Test 4: Equations and Math of Equations Review

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1 Name: Tuesday, November 27, 2007 Test 4: Equations and Math of Equations Review 1. Given the balanced equation: 2KClO 2KCl + 3O 3 2 Which type of reaction is represented by this equation? 1. synthesis 3. single replacement 2. decomposition 4. double replacement 2. Given the incomplete equation: 4Fe + 3O 2 2X Which compound is represented by X? 1. FeO 3. Fe O Fe O 4. Fe O Which set of procedures and observations indicates a chemical change? 1. Ethanol is added to an empty beaker and the ethanol 3. Large crystals are crushed with a mortar and pestle eventually disappears. and become powder. 2. A solid is gently heated in a crucible and the solid 4. A cool, shiny metal is added to water in a beaker and slowly turns to liquid. rapid bubbling occurs.

2 4. Given the balanced ionic equation: Al(s) + 3Cu (aq) 2Al (aq) + 3Cu(s) Compared to the total charge of the reactants, the total charge of the products is 1. less 2. greater 3. the same 5. Base your answer to the question on the information below. During a laboratory activity, a student reacted a piece of zinc with 0.1 M HCl(aq). The partial equation for the chemical reaction is: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) (aq) + H (g) 2 Figure 1 Which is the missing product in the equation? 1. ZnCl 2. ZnCl 2 3. ZnH 4. Zn Cl 2 6. Which list includes three types of chemical reactions? 1. condensation, double replacement, and sublimation 3. decomposition, double replacement, and synthesis 2. condensation, solidification, and synthesis 4. decomposition, solidification, and sublimation

3 7. Given the balanced equation: AgNO (aq) + NaCl(aq) NaNO (aq) + AgCl(s) 3 3 This reaction is classified as 1. synthesis 3. single replacement 2. decomposition 4. double replacement 8. Which process represents a chemical change? 1. melting of ice 3. evaporation of water 2. corrosion of copper 4. crystallization of sugar 9. Which equation represents a double replacement reaction? 1. 2 Na + 2 H O 2 NaOH + H 3. LiOH + HCl LiCl + H O CaCO CaO + CO 4. CH + 2 O CO + 2 H O Which statement describes a chemical property that can be used to distinguish between compound A and compound B? 1. A is a blue solid, and B is a white solid. 3. A dissolves in water, and B does not dissolve in water. 2. A has a high melting point, and B has a low melting 4. A does not burn in air, and B does burn in air. point.

4 11. Given the reaction: Mg(s) + 2 AgNO 3(aq) Mg(NO 3) 2(aq) + 2 Ag(s) Which type of reaction is represented? 1. single replacement 3. synthesis 2. double replacement 4. decomposition 12. (a) Balance the equation using the smallest whole-number coefficients. C5H 12(g) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) + H2O(g) (b) Using your balanced equation, calculate the total number of moles of H O(g) produced when 5.0 moles of O (g) 2 2 are completely consumed. Round your answer to the nearest tenth of a mole. moles 13. Given the reaction: 2Al + 3H2SO4 3H 2 + Al 2(SO 4) 3 The total number of moles of H2SO4 needed to react completely with 5.0 moles of Al is moles moles moles moles 14. Which equation illustrates conservation of mass? 1. H + Cl HCl H + Cl 2HCl H 2 + O2 H2O 4. H 2 + O2 2H2O

5 15. Given the unbalanced equation: Al + O2 Al2O3 When this equation is completely balanced using smallest whole numbers, what is the sum of the coefficients? Given the equation: FeCl 2 + Na2CO 3 FeCO 3 + NaCl When the equation is correctly balanced using the smallest whole numbers, the coefficient of NaCl is The decomposition of sodium azide, NaN (s), is used to inflate airbags. On impact, the NaN (s) is 3 3 ignited by an electrical spark, producing N (g) and Na(s). The N (g) inflates the airbag. 2 2 Figure 2 Balance the equation below using the smallest whole-number coefficients. NaN (s) Na(s) + N (g) Given the unbalanced equation: Al + CuSO 4 Al 2(SO 4) 3 + Cu When the equation is balanced using the smallest whole-number coefficients, what is the coefficient of Al?

