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1 Answers to Practice Problems 6.1, p This is a synthesis reaction (between a metal and a non-metal). The balanced chemical equation is: 2Li + Cl 2 2LiCl. 2. This is a synthesis reaction (between a metal and a non-metal). The balanced chemical equation is: 2Ca + O 2 2CaO. 3. This is a synthesis reaction (between two non-metals). The balanced chemical equation is: C(s) + O 2 (g) CO 2 (g). Answers to Practice Problems 6.2, p This is a decomposition reaction (for an ionic compound). The balanced chemical equation is: 8MgS 8Mg + S This is a decomposition reaction (for an ionic compound). The balanced chemical equation is: 2NaI 2Na + I 2. Note that iodine is diatomic; many students miss this fact. See Table 6.2, student book page This is a decomposition reaction (for an ionic compound). The balanced chemical equation is: 2NaCl(s) 2Na(s) + Cl 2 (g). Note that chlorine is diatomic; many students miss this fact. See Table 6.2, student book page 225.

2 !"#$ Key Concept Review 1. Two types of chemical reactions discussed in this section are synthesis reactions and decomposition reactions. 2. The products of a neutralization reaction are a salt (a compound consisting of a positive metal ion or polyatomic ion and a non-metal ion or polyatomic ion) and water. 3. (a) synthesis chemical reaction: A + B AB (b) decomposition chemical reaction: AB A + B (c) neutralization reaction: HB +XOH XB + H 2 O %"%$ Connect Your Understanding 4. (a) decomposition (b) decomposition (c) synthesis (d) synthesis (e) decomposition (f) decomposition 5. (a) This is a synthesis reaction because the reactants are both elements and the product is a compound. (b) Iron(II) is in the compound FeO. (c) The form of iron involved in the chemical reaction is iron(ii) because the ion charge of the single oxygen atom in the compound FeO is 2. Since the each molecule of this compound contains only a single atom of iron, it must be the iron(ii) form. 6. (a) word equation: potassium chlorate potassium chloride + oxygen (b) skeleton equation: KClO 3 (s) KCl(s) + O 2 (g) (c) balanced chemical equation: 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g) 7. The decomposition reaction for water is 2H 2 O(l) 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g). 8. word equation: zinc + nitrogen zinc nitride skeleton equation: Zn(s) + N 2 (g) Zn 3 N 2 (s) balanced chemical equation: 3Zn(s) + N 2 (g) Zn 3 N 2 (s) 9. word equation: magnesium + chlorine magnesium chloride skeleton equation: Mg(s) + Cl 2( g) MgCl 2 (s) balanced chemical equation: Mg(s) + Cl 2 (g) MgCl 2 (s) 10. It is important to know about the chemical reaction for rusting because it is common to use metals out of doors, where they are exposed to oxygen gas in the air. Examples are automobile frames and bodies, bicycles, railings, statues, and the steel used for supporting roadways and buildings.

3 Answers to Practice Problems 6.3, p This is a single displacement reaction in which one metal displaces the metal in an ionic compound. Balanced equation: Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn 2. This is a single displacement reaction in which one metal displaces the metal in an ionic compound. Balanced equation: Fe(s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2Ag(s) Answers to Practice Problems 6.4, p This is a single displacement reaction in which one non-metal displaces the non-metal in an ionic compound. Balanced equation: 3F 2 + 2AlBr 3 3Br 2 + 2AlF 3 2. This is a single displacement reaction in which one non-metal displaces the non-metal in an ionic compound. Balanced equation: Cl 2 + 2AgBr Br 2 + 2AgCl 3. This is a single displacement reaction where one non-metal displaces the non-metal in an ionic compound. Balanced equation: 3Cl 2 (g) + 2NiBr 3 (aq) 2NiCl 3 (aq) + 3Br 2 (l) Answers to Practice Problems 6.5, p This is a double displacement reaction. Balanced equation: AlCl 3 (aq) + 3NaOH (aq) Al(OH) 3 (s) + 3NaCl(aq) 2. This is a double displacement reaction. Balanced equation: CuNO 3 (aq) + KBr(aq) CuBr(s) + KNO 3 (aq)

4 10. This is a single displacement reaction: Cl 2 (aq) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br 2 (aq). 11. (a) When the log burns, carbon dioxide gas and water vapour are produced. (b) No, the law of conservation of mass still holds, but the log burned in an open system. The mass of the gases produced account for the difference in mass between the log and the ashes. 12. (a) Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Zn + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 (b) F 2 + CaBr 2 Br 2 + CaF 2 (c) Li + KClO 3 K + LiClO 3 Reflection 13. Student answers will vary, but they might include the surprising colour changes they observed in Quick Lab B22, the formation of copper on the nail in Design a Lab Activity B25 Iron and Copper(II) Chloride, or the beautiful silver and copper crystals they observed in Inquiry Activity B26 Single Displacement Reactions. Students might suggest that they are surprised that there are only six different types of chemical reactions.

