# MEASUREMENT OF RESISTORS

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1 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTORS Richard G. Lupa Benjamin M. Cadieux 9/17/2007

2 Objectives: Learn how to utilize and code with the resistor color code system Learn how to use a digital multimeter (DMM) and an analog meter to measure resistance Learn how to plot a histogram of measured resistor values in Microsoft Excel Discussion of Theory: In order to read a resistor one must first understand how to decode the colored stripes surrounding the component itself. These stripes, depending upon the order and color, yield different number variations which are then interpreted as the Ohms value of the resistor and the tolerance of thus resistor. Once this is understood one can then determine the minimum and maximum expected Ohms value for any given resistor by utilizing Equation 1 or Equation 2. Min Value Value Value Tolerance Minimum Ohm Value ~ Equation 1 Max Value Value ( Value Tolerance) Maximum Ohm Value ~ Equation 2 The first three bands of color on the resistor represent specific numbers which combine to form an Ohms rating for that resistor. Dependant upon the different combinations or colors that may be present on a resistor, the rating will change. Procedure: Find a resistor that will satisfy each row in Table 1 by utilizing the color coded stripes on the resistors and record the expected resistance value (ohms) and color

3 of the bands in that table. Figure 1 and Figure 2 will be useful in sorting through the resistors. Numeric Values of Colors ~ Figure 1 Numeric Values of Colors for Tolerances ~ Figure 2 Calculate the minimum and maximum resistance values for each resistor and record in Table 1. Range in Band Colors Color Code % Min Value Max Ohms A B C D Value Tolerance Value 1-10 Brown Black Black Gold Yellow Violet Black Gold k Gray Red Brown Gold k-10k Brown Black Orange Gold 10, ,500 11k-100k Brown Blue Orange Gold 16, ,200 16, k-1M Brown Black Green Gold 1,000, ,000 1,050,000 1M-22M Red Violet Green Gold 2,700, ,565,000 2,835,000 Color Code Results ~ Table 1 Using the DMM and Simpson meter, measure the actual resistance being displayed on both meters and record this data in Table 2. In order to get the exact resistance value (ohms) for the resistors, the DMM and analog (Simpson) equipment must be connected to each resistor at separate times. The setup of the equipment is as follows and is also represented in Chart 3 bellow; From the DMM there are two wires; the positive wire goes to one side of the resistor and the negative wire goes to the other side. Then from the power supply two wires are also used: the positive wire is connected to the positive terminal on the Simpson

4 meter and the negative wire is connected to the same side of the resistor as the DMM negative wire was. Then the negative wire from the Simpson goes to the same connection point on the resistor as the negative DMM wire. Refer to Figure 3 for a schematic of how to wire the system. DMM Analog Power Supply 220 Ω Resistor Wired System Figure 3 Range in Color Code Color Code Range Measured value Ohms Value Simpson DMM k k-10k 10, ,500 10,000 10,140 11k-100k 16,000 15,200-16,800 20,000 18, k-1M 1,000, ,000-1,050,000 1,001,000 1,001,960 1M-22M 2,700,000 2,565,000-2,835,000 2,500,000 2,807,200 Measured Values ~ Table 2 The values in Table 3 (on the next page) are measured values by a manufacturer for 1kΩ resistors. Determine how many of the units can be sold as 1%, 5%, 10%,

5 Number of units 20%, and those that are outside the 20% range of tolerance and plot in a histogram, refer to Figure 4 (on the next page) for the histogram Manufacturer s Measured Values ~ Table 3 Histogram of Measured Resistance Ranges % 5% 10% 20% >20% Tolerance Ranges Histogram of Measure Resistance Ranges ~ Figure 4 Find the probability of choosing a 1% resistor from the list of the resistors given in Table 3. To find this value just refer to the histogram in Figure 4 for the 1% tolerance range. It was found that there were 28 units in the 1% tolerance range.

6 Conclusion: It was found that by utilizing the data in Figure 1 and Figure 2 that it became possible to determine the expected Ohm rating for any resistor. It was also found that by utilizing a DMM and Simpson analog meter that one could determine manually the actual resistance value of any given resistor without the aid of the color coded rings. Both methods yielded results that were incredibly close to each other. Whether it be by decoding the rings on a resistor or by physically measuring the resistance value on a meter, the values in resistance never varied greater than the tolerances expected, ranging from 1% to 20%.

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