6 19. Given the reaction: CH 4 + 2O2 CO 2 + 2H2O What amount of oxygen is needed to completely react with 1 mole of CH 4? 1. 2 moles 3. 2 grams 2. 2 atoms 4. 2 molecules 20. Given the unbalanced equation: What is the coefficient of O when the equation is balanced correctly using the smallest whole-number coefficients? Which is a correctly balanced equation for a reaction between hydrogen gas and oxygen gas? 1. H (g) + O (g) H O(l) + heat H (g) + O (g) 2H O(l) + heat H 2(g) + 2O 2(g) H2O(l) + heat 4. 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H2O(l) + heat 22. Given the reaction: CH 4(g) + 2O 2(g) CO 2(g) + 2H2O(g) How many moles of oxygen are needed for the complete combustion of 3.0 moles of CH 4(g)? moles moles moles moles

7 23. Given the unbalanced equation: When the equation is correctly balanced using the smallest whole-number coefficients, what is the coefficient of CO? Given the balanced equation: 2 C4H 10(g) + 13 O 2 (g) 8 CO 2 (g) + 10 H 2 O(g) What is the total number of moles of O (g) that must react completely with 5.00 moles of C H (g )? Given the equation: If 8.0 moles of O are completely consumed, what is the total number of moles of H O produced? 2 2 mol 26. Given the reaction: What is the mole-to-mole ratio between nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas? 1. 1:2 3. 2:2 2. 1:3 4. 2:3

8 27. When the equation Fe2O 3(s) + CO(g) Fe(l) + CO 2(g) is correctly balanced using the smallest whole numbers, the coefficient of Fe(l) is Base your answer to the question on the information below. Ozone gas, O, can be used to kill adult insects in storage bins for grain without damaging the grain. The 3 ozone is produced from oxygen gas, O, in portable ozone generators located near the storage bins. The 2 concentrations of ozone used are so low that they do not cause any environmental damage. This use of ozone is safer and more environmentally friendly than a method that used bromomethane, CH Br. 3 However, bromomethane was more effective than ozone because CH Br killed immature insects as well 3 as adult insects. Adapted From: The Sunday Gazette (Schenectady, NY) 3/9/03 Figure 3 Determine the total number of moles of CH Br in 19 grams of CH Br (gram-formula mass = 95 grams/mol). 3 3 Answer: mol 29. Given the unbalanced equation: Ca(OH) 2 + (NH 4) 2SO4 CaSO 4 + NH 3 + H2O What is the sum of the coefficients when the equation is completely balanced using the smallest whole-number coefficients?

9 30. Which equation is correctly balanced? 1. H + O H O 3. 2H + O 2H O Ca + Cl CaCl 4. Ca + Cl Ca Cl If an equation is balanced properly, both sides of the equation must have the same number of 1. atoms 3. molecules 2. coefficients 4. moles of molecules 32. The unbalanced equation below represents the decomposition of potassium chlorate. KClO 3(s) KCl(s) + O 2(g) Balance the equation using the smallest whole-number coefficients. Answer: KClO (s) KCl(s) + O (g) The net ionic equation: Fe(s) + Pb (aq) Fe (aq) + Pb(s) illustrates conservation of 1. mass and charge 3. mass but not charge 2. charge but not mass 4. neither mass nor charge

10 34. Base your answer to the question on the information below. Air bags are an important safety feature in modern automobiles. An air bag is inflated in milliseconds by the explosive decomposition of NaN 3(s). The decomposition reaction produces N 2(g), as well as Na(s), according to the unbalanced equation below. NaN (s) Na(s) + N (g) 3 2 Figure 4 Balance the equation for the decomposition of NaN, using the smallest whole-number coefficients NaN (s) Na(s) + N (g) 3 2 Base your answer to the question on the information below. Propane is a fuel that is sold in rigid, pressurized cylinders. Most of the propane in a cylinder is liquid, with gas in the space above the liquid level. When propane is released from the cylinder, the propane leaves the cylinder as a gas. Propane gas is used as a fuel by mixing it with oxygen in the air and igniting the mixture, as represented by the balanced equation below. C H (g) + 5O (g) CO (g) + 4H O( ) kj A small amount of methanethiol, which has a distinct odor, is added to the propane to help consumers detect a propane leak. In methanethiol, the odor is caused by the thiol functional group (-SH). Methanethiol, CH SH, has a structure that is very similar to the structure of methanol. 3 Figure 5 Determine the total amount of energy released when 2.50 moles of propane is completely reacted with oxygen. Answer: 3 10 kj

