Polysilicon. Renewable Energy Corporation. HIT solar cells. L. Carnel Scanwafer. Wafers

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1 Polysilicon Renewable Energy Corporation L. Carnel Scanwafer Wafers Cells Modules

2 HIT = Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin-layer : first used by Sanyo in 1992 and now used for high-efficiency solar cells (250 MWp in 2007) Heterojunction emitter: two different semiconductor materials (a-si:h and c-si) create the pn-junction diffused homojunction emitter Intrinsic: between the p and n type material there is an undoped ( intrinsic ) amorphous Si layers Thin layer: total a-si:h layer is typically less than 20 nm 2

3 The cross-section is different than traditional structures SANYO cell TRADITIONAL cell 3

4 a-si:h/c-si heterojunction gives a band offset p + i a-si:h n c-si n + c-si p c-si ΔE c E g,a-si:h E g,c-si E f E f ΔE v E g,c-si 4

5 Why Heterojunction? a-si:h passivates the surface very well (S eff below 10 cm/s possible) and creates pn-junction Surface passivation by reducing surface dangling bond density and by field effect passivation of doped a-si:h Low-temperature approach (< 200 C) 5

6 Sanyo is still far ahead of laboratories FZ / CZ Area J sc (ma/cm 2 ) V oc (mv) FF (%) Eff (%) Sanyo n CZ 100 cm 2 38, ,3 AIST n CZ 1 cm 2 33, ,0 HMI n FZ 1 cm 2 39, ,8 p FZ 1 cm 2 36, ,5 IMT n FZ 0,3 cm ,1 p FZ 0,3 cm ,3 IMEC p FZ 1 cm 2 32, ,5 NREL p FZ 1 cm 2 35, ,2 6

7 OUTLINE Monocrystalline silicon Interface between a-si and c-si Transparency of a-si:h and ITO Texturing of c-si Polycrystalline silicon Introduction Heterojunction vs. homojunction emitter 7

8 1. Importance of interface properties The lifetime of the passivated structure is excellent precursor to study the passivation of the HIT emitter S. Taira, et al. 8

9 1. The influence of the intrinsic amorphous Si layer Provides extremely good surface passivation (3 orders of magnitude less defects than doped a-si:h) N. Jensen 9

10 1. Deposition temperature and annealing influences the surface passivation S. Dauwe, et al. 10

11 1. The heterojunction needs an abrupt interface High deposition temperature leads to epitaxial Si and bad V oc T.H. Wang, et al. 11

12 2. Thickness of a-si:h is compromise between high V oc and high J sc a-si:h has direct bandgap high absorption coefficient Minimise thickness to reduce the absorption in the a-si:h (lost for collection) N. Jensen, et al. 12

13 2. ITO provides high transparency and low resistivity Both requirements lead to a compromise since they depend on the dopant density of the ITO S. Taira, et al. 13

14 3. Texturing of c-si needs to be smooth The texturing of the c-si needs to be rounded so that continuous a-si film is deposited 14 N. Takuo, et al.

15 OUTLINE Monocrystalline silicon Interface between a-si and c-si Transparency of a-si:h and ITO Texturing of c-si Polycrystalline silicon Introduction Heterojunction vs. homojunction emitter 15

16 1. The cross-section of a thin-film polysilicon solar cell 16

17 1. The grain size of polycrystalline silicon << mc-si Fine-grained polysi 5 µm Coarse-grained polysi 17

18 1. Homojunction emitter is a barrier for H atoms Without emitter With emitter Depth (µm) 18

19 1. Different processing due to different temperatures HOMOJUNCTION HETEROJUNCTION substrate growth of p + p layer homojunction passivation passivation heterojunction ARC deposition 19

20 2. Heterojunction increases V oc by 100 mv, before and after hydrogenation Current density (ma/cm 2 ) Homojunction Heterojunction Voltage (V) 20

21 2. The heterojunction leads to base limited solar cell Illumination (Suns) Voltage (V) Homojunction Heterojunction 21

22 2. Reason for the higher V oc is the absence of preferential doping spikes n + emitter ITO layer p-type layer + n + peaks p-type layer p + backside 3 µm 3 µm 2 µm 22

23 Conclusion result in efficiencies > 22 % Large discrepancy between results at Sanyo and research laboratories Reduction of interface recombination is key to success Also for small-grained polysilicon layers the HIT emitter is beneficial 23

24 Acknowledgements IMEC-SOLO; Scanwafer T&U; Dr. A. Ulyashin 24

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