All plants have features (adaptations) which help them to survive and reproduce in the places where they live (their habitat)

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1 All plants have features (adaptations) which help them to survive and reproduce in the places where they live (their habitat)

2 Trees lose water through their leaves. In winter it can be very cold and it s more difficult for trees to get water from the soil. To save water trees like this Beech shed their leaves and rest during the winter.

3 Plants need light to make their food. In summer the beech tree arranges its leaves so that they receive as much light as possible.

4 In summer Beech trees with all their leaves make the woodland very dark. The Bluebell gets plenty of light by growing and flowering in early summer before the Beech leaves are fully formed. Food stored in its underground bulb helps it to grow quickly in the spring.

5 Plants which live amongst tall plants often climb up to reach the light. Honeysuckle climbs by twining its stems around the twigs and branches of other plants.

6 Scent and colour help to attract pollinating insects. The creamy coloured flowers and strong scent of the Honeysuckle attract dusk-flying moths which pollinate the flowers.

7 This Wild Clematis is scrambling over other plants in the hedgerow using its leaf stalks to cling to them.

8 The fruits of the Wild Clematis have feathery tails. These parachutes help the tiny fruits to float through the air spreading the seeds away from the parent plant.

9 Ivy uses special roots on its stems to cling to the tree as it climbs. Developing roots on an Ivy stem.

10 Ivy fruits ripen in mid winter when food for birds is scarce. This makes it more likely that its fruits will be eaten and its seeds dispersed.

11 Growing along hedgerows and amongst tall grasses, Bush Vetch climbs up to the light using leaf tendrils.

12 Bramble uses its backward-pointing prickles to scramble over other plants. Being prickly also helps to protect a plant from being eaten by animals.

13 Hawthorn has long sharp thorns which help to protect it from being eaten by animals such as cows and deer.

14 Bright red is a colour which birds see really well. Hawthorn berries are bright red, which helps to make sure that birds find them and disperse the seeds in their droppings. A Blackbird eating Hawthorn berries.

15 Holly leaves have prickles which help to protect them. Leaves at the bottom of the tree are more likely to be eaten and are often more prickly.

16 The bright red Holly berries are easily found by birds which eat them and help to disperse the seeds.

17 Sharp spines on the leaves help to protect this Dwarf Thistle plant from grazing animals. The flowers are also protected because they have very short stems and sit amongst the prickly leaves.

18 Hairs, strong smells and an unpleasant taste can put off grazing animals. Ground Ivy has lots of hairs and a strong smelling oil in its leaves. Rabbits don t like it.

19 Plants need mineral salts. Peat bogs have soils low in mineral nutrients. Carnivorous plants can get extra mineral nutrients by catching small animals This Sundew has caught a damselfly in its sticky leaves.

20 Butterwort traps small insects on its very sticky leaves. Carnivorous plants often have flowers with long stalks. This helps to protect pollinating insects from being trapped.

21 The pitchers on this Trumpet Pitcher Plant are formed by the leaves. This is another carnivorous plant Insects are attracted to the pitcher by nectar and are trapped when they fall in.

22 The large round leaves of White Water Lily have their stalk attached to the middle. This helps to keep the leaf floating flat on the water surface. The stalk is long enough to keep the leaf on the surface when water currents move the leaf around.

23 Underwater, finely divided leaves are more efficient for photosynthesis and respiration. This Watercrowfoot has both floating leaves and finely divided underwater leaves.

24 The whole Frogbit plant floats on the water surface. Here, it is growing amongst the small floating plants of Duckweed. Frogbit survives the cold winter months by producing special winter buds which sink to the bottom of the pond and grow again the following spring. Winter buds of Frogbit

25 In the natural world there is a struggle for life as plants and animals compete with each other. Those best adapted to the habitat are most likely to survive. Understanding this (natural selection) was important to Darwin in forming his theory of Evolution

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