QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Objectives: 1. To perform spot test precipitation reactions. 2. To write and balance precipitation reaction equations. 3. To learn how to balance equations. 4. To learn the solubility rules for common salts in water at room temperature. 5. To learn how to predict if precipitation would occur when ions are mixed. 6. To learn common techniques used in qualitative analysis. Background: Qualitative analysis deals with the separation and identification of substances. The goal is to determine if a substance is present in a sample of matter. Systematic procedures have been developed for doing qualitative analysis. These generally involve (1) separation of the analyte from possible interferences, followed by (2) confirmatory test. The analyte is the substance for which you are testing. You can do a confirmatory test by adding a test reagent to your sample to see if the analyte is there or not. An interference is a substance that could cause the test to fail by either (1) preventing the analyte from reacting (false negative) or (2) reacts to the test reagent in a manner similar to the analyte (false positive) or (3) reacts with the test reagent in a manner that would make a difficult to tell is the analyte is there (masking the results). A common test involves water solubility. Naturally this involves solutions. The major component of a solution is called the solvent; most of the solutions you will encounter are aqueous solution (water is the solvent). The other components of a solution are called solutes. The term solubility refers to the extent to which a solute would dissolve in a solvent. For example, the solubility of PbCl 2 in water at 25 C is g/l; this means that no more than g of PbCl 2 will dissolve in 1 L of water at 25 C. We use the word soluble to mean a solubility of at least 30 g/l. When we use the word insoluble, we actually mean less than 1 g/l. Therefore, PbCl 2, previously mentioned, would be classified as insoluble. Ions in solution: When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride is placed in water it dissolves. NaCl, or table salt, exists as a solid crystal, but when you drop some salt in water, the crystals seem to disappear. The water tastes salty, so you know that the salt is still there, but why can t we see it? The answer to this question lies in the fact that water, H 2 O, is a polar molecule. The electrons involved in the O H bonds in water spend more time around the oxygen then around the two hydrogens. Thus the oxygen side of the water molecules has a slight negative charge while the hydrogen side has a slight positive charge. When water comes in contact with many ionic compounds, the water molecules surround the individual ions. The electrically charged ions get separated from the solid crystal and become completely surrounded by the polar water molecules. This process causes the ionic crystal to dissociate or dissolve.

2 Some combinations of positive and negative ions have such a strong attraction for each other that water does not break up the ionic crystal lattice. These compounds do not dissolve in water. When insoluble combinations of positive and negative ions are created by mixing two solutions, the ions combine to form solid crystalline precipitations which fall out of solution. When compounds break up and dissolve in water, and which do no dissolve in water and form precipitates when solutions are mixed? Check the solubility rules! Solubility Rules 1. All acetates (C 2 H 3 O 2 ) and nitrates (NO 3 ) are soluble. 2. All group 1A metals and ammonium (NH + 4 ) are soluble. 3. Halogens are soluble except for Ag 1+, Pb 2+, Hg Sulfates (SO 2 4 ) are soluble except for Sr 2+, Ba 2+, Ca 2+, Ag 1+, Pb 2+, Hg Chromates (CrO 2 4 ), carbonates (CO 2 3 ), and phosphates (PO 3 4 ) are insoluble except for group 1A metals and ammonium (NH + 4 ). 6. Hydroxides (OH - ) and sulfides (S 2- ) are insoluble except for group 1A metals, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+, and ammonium (NH + 4 ). Reactions of ions in solution: If you were to dissolve two different ionic compounds in water and mix the solution, the ions would have a chance to react with one another. Let s use silver nitration, AgNO 3, and potassium chromates, K 2 CrO 4, as an example. According to the solubility rules, both of these compounds dissolve in water. If the two solutions are mixed, you would initially have two positive ions, K + and Ag +, and two negative ions NO 3 and CrO 2 4, in the mixture. An important point to remember is when an ionic compound dissociates in water, the hydrated ions (ions surround by water molecules) are constantly moving through the solution. Any positive ions in the solution have a chance of reacting with any negative ion. Let s say you mixed some potassium chromate solution with silver nitrate solution together, and a brownish-red precipitate formed. What would the compound be that precipitated out? There are four possible ionic compounds that could be formed from the four ions in the mixed solution: potassium nitrate, potassium chromate, silver nitrate, or silver chromate. Based on the solubility rules, the first three should be soluble in water, so the precipitate must be silver chromate, Ag 2 CrO 4. If you wanted to test for the presence of chromate ion in solution, adding silver nitrate solution might be a good test.

