Chemical reactions. Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemical reactions. Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations"

Transcription

1 Chemical reactions Classifications Reactions in solution Ionic equations

2 Learning objectives Distinguish between chemical and physical change Write and balance chemical equations Describe concepts of oxidation and reduction Classify reaction according to types of reactants and products Distinguish among strong, weak and non-electrolytes Identify common acids and bases by from chemical formula Predict formation of precipitates by application of solubility rules Write total and net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations

3 Chemical vs physical redux Physical: No new substance! Chemical: New substance formed!

4

5 Evidence for chemical reactions

6 The chemical equation aa + bb = cc + dd Reactant side coefficient ELEMENT or COMPOUND Law of Conservation of Matter states that matter is neither created nor destroyed Means: atoms on left equals atoms on right Product side

7 Chemical book-keeping Keys to balancing equations: Have I gained or lost any atoms? Put down the correct formula for each reactant or product Formulas cannot be changed in order to balance the equation

8 Reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to produce water: reactants are H 2 and O 2, product is H 2 O 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O The big number multiplies every atom after it Count the atoms: 4 H and 2 O The subscript only multiplies the atom before it 4 H and 2 O

9 Molecular representation of the reaction

10 Balance the equations A method of trial and error CH 4 + O 2 = CO 2 + H 2 O

11 Balance the equations CH 4 + O 2 = CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 + 2O 2 = CO 2 + 2H 2 O C 3 H 8 + O 2 = CO 2 + H 2 O C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 = 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O N 2 + H 2 = NH 3 N 2 + 3H 2 = 2NH 3 Do balancing equation exercises

12 One approach to classification

13 Oxidation reduction: focusing on electrons Oxidation is loss of electrons Reduction is gain of electrons Oxidation is always accompanied by reduction The total number of electrons is kept constant Oxidizing agents oxidize and are themselves reduced Reducing agents reduce and are themselves oxidized

14 Redox in chemistry All reactions involve rearrangement of atoms and molecules Some reactions involve rearrangement of atoms and molecules and electrons Photosynthesis, respiration, combustion... These are called redox reactions Any reaction involving elements must be redox

15 Combination (synthesis) Element + element compound (redox) S + O 2 SO 2 Metal + nonmetal binary ionic compound Nonmetal + nonmetal binary covalent compound Compound + element compound (redox) CO + O 2 CO 2 Compound + compound compound SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 reactions

16 Decomposition reactions Compound element + element (redox) HgO Hg + O 2 Compound element + compound (redox) PCl 5 PCl 3 + Cl 2 Compound compound + compound CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2

17 Single replacement (displacement) Element displaces another element from compound (redox) Cu + 2 AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) Ag

18 Predicting single replacement reactions: the activity series Element higher in the will displace one lower in the series The element higher is a stronger reducing agent The element lower is a stronger oxidizing agent

19 Three types of double displacement reaction Compounds exchanging partners Usually ionic compounds in solution Precipitation Acid-base neutralization Gas formation

20 Precipitation Identify ions and swap them BaCl 2 + Na 2 SO 4 BaSO NaCl

21 Acid base neutralization: special case of double replacement BASE ACID SALT WATER KOH(aq) + HNO 3 (aq) = KNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) Product is liquid water not a solid

22 Gas formation Product is either a gas or is unstable and decomposes to a gas CaCO 3 (s) + 2 HCl(aq) = CaCl 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)

23 Writing balanced molecular equations for double replacement reactions Use correct formulae Metal ion charge predicted from group number Use table for correct formula and charge for polyatomic ions Identify as solid (s), gas (g), liquid (l) or dissolved (aq) Balance: atoms (groups) on left = atoms (groups) on right

24 Balancing double replacement equations It s very much a matter of states show them! Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2KI(aq) = 2KNO 3 (aq) + PbI 2 (s) Balance polyatomic ions as units: Pb 2+, K +, I -, NO 3 - Left hand side Right hand side 1 Pb 2+ 1 Pb 2+ 2 NO NO K + 2 K + 2 I - 2 I -

25 Molecular equation for reaction of Na 2 SO 4 + Ba(NO 3 ) 2

26 Combustion Element or compound reacting with oxygen (redox) CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Associated with production of heat and light Involves hydrocarbons (C x H y ), nonmetals (S) and metals (Mg)

27 Sorting solution reactions: Electrolytes: dissolved species Ionic compounds produce ions in solution (NaCl, NH 4 NO 3 etc.) Non-electrolytes: Covalent compounds do not produce ions in solution (CH 3 OH, C 6 H 12 O 6 etc.)

