B. chemical equation - set of symbols and numbers which represent a chemical change. Reactants Products

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1 1 I. Introduction A. chemical reaction any chemical change B. chemical equation set of symbols and numbers which represent a chemical change 1. reactants what you begin with 2. products what you end up with Reactants Products C. Conservation of Mass mass of reactants = mass of products II. Naming Reactants and Products A. Compounds B. Elements 1. Ionic, Molecular, Acids we did this Unit V 2. ther Good Names to know methane (C 4 ) propane (C 3 8 ) butane (C 4 10 ) ammonia (N 3 ) water ( 2 ) octane (C 8 18 ) 1. monatomic elements elements composed of a series of single atoms * examples: iron (Fe), sodium (Na), silicon (Si), carbon (C) 2. diatomic elements elements composed of a series of molecules composed of two atoms of that element; magic seven * examples: nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen ( 2 ), chlorine (Cl 2 ) S. Give the formulas for the following elements and compounds: K 1) potassium C 2 2) carbon dioxide FeS 3) iron(ii) sulfide Fe 4) iron Br 5) hydrobromic acid Br 2 6) bromine AgN 3 7) silver nitrate Ag 2 Cr 4 8) silver chromate CuS 4 9) copper(ii) sulfate W 3 (P 4 ) 5 10) tungsten (V) 2 S 4 11) sulfuric acid AlI 3 12) aluminum phosphate iodide

2 2 III. Balancing Equations Word Equation: Formula Equation: C 4 2 C 2 2 reactants: C 4 & 2 product(s): C 2 & 2 Draw a picture: C Methane combusts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water C C Does this follow conservation of mass? correct errors like shown above by using coefficients to indicate the number of molecules of each participant once the correct formula for a compound is determined, D NT CANGE TE SUBSCRIPTS T BALANCE TE EQUATIN!!!! Suggested order of balancing: 1) Balance polyatomic ions, NLY if it appears on both the reactant and product sides. 2) Balance metals. 3) Balance nonmetals, except hydrogen and oxygen 4) Balance hydrogen and oxygen. 5) Double check your balancing and adjust as necessary. C Balance the following equations, then list the reactant(s) and product(s): 1) 2 Mg Mg 2) 1 Zn 2 CuN 3 1 Zn(N 3 ) 2 2 Cu 3) 1 Na 2 C 3 1 Na 2 1 C 2 4) 2 Al(N 3 ) 3 3 K 2 C 3 1 Al 2 (C 3 ) 3 6 KN 3 5) 1 C C 2 6 2

3 S. 1) 1 C C UNIT VI CEMICAL EQUATINS 3 2) 4 Na Na 2 3) 3 Na 1 Mo() 3 3 Na 1 Mo 4) 1 C C ) iron oxygen iron(iii) oxide 4 Fe Fe 2 3 6) aluminum sulfate calcium chloride aluminum chloride calcium sulfate 1 Al 2 (S 4 ) 3 3 CaCl 2 2 AlCl 3 3 CaS 4 What are the reactants and products for the 6 student practice equations? Problem Reactants Products 1 C 4, 2 C 2, 2 2 Na, 2 Na 2 3 Na, Mo() 3 Na, Mo 4 C 7 16, 2 C 2, 2 5 Fe, 2 Fe Al 2 (S 4 ) 3, CaCl 2 AlCl 3, CaS 4

4 4 IV. 5 types of reactions * many chemical reactions follow a specific pattern makes products predictable A. Synthesis general form: A B AB * we will mostly deal with synthesis of two elements into one compound * Note one is a metal and one is a nonmetal, so we will chargebalance our products: balance equation: 1) Mg 2 put together reactants: Mg 2 and 2 charge balance product: Mg 2 Mg 2 Mg 2) Na Cl 2 Na and Cl NaCl 2 Na Cl 2 2 NaCl 3) 2 C 2 special synthesis (water nonmetal oxide acid) * simply put everything together in one compound beginning w/ : S. 2 C 2 2 C 3 1) K 2 K and 2 K 2 4 K 2 2 K 2 2) Al 2 Al 3 and 2 Al Al Al 2 3 3) 2 S 3 2 S 4 B. Decomposition general form: AB A B * usually requires an input of energy 1) g break up the compound into its elements if element is diatomic, mark it appropriately: g 2 balance the equation: 2g 2 g 2 2) S. 1) Ag 2 2 Ag 2 4 Ag 2 2) NaCl 2 NaCl 2 Na Cl 2

