Managing Your Soils: Soil Amendments. David Crowley Dept of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside

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1 Managing Your Soils: Soil Amendments David Crowley Dept of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside

2 New Soil Amendments for Citrus Production Soil Inoculants: plant beneficial bacteria) Control of phytophthora root rot Production of plant growth hormones Suppression of stress ethylene Improved water use efficiency Improved salinity tolerance Biochar: Use of charcoal (biochar) amendments Improved CEC, ph, bulk density, soil structure Improved water holding, aeration, root growth Increased microbial activity

3 The Plant Rhizosphere

4 Functions of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria in the Rhizosphere Yang et al Trends in Plant Science

5 Drought Tolerance and Long Term Selection of PGPR: The11,700 Year Old King Clone of Larrea tridenta Lucerne Valley, San Bernadino County, California

6 Effect of inoculation with PGPR with different ACC-deaminase activity and IAA production root growth and architecture of maize grown under axenic conditions Control Low ACC High IAA High ACC High IAA High ACC Low IAA

7 Relationship between population density of PGPR (ACC-degrading bacteria) in the rhizosphere of cucumber plants and root biomass. Jorquera et al 2012.

8 Predation of Bacteria In Inoculated Soils Reduces Survival and Efficacy of Soil Inoculants Cells / gram soil (log) 63,000,000 cells / gram soil 1,000 cells / gram soil Protozoan Predator of Bacteria Days After Inoculation FEMS Microbiology Ecology 38 (1986)

9 Treatments: Biocontrol agent: Pseudomonas putida once per year manual application once per week Bioject field fermenter water control Pesticide control: Ridomil Inoculum density Annual application trtmt 10 8 cfu/ml, 100 ml/ tree Bioject 10 7 cfu/ml 20 liters/tree sufficient for 50 hectares Steddom et. al. Phytopath. 2002

10 Results of field trials for control of Phytophthora root rot using the Bioject System Phytophthora populations suppressed by 84% in 1998 Biocontrol equivalent to chemical control for 1998 and 1999 Bacteria delivered to 75 cm depth

11 Recent advances in the development of biochar technologies for carbon sequestration and land restoration David Crowley University of California, Riverside

12 Soil Amendments for Citrus Production: Biochar Benefits Reduces soil greenhouse gas emissions Improves water holding capacity Improves nutrient holding capacity Reduces soil acidity Improves root growth (soil bulk density) Improves environment for soil microorganisms

13 Effects of Charcoal as a Soil Conditioner on Citrus Growth and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development J. Japan. Soc Hort. Sci : Citrus Growth Mycorrhizal Infection Root Wt Shoot Wt

14

15

16 Tree growth response to char in sandy, low fertility soils Tree response to char from wood burn piles

17

18 Summary Many different microbial amendments are being developed for citrus and other crops. While much research indicates they can improve plant growth and yields, their reliability in the field is not always consistent due to problems with inoculant survival. New inoculum carrier technologies including microencapuslation in alginate beads or on charcoal (biochar) offer promise for improving the efficacy of soil inoculants.

19 Summary Biochar is a new/old soil amendment that improves soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, stores carbon in soil, and reduces greenhouse gas production from agriculture. Biochar is being actively investigated for its benefits in citrus production and tree nurseries. Results so far look promising stay tuned for future recommendations.

20

21 Soil Amendments for Citrus Production: Biochar Benefits Reduces soil greenhouse gas emissions Improves water holding capacity Improves nutrient holding capacity Reduces soil acidity Improves root growth (soil bulk density) Improves environment for soil microorganisms

22 Effects of Charcoal as a Soil Conditioner on Citrus Growth and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Development J. Japan. Soc Hort. Sci : Citrus Growth Mycorrhizal Infection Root Wt Shoot Wt

23

24

25 Tree growth response to char in sandy, low fertility soils Tree response to char from wood burn piles

26

27 Summary Many different microbial amendments are being developed for citrus and other crops. While much research indicates they can improve plant growth and yields, their reliability in the field is not always consistent due to problems with inoculant survival. New inoculum carrier technologies including microencapuslation in alginate beads or on charcoal (biochar) offer promise for improving the efficacy of soil inoculants.

28 Summary Biochar is a new/old soil amendment that improves soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, stores carbon in soil, and reduces greenhouse gas production from agriculture. Biochar is being actively investigated for its benefits in citrus production and tree nurseries. Results so far look promising stay tuned for future recommendations.

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