3 These are double replacement reactions which is when one element in a compound exchanges with another element in the other compound Generic equation: AB + CD AD + CB Example: Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + PbCl 2 ZnCl 2 + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 2HNO 3 + BaCl 2 2HCl + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 2PbCl 3 + 3ZnSO 4 Pb 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3ZnCl 2 What is the balanced equation that represents the formation of this precipitate? We know the reactants are solutions of silver nitrate and potassium chromate, and that one of the products is silver chromate. The other product must be potassium nitrate, which remains in solution. Our first representation of the reaction equation, giving reactants and products with correct chemical formulas, would be: Eqn 1: AgNO 3 + K 2 CrO 4 Ag 2 CrO 4 + KNO 3 Is this equation correct? The law of conservation of mass states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, which means that there must be the same number and types of atoms on the reactants side of the chemical reaction as there are on the products side. This is not true for equation 1, so we need to balance the equation. We balance the equation by adding coefficients in front of the formulas for products or reactants. We can NEVER balance an equation by adding or changing subscripts, since that would change the chemical identify of a product or reactant. We can balance equation 1 as follows: Eqn 2: 2AgNO 3 + K 2 CrO 4 Ag 2 CrO 4 + 2KNO 3 Chemical equations can also indicate the formation of a precipitate. Often subscripts, (s), (l), (g), and (aq), are used to describe the physical states of products and reactions. A subscript (s) means that the chemical in the equation is in solid form, (l) stands for liquid, (g) for gas, and (aq) means in aqueous solution or dissolved in water. Let s apply the physical states to equation 2: Eqn 3: 2AgNO 3(aq) + K 2 CrO 4(aq) Ag 2 CrO 4(s) + 2KNO 3(aq) The subscript (s) after the formula for silver chromate tells us that the silver chromate comes out of solution as a precipitate, as indicated by the solubility rules.

4 Materials Equipment: Spot plates Test tubes Beaker Stirring rod Reagents: 0.2 M AgNO M Pb(NO 3 ) M Hg 2 (NO 3 ) M Ni(NO 3 ) M NH 4 NO 3 4 M HCl 0.2 M HCl 0.2 M K 2 CrO 4 15 M NH 4 OH 0.2 M NaOH Conc. HNO 3 Experimental procedure: Spot Test Matrix: 1. In the wells of your spot plates, place two drops of each metal ion solution with two drops of each spot test reagent. Use the Spot Test Matrix table on the data summary sheet to keep tract of the test combinations and record the results you observe for each test. 2. Check your results of your test against the solubility rules and write balanced equations for all reactions that produced precipitates. Qualitative Known: 3. Put 5 drops of the following in five separate test tubes. a. 0.2 M AgNO 3 b. 0.2 M Pb(NO 3 ) 2 c. 0.2 M Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 d. 0.2 M Ni(NO 3 ) 2 e. 0.2 M NH 4 NO 3 4. To each test tube, add 10 drops of 4 M HCl. Record your observations. For each test tube that did not form a precipitate, perform a spot test to confirm the identity of the liquid. Record your results. 5. For each test tube that formed a precipitate, wash the precipitate using the following procedure. a. Centrifuge for 30 seconds b. Decant the supernatant c. Add 5 drops of deionized water d. Stir e. Centrifuge f. Decant the supernatant.