28 Electrolytes: distinguishing by strength All soluble substances that produce ions are electrolytes Strong electrolytes are characterized by complete dissociation in water Weak electrolytes dissociate to a much smaller extent.

29 Strong, weak or non electrolyte? All soluble salts are strong electrolytes Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes Insoluble compounds are non-electrolytes Molecular compounds are non-electrolytes

30 Classification of electrolytes Strong electrolytes ACIDS: HCl, HBr, HI HClO 4, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4 SALTS: KBr, Na 3 PO 4 BASES: NaOH, Ba(OH) 2 Weak electrolytes ACIDS: HF, H 3 PO 4, CH 3 CO 2 H SALTS: None BASES: NH 3 Nonelectrolytes Molecular covalent compounds: H 2 O, CH 3 OH, C 12 H 22 O 11 (sucrose) Most organic compounds and INSOLUBLE salts

31 Flow chart for determining type of electrolyte Yes 1. Soluble in H 2 O? No Yes 2. Acid or base? No Weak 3. Weak or strong? Strong Ionic 3. Ionic or covalent? Cov Weak electrolyte Strong electrolyte Nonelectrolyte

32 Recognizing acids and bases Acids usually have H at the beginning of the formula HCl Bases usually have OH in the formula NaOH Not in organic compounds though - CH 3 OH Acid formula Name Base formula Name HCl Hydrochloric acid NaOH Sodium hydroxide H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid KOH Potassium hydroxide H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide HNO 3 Nitric acid NH 3 Ammonia HClO 4 Perchloric acid (CH 3 ) 3 N Trimethylamine CH 3 CO 2 H HCO 2 H Acetic acid Formic acid Citric acid

33 The strong acids and bases Strong acids (Only six) Strong bases (g1a and g2a) HCl Hydrochloric acid LiOH Lithium hydroxide HBr Hydrobromic acid NaOH Sodium hydroxide HI Hydroiodic acid KOH Potassium hydroxide HNO 3 Nitric acid Ca(OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid Sr(OH) 2 Strontium hydroxide HClO 4 Perchloric acid Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide

34 Solubility rools Group I and ammonium (NH 4+ ) compounds soluble Nitrates (NO 3- ), acetates (CH 3 CO 2- ) soluble Chlorides, bromides and iodides generally soluble {except Pb(II), Ag(I) and Hg(I)} Sulphates (SO 4 2- ) generally soluble (except g2a and Pb 2+ ) Carbonates (CO 3 2- ), phosphates (PO 4 3- ) generally insoluble (except gia) Hydroxides (OH - ), sulphides (S 2- ) generally insoluble (except gia and giia)

35 Total ionic equations Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + K 2 CrO 4 (aq) = 2KNO 3 (aq) + PbCrO 4 (s)

36 Total ionic equation Dissolved substances: Strong electrolytes show as ions Weak or non- electrolytes show as molecular formula Pb 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) + 2K + (aq) + CrO 4 2- (aq) = 2K + (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) + PbCrO 4 (s)

37 Net ionic equations Spectator ions are those ions that do not undergo a change; they do not participate in the chemical change and are the same on both sides of the equation Remove all spectator ions from the equation Pb 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) + 2K + (aq) + CrO 4 2- (aq) = 2K + (aq) + 2NO 3- (aq) + PbCrO 4 (s)

38 Net ionic equations Pb 2+ (aq) + CrO 4 2- (aq) = PbCrO 4 (s) Mass and charge must still balance, although overall charge may not be neutral in a net ionic equation

