ICA: Double Replacement/Precipitation Reactions and Ionic Equations

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1 Name ICA: Double Replacement/Precipitation Reactions and Ionic Equations Model 1: A Precipitation Reaction Nov. 15, 2016 Two beakers contain the same aqueous solution. A second solution is added to each: Solution A is added to one beaker and solution B is added to the other. Immediately after mixing, the solutions in both beakers were completely dissolved. The following is a nanoscale representation of the two beakers one minute after mixing: Q1. Look carefully into the beakers. In which beaker (A or B) did a reaction occur? How can you tell? Q2. All of the following are double replacement equations. However, only one of them results in a reaction. a) NaNO3 (aq) + KCl (aq) - KNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) b) 2 NH4Cl (aq) + Mg(ClO4)2 (aq) - 2 NH4ClO4 (aq) + MgCl2 (aq) c) CuCl2 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) - Cu(OH)2 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) d) NaC2H3O2 (aq) + Li2SO4 (aq) -- LiC2H3O2 (aq) + Na2SO4 (aq) Which one is it, and how can you tell? 1

2 Q3. Not all ionic compounds dissociate into ions. If an ionic compound is soluble in water, it will dissociate into ions. If it is insoluble (not soluble), it will not dissociate into ions. Let s say you have a sample of solid sodium sulfate and solid magnesium oxalate. To determine whether either are soluble in water, take a look at your paper handout titled Solubility Table or go to table in the back of the book on R64. You can always do a quick google search and find out if an ionic compound is soluble (aq) or not (s). Which one (sodium sulfate or magnesium oxalate) is soluble, and which one is insoluble? Soluble: (Write the chemical formula) Insoluble: (Write the chemical formula) Read Q4 through Q8 very carefully. Read and address every sentence in these questions!!! Q4. Consider a possible double replacement reaction between potassium chloride and silver nitrate. Write this balanced, chemical equation. Include physical states for all four compounds by using the solubility rules from yesterday s ICA or the Solubility Table to determine whether (aq) or (s) is appropriate. Q5. One of the products in Q4 is insoluble. Which one is it? Would you call this a precipitation reaction? _ Q6. For the soluble reactants in Q4, list the ions that exist in solution. Include the physical state (aq). If there are any insoluble reactants, list them with the physical state (s). _ Q7. For the soluble products in Q4, list the ions that exist in solution. Include the physical state (aq). If there are any insoluble products, list them with the physical state (s). _ 2

3 Q8. Put the reactants (listed in Q6) and the products (listed in Q7) into a chemical equation by separating them with a chemical reaction arrow. Include physical states for all species. This equation will look different from the one in Q4. Q9. The equation in Q4 is called the molecular equation. It shows all compounds (not ions). Copy the equation from Q4 to the space below labeled molecular equation. The equation in Q8 is called the complete ionic equation. It shows all ions present before and after the reaction and the precipitate that forms. Copy the equation from Q8 and write it under complete ionic equation below. If you could simplify the reaction by canceling terms on both sides, you will end up with the net ionic equation. What would it be? Show the cancellation of like terms and write what remains. Include physical states for everything! Molecular equation (from Q4): Complete ionic equation (from Q9): Exercises 1. Determine whether each of the following compounds is soluble or insoluble in water. For the soluble compounds, write the ions present in solution. For the insoluble write the chemical formula in the solid state. a) lead (II) acetate b) copper (II) carbonate c) ammonium sulfide 3

4 d) silver iodide 2. Complete and balance the following reactions, unless no reaction is predicted. If no reaction is predicted, write NO REACTION. a) KNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) -- b) KCl (aq) + Hg2(C2H3O2)2 (aq) - c) (NH4)2SO4 (aq) + BaCl2 (aq) - d) NaCl (aq) + CaS (aq) - 3. Write balanced complete ionic and net ionic equations for each of the following reactions: a) Na2SO4 (aq) + CaI2 (aq) ---- CaSO4 (s) + 2 NaI (aq) b) K3PO4 (aq) + NiCl2 (aq) Ni3(PO4)2 (s) + KCl (aq) d) FeCl3 ( ) + (NH4)3PO4 ( ) NH4Cl ( ) + FePO4 ( ) 4

5 e) Aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide, Na2S, and copper nitrate, Cu(NO3)2, are mixed. A precipitate of copper sulfide, CuS, forms at once. Left behind is a solution of sodium nitrate, NaNO3. Write the net ionic equation for this reaction. d) Trisodium phosphate (TSP), Na3PO4, is a useful cleaning agent, but it must be handled with care because its solutions are quite caustic. If a solution of Na3PO4 is added to one containing a calcium salt such as CaCl2, a precipitate of calcium phosphate is formed. Write molecular, ionic and net ionic equations for this reaction. Molecular: 5

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