7 Notes

8 Notes

9 Report Form: Make up Qual. Analysis Name Partner Section DATA SUMMARY SHEET QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS Spot Test Observation Matrix: Write your observations in the box provided for each combination of test solution with reagent. Write balance equations for each reaction that formed a precipitate, be sure to include physical states. HCl K 2 CrO 4 NaOH Pb(NO 3 ) 2 Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 NH 4 NO 3 Ni(NO 3 ) 2 AgNO 3

10 Write balance equations for each reaction that formed a precipitate. Put NR for reactions that did not form a precipitate Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + HCl Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + K 2 CrO 4 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + NaOH Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 + HCl Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2+ K 2 CrO 4 Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2+ NaOH NH 4 NO 3 + HCl NH 4 NO 3+ K 2 CrO 4 NH 4 NO 3+ NaOH Ni(NO 3 ) 2 + HCl Ni(NO 3 ) 2+ K 2 CrO 4 Ni(NO 3 ) 2+ NaOH AgNO 3 + HCl AgNO 3 + K 2 CrO 4 AgNO 3+ NaOH

11 Qualitative Known Results: Reaction results with HCl 0.2 M AgNO 3 Observations 0.2 M Pb(NO 3 ) M Hg 2 (NO 3 ) M Ni(NO 3 ) M NH 4 NO 3 Which did not form precipitates with HCl? Spot test confirmatory results: Which formed precipitates with HCl? After heating the precipitates in a hot water bath, which one(s) dissolved? Spot test confirmatory results: After heating the precipitates in a hot water bath, which one(s) did not dissolved? After adding 15 M NH 4 OH to precipitated test tube(s), which dissolved? Spot test confirmatory results: After adding 15 M NH 4 OH to precipitated test tube(s), which did not dissolve?

12 Qualitative Unknown Results: Did it form a precipitate with HCl? If no, spot test confirmatory results: After heating the precipitates in a hot water bath, did it dissolved? Yes or no? If it does dissolve perform a spot test to confirm the identity. After adding 15 M NH 4 OH to precipitated test tube(s), did it dissolve? Yes or no? If it does dissolve perform a spot test to confirm the identity. What is your unknown: Additional Questions: Predict the solubility of the following using the solubility rules. AQ = soluble (dissolves) and S = insoluble (forms a solid) a. Na 2 S b. Cr(NO 3 ) 3 c. Na 3 PO 4 d. (NH 4 ) 2 S e. PbS f. CaCO 3 g. CoSO 4 h. Hg 2 Cl 2 i. PbCl 2 j. CuSO 4 k. BaCl 2 l. Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 m. K 2 CrO 4 n. CuS o. K 2 CO 3 p. ZnSO 4 q. BaCO 3 r. FeCl 3

13 Write a balance reaction and provide the products for the following reactants. Indicate physical states. Is there a precipitate? Yes or No? If yes, indicate the precipitate with (s) subscript. If no, there is no reaction. a. AgNO 3(aq) + Na 2 CO 3(aq) + b. BaCl 2(aq) + Na 2 CO 3(aq) + c. CuSO 4(aq) + (NH 4 ) 2 S (aq) + d. AlCl 3(aq) + NaNO 3(aq) + e. HCl (aq) + Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2(aq) + f. K 2 CO 3(aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 2(aq) +

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table

The Behavior of Two Families in the Periodic Table The Periodic Table arranges the elements in order of increasing atomic number in horizontal rows of such length that elements with similar properties

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s)

Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 4 An Introduction to Chemical Reactions An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Chemical Reaction A chemical change or chemical reaction is a process in which one or more pure substances

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111

EXPERIMENT 10: Electrical Conductivity Chem 111 INTRODUCTION A. Electrical Conductivity A substance can conduct an electrical current if it is made of positively and negatively charged particles that are

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

Chapter 9 Answers to Questions 1. Word equation: Silicon Tetrachloride + Water Silicon Dioxide + Hydrogen Chloride Formulas: Next, the chemical formulas are needed. As these are all covalent compounds,

Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions. CP Chemistry

Steps to Predicting the Products of Chemical Reactions CP Chemistry TYPES OF REACTIONS REVIEW 2 NaNO 3 + PbO Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 O C 2 H 4 O 2 + 2 O 2 2 CO 2 + 2 H 2 O ZnSO 4 + Li 2 CO 3 ZnCO 3 + Li 2 SO

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

One problem often faced in qualitative analysis is to test for one ion in a

Chemistry 112 Laboratory: Silver Group Analysis Page 11 ANALYSIS OF THE SILVER GROUP CATIONS Ag + Pb Analysis of a Mixture of Cations One problem often faced in qualitative analysis is to test for one

Solutions CHAPTER Specific answers depend on student choices.