39 Net ionic equation for reaction of Na 2 SO 4 + Pb(NO 3 ) 2

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions

Lecture 6. Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Classes of Chemical Reactions Lecture 6 Outline 6.1 The Role of Water as a Solvent 6.2 Precipitation Reactions 6.3 Acid-Base Reactions 1 Electron distribution in molecules of H 2 and H 2 O The

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS

Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS T-33 Tutorial 5 NET IONIC EQUATIONS The efficiency and extent of a chemical reaction is very much dependent upon the physical state (solid, liquid, gas, or solution) of reactants and products. Not surprisingly,

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chem 101 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Lectures 15 and 16 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur Forces that drive a reaction Formation of a solid Formation of water Transfer of electrons Formation

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Science Objectives Students will describe what reactants and products in a chemical equation mean. Students will explain the difference between coefficients and subscripts in chemical equations. Students

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

More information

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016

CHEM 12 Acids and Bases 3/22/2016 Acids and Bases Name: Expected background knowledge from acids and bases introductory reading: Definitions (Arrhenius, BL) of an acid and base Definitions of conjugate acid and base pairs Properties of

More information

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points) CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

More information

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES

BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES BRØNSTED ACIDS & BASES Brønsted acids are proton donors. Brønsted bases are proton acceptors. Amphoteric species can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

More information

Notes: Acids and Bases

Notes: Acids and Bases Name Chemistry Pre-AP Notes: Acids and Bases Period I. Describing Acids and Bases A. Properties of Acids taste ph 7 Acids change color of an (e.g. blue litmus paper turns in the presence of an acid) React

More information

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

More information

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

More information

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5

CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHEM 102: Sample Test 5 CHAPTER 17 1. When H 2 SO 4 is dissolved in water, which species would be found in the water at equilibrium in measurable amounts? a. H 2 SO 4 b. H 3 SO + 4 c. HSO 4 d. SO 2 4 e.

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids Chemistry Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids The patterns are related to the chemical properties of the element.

More information

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Introduction This document is intended to help you review the basics of writing

More information

Summer Assignment Coversheet

Summer Assignment Coversheet Summer Assignment Coversheet Course: A.P. Chemistry Teachers Names: Mary Engels Assignment Title: Summer Assignment A Review Assignment Summary/Purpose: To review the Rules for Solubility, Oxidation Numbers,

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction Worksheet # 11 1. A solution of sodium chloride is mixed with a solution of lead (II) nitrate. A precipitate of lead (II) chloride results, leaving a solution of sodium nitrated. Determine the class of

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

More information

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Test 12: Review questions

Test 12: Review questions Name: Wednesday, April 16, 2008 Test 12: Review questions 1. Which reaction represents the process of neutralization? 1. Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl 2(aq) + H 2(g) 2. HCl(aq) + KOH(aq) KCl(aq) + H2O(l) 3. Pb(NO

More information

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens.

Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens. Name: Per: Date: Unit 11 - Acids, Bases and Salts Chemistry Accelerated Chemistry I Define each of the following: 1. Acidic hydrogens 2. Binary acids 3. Oxyacids 4. Carboxylic acid 5. Amines Name the following

More information

Chapter 6: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain

Chapter 6: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain Chapter 6: Neutralizing the Threat of Acid Rain Is normal rain acidic? Is acid rain worse in some parts of the country? Is there a way to neutralize acid rain? Acid Rain The problem Regional atmospheric

More information

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

More information

Aqueous Chemical Reactions

Aqueous Chemical Reactions Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Aqueous Chemical Reactions The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to three major categories of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions,

More information

Chemistry Unit Test Review

Chemistry Unit Test Review SNC 2DI Chemistry Unit Test Review Note: this review sheet only covers the second half of our chemistry unit. You should use our mid-unit test review sheet to recall concepts from the first half of the

More information

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution:

Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: Intermolecular forces, acids, bases, electrolytes, net ionic equations, solubility, and molarity of Ions in solution: 1. What are the different types of Intermolecular forces? Define the following terms:

More information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information Introduction CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions We often study chemistry to understand how and why chemicals (reactants) can be transformed into different chemicals (products) via a chemical reaction: Reactants

