na + Br 2 2NaBr 2H 2 O 2H 2 + O 2 Ca(ClO 3 ) 2 CaCl 2 + 3O 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O 2Rb + 2C 2 H 4 O 2 2RbC 2 H 3 O 2 + H 2 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3CaSO 4 + 2AlPO 4 2C 4 H O 2 8CO H 2 O 2Fe 2 S 3 + 9O 2 2Fe 2 O 3 + 6SO 2 Fe 2 O 3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO 2 3KBr + Al(NO 3 ) 3 3KNO 3 + AlBr 3 2HgNO 3 + Na 2 CO 3 2NaNO 3 + Hg 2 CO 3 3Ca + 2AlCl 3 3CaCl 2 + 2Al 2HgO 2Hg + O 2 14

15 2K + Br 2 2KBr 2Au 2 O 3 4Au + 3O 2 2C 6 H O 2 12CO 2 + 6H 2 O P F 2 4PF 5 H 2 SO 4 H 2 O + SO 3 a) Double j) Single b) Single k) Combustion c) Combustion l) Synthesis d) Decomposition m) Decomposition e) Synthesis n) Double f) Combustion g) Decompostion h) Single i) Synthesis Na 2 S(s) 2Na + (aq) + S 2- (aq) Li 2 SO 4 (s) 2Li + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) FeCl 3 (s) Fe 3+ (aq) + 3Cl - (aq) NaNO 3 (s) Na + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) NH 4 Cl(s) NH 4+ (aq) + Cl - (aq) SET A 2Al + 3F 2 2AlF 3 3Na 2 CO 3 + 2FeCl 3 Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 + 6NaCl AlCl 3 + 3Na 3NaCl + Al 2C 4 H O 2 8CO 2 + 6H 2 O KCl(s) K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 2C 2 H 6 + 7O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (s) Fe 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) 4Na + O 2 2Na 2 O H 2 SO 4 + 2KOH K 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O Na 2 S + CuSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + CuS 3Ba + N 2 Ba 3 N 2 Mg + CuCl 2 Cu + MgCl 2 KCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + KNO 3 2HNO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 2H 2 O + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 2NH CO 3 2- C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O SET B 3K + AlCl 3 Al + 3KCl AgNO 3 + HCl AgCl + HNO 3 C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O 2Al + 3Cl 2 2AlCl 3 NaNO 3 (s) (in water) Na + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) HCl + KOH H 2 O + KCl Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Na Mg + 2NaNO 3 BaCl 2 + Na 2 SO 4 2NaCl + BaSO 4 CuSO 4 (s) (in water) Cu 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) 15

16 2Na + I 2 2NaI Ca(OH) 2 + 2HBr 2H 2 O + CaBr 2 2C 4 H O 2 8CO H 2 O Mg + CuCl 2 MgCl 2 + Cu 3K 2 CO 3 + 2Fe(NO 3 ) 3 6KNO 3 + Fe 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Set C 4Li + O 2 2Li 2 O Al(NO 3 ) 3 (s) (in water) Al 3+ (aq) + 3NO 3- (aq) 16Ga + 3S 8 8Ga 2 S 3 H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH 2H 2 O + Na 2 SO 4 3Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 + 2Al 3Zn + 2Al(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 3 2NaOH + CuCl 2 Cu(OH) 2 + 2NaCl Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (s) + 2H 3 PO 4 2FePO 4 + 3H 2 SO 4 Sn + 2HCl SnCl 2 + H 2 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3 2AlBr 3 + 3Na 2 S 6NaBr + Al 2 S 3 2CH 3 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 4H 2 O (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (s) (in water) 2NH 4+ (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) 8Mg + S 8 8MgS HNO 3 + LiOH H 2 O + LiNO 3 2AgNO 3 + Pb Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Ag CaCl 2 + Na 2 CO 3 NaCl + CaCO 3 CaCl 2 + NaOH NaCl + Ca(OH) 2 CuSO 4 + NaOH Na 2 SO 4 + Cu(OH) 2 NaHCO 3 + HCl NaCl + H 2 O + CO 2 Na 2 S(s) 2Na + (aq) + S 2- (aq) Li 2 SO 4 (s) 2Li + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) FeCl 3 (s) Fe 3+ (aq) + 3Cl - (aq) 2K + Br 2 2KBr 2Au 2 O 3 4Au + 3O 2 2C 6 H O 2 12CO 2 + 6H 2 O P F 2 4PF 5 H 2 SO 4 H 2 O + SO 3 Fe + CuSO 4 Cu + FeSO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + 2KI PbI 2 + 2KNO 3 NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) C 12 H 22 O 11 (s) C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl 2C 3 H 7 OH + 9O 2 6CO 2 + 8H 2 O 2Mg + O 2 2MgO (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 H 2 O(l) + 2NH 3 (g) + CO 2 (g) 16

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