Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided.

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1 Chapter 14 The Human Genome Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are shown in a karyotype? a. homologous chromosomes b. sex chromosomes c. autosomes d. all of the above 2. What is the approximate probability that a human offspring will be female? a. 10 percent c. 50 percent b. 25 percent d. 75 percent 3. What is the probability that a human sperm cell will carry an X chromosome? a. 0 percent c. 50 percent b. 25 percent d. 100 percent 4. A pedigree CANNOT be used to a. determine whether a trait is inherited. b. show how a trait is passed from one generation to the next. c. determine whether an allele is dominant or recessive. d. none of the above 5. A person who has PKU a. inherited the allele for the trait from one parent. b. inherited the allele for the trait from both parents. c. is heterozygous for the trait. d. will not pass the allele for the trait to his or her offspring. 6. Which of the following genotypes result in the same phenotype? a. I A I A and I A I B c. I B I B and I A I B b. I B I B and I B i d. I B i and ii 7. A change in a single gene causes the protein called CFTR to a. become less soluble. b. fold improperly. c. destroy the cell membrane. d. transport sodium ions instead of chloride ions. Chapter 14 Test A 167

2 8. Chromosomes 21 and 22 contain long stretches of repetitive DNA, which a. contain genes for colorblindness. b. are able to code for proteins. c. are unstable sites where rearrangements can occur. d. contain genes for Lou Gehrig s disease. 9. Colorblindness is more common in males than in females because a. fathers pass the allele for colorblindness to their sons only. b. the allele for colorblindness is located on the Y chromosome. c. the allele for colorblindness is recessive and located on the X chromosome. d. males who are colorblind have two copies of the allele for colorblindness. 10. A Barr body is a. a condensed X chromosome that is inactive. b. a condensed Y chromosome that is inactive. c. an activated X chromosome. d. an activated Y chromosome. 11. Because the X chromosome contains genes that are vital for normal development, no baby has been born a. with one X chromosome. b. with three X chromosomes. c. without an X chromosome. d. with four X chromosomes. 12. Which of the following combinations of sex chromosomes represents a female? a. XY c. XXXY b. XXY d. XX 13. The process of DNA fingerprinting is based on the fact that a. the most important genes are different among most people. b. no two people, except identical twins, have exactly the same DNA. c. most genes are dominant. d. most people have DNA that contains repeats. 14. The human genome was sequenced a. by sequencing each gene on each chromosome, one at a time. b. using DNA fingerprinting. c. by looking for overlapping regions between sequenced DNA fragments. d. using open reading frames. 168 Chapter 14 Test A

3 15. Which of the following is the first step in gene therapy? a. splicing the normal gene to viral DNA b. allowing recombinant viruses to infect human cells c. using restriction enzymes to cut out the normal gene from DNA d. identifying the faulty gene that causes the disease Completion Complete each statement on the line provided. 16. A(An) can be used to determine whether a person has inherited the normal number of chromosomes. 17. The alleles I A and for the ABO blood group are NOT codominant. 18. People who have sickle cell disease inherited copy(ies) of the sickle cell allele. 19. A boy who has hemophilia inherited the disorder from his. 20. A person can be tested for the allele that causes Tay-Sachs disease because the of that allele is different from that of the normal allele. Short Answer In complete sentences, write the answers to the questions on the lines provided. 21. Give two reasons why it is almost impossible to associate many human traits with single genes. 22. How are human chromosomes 21 and 22 similar? 23. A man who does not have hemophilia and a woman who is a carrier of the disorder have a son. What is the probability that their son has hemophilia? 24. Why is a person who has Klinefelter s syndrome (XXY) a male even though he has two X chromosomes in his cells? Chapter 14 Test A 169

4 25. Why are viruses used in gene therapy? Using Science Skills Use the diagram below to answer the following questions on the lines provided. The pedigree shows the inheritance of free earlobes and attached earlobes in five generations of a family. Attached earlobes is caused by a recessive allele (f). 1 2 Free earlobes Male Female Attached earlobes ? 14 Figure Inferring Is individual 2 in Figure 14-1 homozygous or heterozygous for free earlobes? Explain. 27. Interpreting Graphics In Figure 14-1, how many children of individuals 4 and 5 have attached earlobes? 28. Inferring Can you be certain of the genotype of individual 5 in Figure 14-1? Explain. 170 Chapter 14 Test A

5 29. Predicting Predict the genotype and phenotype of individual 14 in Figure Inferring In Figure 14-1, are any of the descendents of individuals 1 and 2 homozygous for free earlobes? Explain your answer. Essay Write the answer to each question in the space provided. 31. Contrast the abnormal hemoglobin found in a person who has sickle cell disease with normal hemoglobin. How does this difference affect the person s red blood cells? 32. Explain why the father of a girl who is colorblind must also be colorblind. Chapter 14 Test A 171

6 33. Compare the inheritance in men and women of a trait coded for by a recessive allele on the Y chromosome. 34. What can you conclude if you observed a male cat that has both black and orange spots? Explain your answer. 35. Compare and contrast Turner s syndrome and Klinefelter s syndrome. 172 Chapter 14 Test A

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