5 5 C. Single Replacement general form: element ionic compound ionic compound element * element replaces element similar to it, i.e. metal replaces metal, nonmetal replaces nonmetal * only occurs if free element is more active than its counterpart Activity Series most active least active METALS: Li, Rb, K, Cs, Ba, Sr, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, 2, Bi, Cu, g, Ag, Pt, Au 1) Li CuS 4 Li wants to trade w/ Cu, it will because it is more active (see above) switch metals to form products: LiS 4 Cu charge balance new compound: Li 2 S 4 mark new element if diatomic: Cu balance equation: 2 Li CuS 4 Li 2 S 4 Cu 2) Fe NaN 3 Fe is NT more active than Na NR 3) Zn Cl Zn is more active than new products: ZnCl 2 2 Zn 2 Cl ZnCl 2 2 4) Ni(N 3 ) 2 Al Al is more active than Ni new products: Al(N 3 ) 3 Ni 3 Ni(N 3 ) 2 2 Al 2 Al(N 3 ) 3 3 Ni S. 1) 3 Na 1 FeCl 3 3 NaCl Fe 2) 2 Al 3 ZnS 4 Al 2 (S 4 ) 3 3 Zn 3) Co K 2 C 3 NR 4) 2 K CaI 2 2 KI Ca 5) Mg Co(N 3 ) 2 Mg(N 3 ) 2 Co 6) CaCl 2 Cu NR 7) Al(N 3 ) 3 3 Na 3 NaN 3 Al

6 6 V. Representing Phases in Equations solid (s) liquid (l) gas (g) aqueous solution (aq) S. Show proper phase notation with formulas for the following: 1) chlorine gas Cl 2(g) 2) water 2 (l) 3) steam 2 (g) 4) ice 2 (s) 5) sodium chloride NaCl (s) 6) sodium chloride NaCl (aq) crystals dissolved in water IV (con t)... D. Double Replacement general form: AX (aq) BY (aq) AY BX * the ions switch partners * only occurs if one of the products is a solid precipitate * precipitate an ionic compound formed by a doublereplacement reaction which is not soluble in water * it forms a cloudy appearance in the solution; if allowed to sit, the precipitate will settle to the bottom of the container Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds Always Soluble (aqueous) Name Symbol Group I Metals Li 1 Na 1 K 1 Ammonium 1 N 4 Acetate C Nitrate N 3 Generally Insoluble (form precipitates) Name Symbol Exceptions carbonate 2 C 3 Group I Metals, ammonium chromate 2 Cr 4 Group I Metals, ammonium phosphate 3 P 4 Group I Metals, ammonium sulfide S 2 Group I & II Metals, ammonium hydroxide Group I Metals, Ca 2, Sr 2, Ba 2, ammonium Mostly Soluble (usually aqueous) Name Symbol Precipitates with (solid) halide ions (X) Cl, Br, I AgX, gx 2, PbX 2 sulfate 2 S 4 SrS 4, BaS 4, PbS 4, g 2 S 4

7 7 1) Na (aq) AgN 3(aq) switch metal ions: NaN 3 Ag check solubility: NaN 3 is soluble, so mark it as NaN 3(aq) Ag is insoluble, so this is your precipitate: Ag (s) because you formed a precipitate, there is a reaction, so chargebalance products: NaN 3(aq) Ag (s) balance the equation: Na (aq) AgN 3(aq) NaN 3(aq) Ag (s) 2) NiS 4(aq) Li 3 P 4(aq) switch ions: NiP 4 LiS 4 NiP 4 is insoluble, and LiS 4 is soluble: NiP 4(s) LiS 4(aq) charge balance products: Ni 3 (P 4 ) 2(s) Li 2 S 4(aq) balance the equation: 3 NiS 4(aq) 2 Li 3 P 4(aq) Ni 3 (P 4 ) 2(s) 3 Li 2 S 4(aq) 3) NaN 3(aq) K 2 S 4(aq) NR switch ions: NaS 4 KN 3 both are soluble, so no reaction 4) K 2 Cr 4(aq) CaCl 2(aq) switch ions: KCl CaCr 4 KCl is soluble, CaCr 4 is insoluble: KCl (aq) CaCr 4(s) charge balance products: KCl (aq) CaCr 4(s) balance the equation: S. K 2 Cr 4(aq) CaCl 2(aq) 2 KCl (aq) CaCr 4(s) 1) Na 2 S (aq) Pb(C ) 2(aq) PbS (s) 2 NaC 2 3 2(aq) 2) K 2 C 3(aq) 2 AgN 3(aq) Ag 2 C 3(s) 2 KN 3(aq) 3) FeCl 3(aq) 3 Na (aq) Fe() 3(s) 3 NaCl (aq) 4) Fe(N 3 ) 3(aq) NaC 2 3 2(aq) NR 5) 3 Ba(N 3 ) 2(aq) 2 (N 4 ) 3 P 4(aq) Ba 3 (P 4 ) 2(s) 6 N 4 N 3(aq)