11 36. Given the equation: 2C2H 2(g) + 5O 2(g) 4CO 2(g) + 2H2O(g) How many moles of oxygen are required to react completely with 1.0 mole of C2H 2? Acid rain is a problem in industrialized countries around the world. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen are formed when various fuels are burned. These oxides dissolve in atmospheric water droplets that fall to earth as acid rain or acid snow. While normal rain has a ph between 5.0 and 6.0 due to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide, acid rain often has a ph of 4.0 or lower. This level of acidity can damage trees and plants, leach minerals from the soil, and cause the death of aquatic animals and plants. If the ph of the soil is too low, then quicklime, CaO, can be added to the soil to increase the ph. Quicklime produces calcium hydroxide when it dissolves in water. Figure 6 Balance the neutralization equation below, using the smallest whole-number coefficients. HNO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 Ca(NO 3) 2 + H2O 38. Base your answer on the balanced chemical equation: What is the total number of moles of O produced when 8 moles of H O is completely consumed? 2 2 mol

12 39. Given the balanced equation representing the reaction between propane and oxygen: C3H- + 5O 2 3CO 2 + 4H2O According to this equation, which ratio of oxygen to propane is correct? When the equation Al 2(SO 4) 3 + ZnCl 2 AlCl 3 + ZnSO4 is correctly balanced using the smallest whole number coefficients, the sum of the coefficients is Given the reaction: Ca + 2H2O Ca(OH) 2 + H2 How many moles of H2O are needed to react completely with 2.0 moles of Ca? mole mole moles moles 42. Given the equation: Ca (aq) + PO 4 (aq) Ca 3(PO 4) 2(s) When the equation is correctly balanced, the sum of the total charge of the reactants is

13 43. Base your answer to the question on the balanced equation below. Fe(s) + 2HNO (aq) Fe(NO ) (aq) + H (g) Figure 7 What is the total number of oxygen atoms represented in the formula of the iron compound produced? Answer: atoms 44. Given the incomplete equation: 2N2O 5(g) Which set of products completes and balances the incomplete equation? 1. 2N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) 3. 4NO 2(g) + O 2(g) 2. 2N 2(g) + 2O 2(g) 4. 4NO(g) + 5O 2(g) 45. What is conserved during a chemical reaction? 1. mass, only 3. both mass and charge 2. charge, only 4. neither mass nor charge 46. Which equation shows a conservation of mass? 1. Na + Cl NaCl 3. H O H + O Al + Br AlBr 4. PCl PCl + Cl

14 47. Which chemical equation is correctly balanced? 1. H (g) + O (g) H O(g) N (g) + H (g) NH (g) NaCl(s) Na(s) + Cl 2(g) 4. 2KCl(s) 2K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 48. Given the reaction: PbCl (aq) + Na CrO (aq) PbCrO (s) + 2 NaCl(aq) What is the total number of moles of NaCl formed when 2 moles of Na CrO react completely? mole 3. 3 moles 2. 2 moles 4. 4 moles 49. In the compound Al O, the ratio of aluminum to oxygen is? grams of aluminum to 3 grams of oxygen 3. 2 moles of aluminum to 3 moles of oxygen 2. 3 grams of aluminum to 2 grams of oxygen 4. 3 moles of aluminum to 2 moles of oxygen 50. Given the balanced equation: What is the total number of moles of CO 2 formed when 20. moles of HCl is completely consumed? mol mol mol mol

15 Answer Key for Test 4: Equations and Math of Equations Review , 8, 5, 6, 3.8 or , 2, , 2, , 2, , 1, 1,

16 Test 4: Equations and Math of Equations Review

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