14. Double Replacement Reaction

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1 DOUBLE TROUBLE 14. Double Replacement Reaction Double Trouble Student Instruction Sheet Challenge Use stoichiometry to determine the molar concentration of an acid solution by using it as an excess and a limiting reagent in a double replacement reaction. Equipment and Materials computer with USB port sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), 1.0 g PASPORT USB interface 0.5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), 25.0 ml PASPORT Absolute Pressure Sensor Balance DataStudio software wash bottle and waste container Erlenmeyer flask, 250-mL, with 1-hole protective gear rubber stopper and tubing Student Instruction Sheet graduated cylinder, 100-mL Student Response Sheet Background Safety Precautions Wear safety glasses and follow standard laboratory safety procedures. In order to better study and understand the incredible variety of possible chemical reactions, chemists classify reactions in a number of different ways. One common classification scheme recognizes four major types of chemical reactions: 1. combination or synthesis reactions 2. decomposition reactions Student Instruction Sheet 355

2 14. Double Replacement Reaction DOUBLE TROUBLE 3. substitution or single replacement reactions 4. double displacement or double replacement reactions Starting from this classification scheme, reactions can be further classified according to the type of chemistry that occurs acid-base neutralization, or oxidation-reduction reactions, for example. In this lab activity, you will investigate one example of a double replacement reaction. In this type of reaction positive ions are exchanged between two reacting compounds. The general formula for a double displacement reaction is: Often a precipitate forms, if a new product that is only slightly soluble forms. A gas such as carbon dioxide may also bubble out of solution, or a molecular compound like water may form as a result of the reaction. In the following exploration, you will be studying the double replacement reaction between sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO 3, and hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid): Since carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ) immediately dissociates in solution, the following decomposition reaction then takes place, releasing carbon dioxide gas: Chemical equations describe the ideal stoichiometric ratio between reactants and products. However, the reactants needed for a particular reaction are not always present in ideal stoichiometric quantities. In any chemical reaction, reactants that are not used up when the reaction is finished are called excess reagents. The reagent that is completely used up or reacted is called the limiting reagent, because its quantity limits the amount of products formed. In the following experiment, you will react varying amounts of sodium bicarbonate with 0.5 M hydrochloric acid. Sodium bicarbonate will sometimes act as the limiting reagent and will eventually become the excess reagent. Based on the pressure measurements you record, you will be able to determine at what point sodium bicarbonate exists in excess. Stoichiometric calculations will enable you to verify the concentration of the acid solution you used. Predict AB + CD AD + CB NaHCO 3 ( s) + HCl( aq) NaCl( aq) + H 2 CO 3 ( aq) H 2 CO 3 ( aq) H 2 O() l + CO 2 ( g) Before beginning the elab, complete the prediction and vocabulary portions of the Student Response Sheet. 356 Student Instruction Sheet

3 DOUBLE TROUBLE 14. Double Replacement Reaction Explore Computer Setup 1. Plug the USB interface into the computer s USB port. 2. Plug the Absolute Pressure Sensor into the USB interface. This will automatically launch the PASPORTAL window. To computer 3. Choose the appropriate DataStudio configuration file entitled 14 Double Replacement CF.ds and proceed with the following instructions. Equipment Setup Note: Configuration files automatically launch the appropriate display(s), sampling rate(s), etc. 1. Prepare all five trials for this experiment by weighing five different amounts of sodium bicarbonate. Start with 0.10 grams and add 0.05 grams each time until you reach 0.30 grams. 2. Pour 5.0 ml of hydrochloric acid into a clean 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. 3. Finish working with one solution before beginning to collect data for the next solution. Record Data 1. Place the stopper in the flask to measure the initial pressure. 2. Click the Start ( ) button to begin recording the absolute pressure. 3. Record the initial pressure on the Sodium Bicarbonate versus Pressure Table corresponding to the 0-gram value. Student Instruction Sheet 357

4 14. Double Replacement Reaction DOUBLE TROUBLE 4. Click the Stop ( ) button to end data collection and remove the stopper from the flask. 5. Click the Start button to begin recording the absolute pressure again. 6. Quickly pour the sodium bicarbonate into the flask. Since the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid is rapid, one person should be in charge of holding and stoppering the flask, and another person should pour the sodium bicarbonate into the flask. Performing this task rapidly is vital to getting good results. 7. Watch the graph display for the pressure to reach a maximum and stabilize. Swirl the contents of the flask to ensure a good reaction. 8. Click the Stop button to end data collection. 9. Dispose of the contents of the flask in the proper waste receptacle. 10. Wash the flask thoroughly with water and dry the inside of the flask before the next trial. 11. Repeat steps 1 to 10 for the remaining sodium bicarbonate trials. At the end of data collection, you should have six runs of data including the initial pressure (at 0 grams) on the same graph. Analyze Record calculations in your data table on the Student Response Sheet as you complete your analysis. 1. The Legend box shows the maximum pressure for each data run. Enter these values in the empty data table in DataStudio. You will notice as you enter data that a corresponding graph will be plotted in the graph display below the table. 2. Save your DataStudio file (on the File menu, click Save Activity As...) to the location specified by your teacher. 3. Answer all the questions on the Student Response Sheet. 4. Follow your teacher s instructions regarding cleaning up your work space. 358 Student Instruction Sheet

5 DOUBLE TROUBLE 14. Double Replacement Reaction Student Response Sheet Name: Date: Double Trouble Vocabulary Use available resources to find the definitions of the following terms: double replacement: excess reagent: limiting reagent: reagent: Predict As you react greater amounts of sodium bicarbonate with hydrochloric acid, how do you expect the pressure to change? Explain. Student Response Sheet 363

6 14. Double Replacement Reaction DOUBLE TROUBLE Data Graph 1 Make a sketch of your graph of Absolute Pressure versus Time.Graph 2 Make a sketch of your graph of Maximum Pressure versus Grams of Sodium Bicarbonate. Convert the mass of sodium bicarbonate used in each case to moles. Mass of Sodium Bicarbonate (grams) Moles of Sodium Bicarbonate Student Response Sheet

7 DOUBLE TROUBLE 14. Double Replacement Reaction Analyze 1. Using Graph 2 (Maximum Pressure versus Grams of Sodium Bicarbonate), determine approximately how much sodium bicarbonate was needed for the reaction to go to completion. Report this value in moles from the table above. 2. Using the balanced equation in the background section, determine how many moles of hydrochloric acid would have been consumed in the reaction when it goes to completion? 3. Based on the volume of solution you used (5.0 ml), and the number of moles calculated above, calculate the concentration of the acid solution needed for the reaction to go to completion. 4. Compare your calculated value above with the actual concentration of the hydrochloric acid solution. Student Response Sheet 365

8 14. Double Replacement Reaction DOUBLE TROUBLE Synthesize 1. What is the most significant source of experimental error in this experiment? 2. In the first data run, was the limiting reagent, and was the excess reagent. In the last data run, was the limiting reagent, and was the excess reagent. 3. Consider the following reaction: CaCO 3 ( s) + 2 HCl() l CaCl 2 ( s) + H 2 CO 3 ( aq) As described in the Student Instruction Sheet background section carbonic acid decomposes to: H 2 CO 3 ( aq) H 2 O() l + CO 2 ( g) a. How would the graph of absolute pressure have been different if this reaction was run with the same molar concentrations instead of the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with hydrochloric acid? b. How many grams of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) would be necessary for the reaction above to go to completion using 5.0 ml of 0.5 M HCl? 366 Student Response Sheet

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