CHAPTER 15 1. Specific answers depend on student choices.. A heterogeneous mixture does not have a uniform composition: the composition varies in different places within the mixture. Examples of non homogeneous

Chapter 7: Chemical Equations. Name: Date: Period:

Chapter 7: Chemical Equations Name: Date: Period: 7-1 What is a chemical reaction? Read pages 232-237 a) Explain what a chemical reaction is. b) Distinguish between evidence that suggests a chemical reaction

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

AP Chem Unit 1 Assignment 3 Chemical Equations

Symbols used in chemical equations: Symbol Meaning + used to separate one reactant or product from another used to separate the reactants from the products - it is pronounced "yields" or "produces" when

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11

Types of Reactions Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To perform and observe the results of a variety of chemical reactions. To become familiar with the observable signs of chemical

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations

1 Chemical Reactions Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations What are chemical reactions and how do they occur? How are chemical reactions classified? How are products of chemical reactions predicted?

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

Experiment: Ionic Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Minneapolis Community and Technical College Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Ionic Precipitation Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Objectives: Identify the ions present in various aqueous solutions.

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

The Reaction of Calcium Chloride with Carbonate Salts

The Reaction of Calcium Chloride with Carbonate Salts PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT: Reading: Chapter 3 & Chapter 4, sections 1-3 in Brown, LeMay, Bursten, & Murphy. 1. What product(s) might be expected to form when

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS

T-33 Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS The efficiency and extent of a chemical reaction is very much dependent upon the physical state (solid, liquid, gas, or solution) of reactants and products. Not surprisingly,

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS

CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS Purpose: It is important for chemists to be able to determine the composition of unknown chemicals. This can often be done by way of chemical tests.

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions)

EPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) PURPOSE a) Reactions of metals with acids and salt solutions b) Determine the activity of metals c) Write a balanced molecular equation, complete

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

Lab #13: Qualitative Analysis of Cations and Anions

Lab #13: Qualitative Analysis of Cations and Anions Objectives: 1. To understand the rationale and the procedure behind the separation for various cations and anions. 2. To perform qualitative analysis

EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

PURPOSE EXPERIMENT 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS To perform and observe simple chemical reactions. To identify the products of chemical reactions and write balanced equations for those reactions.

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

Molarity of Ions in Solution

APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions

Physical Changes and Chemical Reactions Gezahegn Chaka, Ph.D., and Sudha Madhugiri, Ph.D., Collin College Department of Chemistry Objectives Introduction To observe physical and chemical changes. To identify

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections )

Chapter 4: Reactions in Aqueous Solution (Sections 4.1-4.12) Chapter Goals Be able to: Classify substances as electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. Write molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for precipitation,

EXPERIMENT 11: Qualitative Analysis of Cations

EXPERIMENT 11: Qualitative Analysis of Cations Materials: Equipment: centrifuge, test tubes (6 small, 2 medium), test tube rack, stirring rods, beral pipets, hot plate, small beaker, red litmus paper.

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility

Dissolving Factors that Affect the Rate of Dissolving and Solubility One very important property of a solution is the rate of, or how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent. When dissolving occurs, there

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

Experiment 17-Chemical Reactions Lab

Since the Middle Ages, when ancient physicians attempted to find a magical substance that would cure all diseases, humans have been fascinated with chemical reactions. In order to effectively describe

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES

31 CHEMICAL EQUATIONS and REACTION TYPES The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to develop skills in writing and balancing chemical equations. The relevance of this exercise is illustrated by a series

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

Writing Chemical Equations

Writing Chemical Equations Chemical equations for solution reactions can be written in three different forms; molecular l equations, complete ionic i equations, and net ionic equations. In class, so far,

Solutions Review Questions

Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point

A) HCl C) 52 g KCl in 100 g water at 80ºC A) temperature of the solution increases B) supersaturated D) low temperature and high pressure D) KClO3

