Name Period. 3. How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis?

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1 Name Period GENERAL BIOLOGY Second Semester Study Guide Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 19. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION AND MEIOSIS 1. What is the purpose of meiosis? 2. Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells. 3. How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis? 4. What is produced at the end of meiosis? (Include how many cells and whether they are diploid or haploid.) 5. Are the daughter cells genetically different or genetically identical to the original parent cell? 6. How many alleles do gametes have for each trait after meiosis? Why? 7. Name three parts of meiosis and sexual reproduction that result in offspring that are genetically different from the parents. GENETICS 8. Explain the following principles (laws) associated with Mendel: a. Principle of Dominance: b. Principle of Segregation: c. Principle of Independent Assortment:

2 9. How many alleles does an individual carry for a trait? 10. What is the relationship between the following terms: gene, trait, DNA 11. In humans, free earlobes (F) are dominant to attached earlobes (f). Write the genotype of: a. A person who is homozygous for free earlobes: b. A person who is heterozygous for free earlobes: c. A person who is homozygous for attached earlobes: 12. In flowers, red petals (R) is dominant and white petals (r) is recessive. Cross a heterozygous red rose with a white rose. Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 13. Distinguish between the following modes of inheritance: a. incomplete dominance (describe the heterozygote): b. codominance (describe the heterozygote): c. polygenic inheritance (what it is and how you can tell by looking at a population graph):

3 14. In flowers, red petals (R) is incompletely dominant to white (R or W depending on how your teacher taught you). The heterozygote flower is pink (RR or RW). Cross two pink flowers. Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 15. In chickens, the allele for black feathers (B) is co-dominant with the allele for white feathers (W). The heterozygote is checkered. Cross a black hen with a checkered rooster. Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 16. Hemophilia is a recessive X-linked trait. Cross a female who is a carrier for hemophilia with a male that has hemophilia. Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. 17. Cross a parent who is heterozygous type A blood with a heterozygous type B parent. Show your work in a Punnett square and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring. Blood type is an example of what type of inheritance pattern? 18. What are the possible gametes for a person who has BbTt genotype?

4 19. Which parent determines the sex of the child? Why? 20. Free earlobes is an autosomal dominant trait and attached earlobes are recessive. What is the genotype of a carrier? 21. Why do females show recessive sex-linked traits less often than males? 22. Distinguish between autosomes and sex-chromosomes. 23. What is the sex chromosome combination of a normal male? A normal female? Describe how the sex chromosomes are inherited. (Which comes from each parent?) 24. What is a pedigree? Be sure you can analyze pedigrees. EVOLUTION 25. What is evolution? 26. What are the two dating methods used to determine the age of a fossil? Describe each. 27. How old have scientists determined the Earth to be? 28. When did life first appear on earth? 29. What were the first life forms? (Unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic)

5 30. List the following in the order in which they appeared over earth s history: eukaryotes, prokaryotes, multicellular organisms. 31. What evolutionary event does the endosymbiotic hypothesis explain? 32. List the evidence for the endosymbiotic hypothesis. 33. What is the goal of systematics or classification? 34. What is a cladogram and how can it be used to classify organisms? 35. How can a cladogram be used to determine similarities in DNA sequences and recent common ancestry? 36. What is a derived character? 37. What does a node on a cladogram represent? 38. Based upon the cladogram above, what characteristics or derived characters do the salamander and the leopard share? 39. Based upon the cladogram above, which organisms share the most recent common ancestor?

6 40. Complete the chart below: Kingdom Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes Unicellular, Multicellular or both Heterotrophic, Autotrophic or both 41. What scientist incorrectly thought that evolution could be explained by the inheritance of acquired traits? What does the inheritance of acquired traits mean? 42. Who developed the theory that evolution occurs by the process of natural selection? 43. What is natural selection? 44. List four components of the natural selection theory. 45. How do adaptations such as camouflage and mimicry develop? 46. How does the variation needed for natural selection arise?

7 47. What is a gene pool? 48. How do you know if a population is evolving in terms of allelic frequencies? 49. What is happening to allelic frequencies in a population that is in genetic equilibrium? 50. List five factors that cause allelic frequencies to change in a population. 51. What part of Darwin s natural selection theory couldn t he explain? Whose work was discovered after Darwin s death to fill the gaps in his theory? 52. List the four major classes of evidences for evolution? 53. Compare analogous structures, homologous structures, and vestigial structures. Give examples of each. 54. Which form of evidence for evolution allows scientists to determine the amount of time that has passed since two species diverged from a common ancestor? 55. Describe (very briefly) how new species evolve. 56. Compare directional selection, disruptive selection, and stabilizing selection.

8 57. Explain the difference between convergent evolution and divergent evolution (adaptive radiation). 58. There have been many mass extinctions during the Earth s history. Why are these mass extinctions important? ECOLOGY 59. Distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors and give an example of each. 60. Describe the flow of matter and energy through an ecosystem. 61. What is the main source of energy for all life? 62. Why are producers important to an ecosystem? 63. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? 64. Construct a food chain for the following organisms: insect, leaves, hawk, sparrow. 65. Label each trophic level in your food chain above. 66. Label the producer, first-level consumer, second-level consumer and third-level consumer in your food chain above.

9 67. About how much energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next trophic level? 68. Give at least three examples of human activities that upset the balance of a stable ecosystem. 69. How are fossil fuels formed? 70. How is the carbon in fossil fuels eventually returned to the atmosphere? 71. What is a main cause global warming? What gas is given off during this activity? 72. List three factors that affect population growth? 73. Compare exponential and logistic growth. 74. Define carrying capacity and population density? 75. Differentiate between density-independent and density-dependent limiting factors. 76. Give an example of a density-independent limiting factor. 77. What are the three density-dependent limiting factors? 78. Why are predator/prey relations important in an ecosystem?

10 79. What is an invasive species? Give an example of an invasive species. 80. What impact do invasive species have on the ecosystems they invade? 81. What is biodiversity? 82. Why is biodiversity important? 83. What are some factors that contribute to species extinction? 84. Explain the difference between ecology and evolution. 85. The energy released at each trophic level of the energy pyramid is usually released in this form? 86. The following groups need nutrients and energy to carry out all their life functions. Define and tell how the Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers achieve this. 87. Explain the different ways by which plants obtain useable nitrogen through the nitrogen cycle here on earth.

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