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1 Section: 1.4 Opening Activity # 1: Name: Opening Activity # 2: Latin Root Word #1: Latin Root Word #2: Review of Old Information: N/A New Information: Emerging Viruses: 1)West Nile Virus 2)HIV 3)Ebola The most successful approach to viral infections = vaccinations Aim of an Ideal Vaccine To produce the same immune which usually follows natural infection but without causing disease To generate long-lasting To interrupt of infection How does a vaccination work? Expose the patient to an Antigen = A live or inactivated substance (e.g., protein, polysaccharide) derived from a pathogen (e.g bacteria or virus) capable of producing an immune If the patient is subsequently to a virus carrying this they will mount a faster immune response

2 Viral Preventions and Treatments: 1) Vaccinations: ; most successful approach Two types: : viruses do not replicate in host system Attenuated: genetically altered viruses incapable of causing disease; last longer than inactivated vaccines 2) Antiviral Drugs Interferes with nucleic acid synthesis; stops spread of Other antiviral preventions: 1) Control of Animals 2) Antiviral agents: : herpes and chickenpox Azidothymidine (AZT): inhibits reverse transcriptase (HIV) Protease Inhibitors: stop synthesis of viral capsids ***Combining and used to treat HIV/AIDS. Activity 1. The grouping of certain types of viruses is based on a. the type of nucleic acid contained in the virus. c. the presence or absence of an envelope. b. the shape or structure of the virus. d. all of the above. 2. A disease causing particle made of abnormal proteins that clump together and can cause diseases such as Mad Cow Disease and Alzheimer s Disease is a. an envelope b. a retrovirus c. a viroid d. a prion 3. ALL viruses have a(n) a. nucleic acid [DNA or RNA] b. capsid c. envelope d. BOTH a. and b. 4. Which of the following animals listed below are proposed carriers of the ebola virus? a. monkeys b. rats c. insects d. ALL of the above.

3 5. Many viruses can only attach to a certain organisms because they recognize a. receptor site regions on the cell s membrane. b. a particular sequence of nucleotides in the cell s genome. c. the shape of the cell. d. other viruses of the same kind inside the cell. 6. During the lytic cycle, a. a virus replicates within the host cell for an extended time without killing the cell. b. the host cell s genome is incorporated into the viral capsid. c. the viral DNA is integrated into the host cell s genome. d. one of the enzymes coded for by the viral genome causes the host cell to disintegrate. 7. During the lysogenic cycle, a. a virus causes immediate lysis of the host cell. b. a prophage or provirus replicates whenever the host cell reproduces. c. The viral DNA remains within the capsid on the surface of the host cell. d. The parts of the virus will assemble inside the cell. 8. Obligate intracellular parasites (a.k.a. viruses) a. must have host cells for replication. b. are spread by the wind, in water, in food, or via blood and other body secretions. c. has control over its movements outside the cell. d. Both a. and b. 9. The most successful approach to controlling viral diseases has been the use of a. antibiotics. b. vaccinations. c. antiviral drugs. d. animal control. 10. Which one of the following viruses is known to kill within 10 days of infection? a. chickenpox b. HIV c. ebola d. hepatitis 11. The most successful method to slow the progression of HIV is a. AZT b. protease inhibitors c. attenuated virus vaccines d. both a. and b. Viruses and Evolution 1. Briefly, what is one way that hosts protect themselves from a pathogen such as a virus? 2. How do viruses adapt to a host s immunity?

4 3. What is the advantage of constantly changing viral surface proteins? Evolution from a Virus s View 1. How would a virus describe its pathogenic characteristics that destroy cells and make a host feel sick? 2. Name four transmission strategies viruses have developed for escaping a host s immune system. a. b. c. d. 3. What is the evolutionary trade- off between virulence and transmission? 4. Why, from an evolutionary standpoint, did improving sanitation reduce the virulence of the cholera pathogen? HIV: The Ultimate Evolver 1. What may be a way to control the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV? 2. What two factors contribute to the fact that HIV is one of the fastest evolving entities known? a. b.

5 3. Which other viruses is HIV closely related to? 4. What is an important difference between HIV infections and SIV and FIV infections? 5. Why does treatment for HIV involve the use of drug cocktails?

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