5 !" Key Concept Review 1. The opposite of a decomposition chemical reaction is a synthesis chemical reaction. 2. Syn- means together. It is a suitable prefix for describing a synthesis chemical reaction because in this type of reaction, two single elements (either two metals or two non-metals) combine ( get together ) to form a compound. 3. The two types of displacement chemical reactions are single displacement reactions and double displacement reactions. 4. The general formula for a hydrocarbon compound is C x H y. 5. Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons formed from the remains of once-living organisms. 6. The six different types of chemical reactions are: synthesis, decomposition, combustion, single displacement, double displacement, and neutralization. 7. Water is always produced in combustion reactions and in neutralization reactions. 8. (a) double displacement reaction (b) neutralization reaction Connect Your Understanding 9. Scientists need to study many examples of chemical reactions because there are so many different elements on Earth and so many different compounds. Each set of reactions is unique and can have important and often surprising applications. 10. (a) potassium and iodine potassium iodide (b) cesium and chlorine cesium chloride 11. Carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O) are always produced by the combustion of hydrocarbons and carbohydrates. 12. word equation: magnesium chloride magnesium + chlorine skeleton equation: MgCl 2 (s) Mg(s) + Cl 2 (g) balanced chemical equation: MgCl 2 (s) Mg(s) + Cl 2 (g) 13. When combustion reactions release carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere, they contribute to global warming. Atmospheric carbon dioxide gas prevents thermal energy from escaping into space. As the levels of carbon dioxide gas have increased over the past century, the average temperature on Earth has also increased. This global warming will have large environmental, social, and economic effects.

6 14. (a) synthesis (b) decomposition (c) single displacement (d) double displacement (e) combustion (f) double displacement (g) decomposition 15. This is a double displacement reaction. The balanced chemical equation is: FeCl 2 (aq) + K 2 S(aq) FeS(s) + 2KCl(aq). 16. You would be able to see the iron(ii) sulphide, FeS, in the bottom of the container. You know this because the equation indicates that FeS is a solid. 17. (a) decomposition: CaCl 2 (g) Ca(s) + Cl 2 (g) (b) decomposition: 2NaN 3 (s) 2Na(s) + 3N 2 (g) (c) double displacement: Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Cu 2 SO 4 (aq) PbSO 4 (s) + 2CuNO 3 (aq) (d) decomposition: 2Ni 2 O 3 (s) 4Ni(s) + 3O 2 (g) (e) combustion: CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) (f) double displacement: 3NaI(aq) + AlCl 3 (aq) 3NaCl(aq) +AlI 3 (s) 18. (a) double displacement: Na 2 SO 4 + CaCl 2 2NaCl + CaSO 4 (b) synthesis: 3Mg + 2N 2 Mg 3 N 2 (c) double displacement: Sr(OH) 2 + PbBr 2 SrBr 2 + Pb(OH) 2 (d) synthesis: 4Na + O 2 2Na 2 O (e) synthesis: N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 (f) decomposition: 2HCl H 2 + Cl 2 (g) single displacement: 2AlI 3 + 3Br 2 2AlBr 3 + 3I 2 (h) neutralization: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O 19. This is a synthesis reaction: Ca + I 2 CaI This is a single displacement reaction: Zn(s) + CuSO 4 (aq) Cu(s) + ZnSO 4 (aq). 21. Mg(s) + Br 2 (g) MgBr 2 (s) 22. This is a double displacement reaction. Word equation: zinc bromide + silver nitrate silver bromide + zinc nitrate Skeleton equation: ZnBr 2 (aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgBr(s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) Balanced equation: ZnBr 2 (aq) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) 2AgBr(s) + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 23. Yes, she is correct. The reactants for a neutralization reaction are always an acid and a base, both of which are compounds.

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