More information

Writing Chemical Equations

Writing Chemical Equations Writing Chemical Equations Chemical equations for solution reactions can be written in three different forms; molecular l equations, complete ionic i equations, and net ionic equations. In class, so far,

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 176 Chapter 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions 4.1 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations By the end of this section, you will be able to: Derive chemical equations from narrative descriptions of

More information

CHEMISTRY COMPUTING FORMULA MASS WORKSHEET

CHEMISTRY COMPUTING FORMULA MASS WORKSHEET CHEMISTRY COMPUTING FORMULA MASS WORKSHEET Directions: Find the formula mass of the following compounds. Round atomic masses to the tenth of a decimal place. Place your final answer in the FORMULA MASS

More information

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY Complete the following problems to help prepare for the test. Objective 1: Students will know ionic and covalent bonding. 1. Which subatomic

More information

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g.

ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures miscible two liquids that and form a immiscible two liquids that form a e.g. Unit 7 Solutions, Acids & Bases Solution mixture + solvent - substance present in the amount solute - in the solvent solvent molecules solute particles ionic substances (separate) based on! Liquid Mixtures

More information

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 4. AQUEOUS REACTION CHEMISTRY CAPTER. AQUEOUS REACTION CEMISTRY solution - homogeneous mixture of or more substances; uniform distribution of particles and same properties throughout. A solution is composed of a solute dissolved in

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies

How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies Limi$ng reactants How Many Cookies Can I Make? You can make cookies until you run out of one of the ingredients Once you run out of sugar, you will stop making cookies How Many Cookies Can I Make? In this

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11

Santa Monica College Chemistry 11 Types of Reactions Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To perform and observe the results of a variety of chemical reactions. To become familiar with the observable signs of chemical

More information

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions CHAPTER 19 REVIEW Oxidation-Reduction Reactions SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. All the following equations involve redox reactions except (a) CaO H 2 O

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations Balancing Chemical Equations Academic Success Center Science Tutoring Area Science Tutoring Area Law of Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created nor destroyed Therefore the number of each type of

More information

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole LI 1 The chemical formula of a covalent molecular compound tells us the number of atoms of each element present

More information

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid

AP Chemistry- Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases. Bases- originally defined as any substance that neutralized an acid AP Chemistry Acids and Bases General Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Electrolyte Taste Litmus Phenolphthalein React with metals to give off H 2 gas H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Mg (s) MgSO 4 (aq) + H 2 (g) Ionize

More information

Chem 111 Evening Exam #3

Chem 111 Evening Exam #3 * Enter your answers on the bubble sheet. Turn in all sheets. * This exam is composed of 25 questions on 7 pages total. Go initially through the exam and answer the questions you can answer quickly. Then

More information

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts

EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts EOC Review Acids Bases and Salts 1.Identify the Bronsted-Lowry acid and base in each of the following reactions. 2.The hydroxide ion is 3. The hydronium ion is 4.HCl is a strong/weak acid? 5.CH 3 COOH

More information

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

ph of strong acid and base

ph of strong acid and base ph of strong acid and base What does strong mean in terms of acids and bases? Solubility. Basically, if you say an acid or base is strong, then it dissociates 100% in water. These types of situations are

More information

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is:

1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: 1. For the equilibrium that exists in an aqueous solution of nitrous acid (HNO 2, a weak acid), the equilibrium constant expression is: a) K = [H+ ][NO 2 ] [HNO 2 ] b) K = [H+ ][N][O] 2 [HNO 2 ] c) K =

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Reactions in Aqueous Solution CHAPTER 7 1. Water is the most universal of all liquids. Water has a relatively large heat capacity and a relatively large liquid range, which means it can absorb the heat liberated by many reactions while

More information

Molecular Formula: Example

Molecular Formula: Example Molecular Formula: Example A compound is found to contain 85.63% C and 14.37% H by mass. In another experiment its molar mass is found to be 56.1 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 1 CHAPTER 3 Chemical

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

More information

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and bases For centuries people have known acids are in vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. Only few hundred years ago that it was discovered that acids

More information

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006 CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. SF 4 has ¼ as many sulfur atoms as fluorine atoms. B. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 has six times as many oxygen atoms as calcium ions. C.

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information