1. Which compound becomes less soluble in water as the temperature of the solution is increased? A) HCl B) 2. The solubility of O3(s) in water increases as the A) temperature of the solution increases

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

5 E Lesson Plan Title: Precipitates: A Clue to Chemical Reactions Grade Level and Course: 8 th Grade Physical Science Materials: Epsom salt solution

5 E Lesson Plan Title: Precipitates: A Clue to Chemical Reactions Grade Level and Course: 8 th Grade Physical Science Materials: Epsom salt solution Household ammonia Water 50 ml beaker Spoon to stir Balance

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 4. Limiting Reactant

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 4 Limiting Reactant INTRODUCTION Two factors affect the yield of products in a chemical reaction: (1) the amounts of starting materials (reactants) and (2) the percent

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

Solubility Rules and the Mystery Solutions Grade 11

Ohio Standards Connection: Scientific Ways of Knowing Benchmark A Explain how scientific evidence is used to develop and revise scientific predictions, ideas or theories. Indicator 1 Analyze a set of data

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry CHEM 1111. Copper Cycle

Cautions Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are toxic and oxidizers and may burn your skin. Nitrogen dioxide gas produced is hazardous if inhaled. Sodium hydroxide is toxic and corrosive and will cause burns

Liquid phase. Balance equation Moles A Stoic. coefficient. Aqueous phase

STOICHIOMETRY Objective The purpose of this exercise is to give you some practice on some Stoichiometry calculations. Discussion The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses of all

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY

HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY Complete the following problems to help prepare for the test. Objective 1: Students will know ionic and covalent bonding. 1. Which subatomic

Chemistry. Zumdahl, 7th edition

Chemistry Zumdahl, 7th edition CH4 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Yellow lead(ii) iodide is produced when lead(ii) nitrate is mixed with potassium iodide. P.126 Contents 4.1 Water,

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry

Section B: Some Essential Background Chemistry Soluble and insoluble salts The importance of knowing whether a salt is soluble or insoluble in water You will remember that acids react with carbonates to

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

Reactions. Balancing Chemical Equations uses Law of conservation of mass: matter cannot be lost in any chemical reaction

Reactions Chapter 8 Combustion Decomposition Combination Chapter 9 Aqueous Reactions Exchange reactions (Metathesis) Formation of a precipitate Formation of a gas Formation of a week or nonelectrolyte

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

Solute and Solvent 7.1. Solutions. Examples of Solutions. Nature of Solutes in Solutions. Learning Check. Solution. Solutions

Chapter 7 s 7.1 s Solute and Solvent s are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. consist of a solvent and one or more solutes. 1 2 Nature of Solutes in s Examples of s Solutes spread evenly throughout

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

Aqueous Chemical Reactions

Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Aqueous Chemical Reactions The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to three major categories of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions,

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

1. P 2 O 5 2. P 5 O 2 3. P 10 O 4 4. P 4 O 10

Teacher: Mr. gerraputa Print Close Name: 1. A chemical formula is an expression used to represent 1. mixtures, only 3. compounds, only 2. elements, only 4. compounds and elements 2. What is the total number

Chapter 16: Tests for ions and gases

The position of hydrogen in the reactivity series Hydrogen, although not a metal, is included in the reactivity series because it, like metals, can be displaced from aqueous solution, only this time the

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction

General Chemistry Lab Experiment 6 Types of Chemical Reaction Introduction Most ordinary chemical reactions can be classified as one of five basic types. The first type of reaction occurs when two or more

SOLUBILITY CURVES WORKSHEET

SOLUBILITY CURVES WORKSHEET 1.) Which compound is least soluble at 20 o C? At 80 o C? 2.) Which substance is the most soluble at 10 o C? At 50 o C? At 90 o C? 3.) The solubility of which substance is most

Word Equations and Balancing Equations. Video Notes

Word Equations and Balancing Equations Video Notes In this lesson, you will: Use the law of conservation of mass and provide standard rules for writing and balancing equations. Write and balance equations