8 8 E. Combustion general form: hydrocarbon or alcohol 2(g) C 2(g) 2 * note that the products are ALWAYS C 2 and water, you just need to balance the equation balance the equation: 1) C 4(g) 2(g) C 2 2 C C ) 2 C C note that if you have an even number of C s in the hydrocarbon on the left, it can help you balance if you begin by putting a 2 next to it immediately; remember the coefficients must be the smallest whole numbers possible 3) 2 C C when balancing, remember the on the alcohol as well S. 1) C C ) 2 C C ) 2 C C ) C C V. Net Ionic Equations show what s really happening in a reaction S. Name the reaction type, complete, and balance double replacement 1. Na (aq) AgN 3(aq) Ag (s) NaN 3(aq) double replacement 2. NaCl (aq) KN 3(aq) NR double replacement 3. K 2 S (aq) Pb(N 3 ) 2(aq) PbS (s) 2 KN 3(aq) single replacement 4. 3 Na (s) Cr(N 3 ) 3(aq) 3 NaN 3(aq) Cr

9 9 B. Dissociation equations when a soluble ionic compound dissolves in water, the ions separate from each other and exist alone in aqueous solution S. Write the dissociation equation for the following: 1. Na (aq) Na 1 (aq) (aq) 2. KN 3(aq) K 1 (aq) N 3 (aq) 3. K 2 S (aq) 2 K 1 (aq) S 2 (aq) C. Net Ionic equations S. Rewrite the equations from the bottom of p. 8 showing dissociated ionic compounds in aqueous solution * note that we know that ions can only exist in aqueous solution, so it is K to ignore the phase notation on ions; it is NT K to ignore the charges however 1. Na 1 Ag 1 N 3 Ag (s) Na 1 N 3 2. Na 1 Cl K 1 N 3 Na 1 N 3 K 1 Cl 3. 2 K 1 S 2 Pb 2 2 N 3 PbS (s) 2 K 1 2 N Na (s) Cr 3 3 N 3 3 Na 1 3 N 3 Cr (s) spectator ions ions that go unchanged in a chemical reactions; cancel out when writing the net ionic equation see highlighted ions above; cancel them out net ionic equation equation which shows a reaction without spectator ions S. Write the net ionic equation for the above equations: 1. Ag 1 Ag (s) 2. NR (all ions cancel out) 3. S 2 Pb 2 PbS (s) 4. 3 Na (s) Cr 3 3 Na 1 Cr (s)

10 10 Write the net ionic equations for the following reactions (no need to balance): 1) Solid sodium is added to an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. verall: Na (s) AgN 3(aq) NaN 3(aq) Ag (s) w/ ions: Na (s) Ag 1 N 3 Na 1 N 3 Ag (s) Net: Na (s) Ag 1 Na 1 Ag (s) spectator: N 3 2) Aqueous solutions of iron (II) nitrate and potassium chromate are mixed. verall: Fe(N 3 ) 2(aq) K 2 Cr 4(aq) FeCr 4(s) 2 KN 3(aq) w/ ions: Fe 2 2 N 3 2 K 1 Cr 2 4 FeCr 4(s) 2 K 1 2 N 3 Net: Fe 2 Cr 2 4 FeCr 4(s) spectators: K 1 and N 3 S. Write the net ionic equations for the following reactions (no need to balance): 1) A strip of magnesium metal is placed in an aqueous solution of copper(ii) sulfate. verall: Mg (s) CuS 4(aq) MgS 4(aq) Cu (s) w/ ions: Mg (s) Cu 2 S 2 4 Mg 2 S 2 4 Cu (s) Net: Mg (s) Cu 2 Mg 2 Cu (s) 2 spectator: S 4 2) A pile of solid aluminum shot is placed in a beaker containing an aqueous solution of silver nitrate. verall: Al (s) 3 AgN 3(aq) Al(N 3 ) 3(aq) 3 Ag (s) w/ ions: Al (s) 3 Ag 1 3 N 3 Al 3 3 N 3 3 Ag (s) Net: Al (s) 3 Ag 1 Al 3 3 Ag (s) spectator: N 3 3) Aqueous solutions of lead(ii) nitrate and potassium sulfate are mixed. verall: Pb(N 3 ) 2(aq) K 2 S 4(aq) PbS 4(s) 2 KN 3(aq) w/ ions: Pb 2 2 N 3 2 K 1 S 2 4 PbS 4(s) 2 K 1 2 N 3 Net: Pb 2 S 2 4 PbS 4(s) spectators: K 1 and N 3 4) Aqueous solutions of lead(ii) nitrate and potassium chromate are mixed. verall: Pb(N 3 ) 2(aq) K 2 Cr 4(aq) PbCr 4(s) 2 KN 3(aq) w/ ions: Pb 2 2 N 3 2 K 1 Cr 2 4 PbCr 4(s) 2 K 1 2 N 3 Net: Pb 2 Cr 2 4 PbCr 4(s) spectators: K 1 and N 3 5) Aqueous solutions of lithium sulfide and copper(i) sulfate are mixed. verall: Li 2 S (aq) Cu 2 S 4(aq) Cu 2 S (s) Li 2 S 4(aq) w/ ions: 2 Li 1 S 2 2 Cu 1 S 2 4 Cu 2 S (s) 2 Li 1 2 S 4 Net: S 2 Cu 1 Cu 2 S (s) spectators: Li 1 2 and S 4

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