# CHEM J-2 June /01(a) What is the molarity of the solution formed when 0.50 g of aluminium fluoride is dissolved in ml of water?

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1 CHEM J-2 June /01(a) What is the molarity of the solution formed when 0.50 g of aluminium fluoride is dissolved in ml of water? 2 The molar mass of AlF 3 is: molar mass = (26.98 (Al) (F)) g mol -1 = g mol -1 The number of moles in 0.50 g is therefore: number of moles = mass / molar mass = 0.50 g / g mol -1 = mol The concentration of this amount in ml is then: concentration = number of moles / volume = mol / L = mol L -1 What is [F ] in this solution? Answer: mol L -1 or M As the formula is AlF 3, dissolution results in 3F - (aq) per formula unit. [F - (aq)] = mol L -1 = mol L -1 Answer: mol L -1 or M THE REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKING ONLY.

2 CHEM J-4 June /01(a) In an experiment, 5.0 g of magnesium was dissolved in excess hydrochloric acid to give magnesium ions and hydrogen gas. Write a balanced equation for the reaction that occurred. 3 Mg(s) + 2H + (aq) à Mg 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) What amount of hydrogen gas (in mol) is produced in the reaction? The molar mass of Mg is g mol g therefore corresponds to: number of moles = mass / molar mass = 5.0 g / g mol -1 = 0.21 mol From the chemical equation, each mol of Mg that reacts will give one mol of H 2. Hence, number of moles of H 2 = 0.21 mol. Answer: 0.21 mol

3 CHEM J-6 June /01(a) A M solution of aluminium nitrate and a M solution of potassium phosphate are prepared by dissolving Al(NO 3 ) 3 and K 3 PO 4 in water. Write the ionic equations for these two dissolutions reactions. 7 Dissolution of Al(NO 3 ) 3 Dissolution of K 3 PO 4 Al(NO 3 ) 3 (s) à Al 3+ (aq) + 3NO 3 - (aq) K 3 PO 4 (s) à 3K + (aq) + PO 4 3- (aq) If these solutions are combined, aluminium phosphate precipitates. Write the ionic equation for the precipitation reaction. Al 3+ (aq) + PO 4 3- (aq) à AlPO 4 (s) ml of the aluminium nitrate solution is added to 50.0 ml of the potassium phosphate solution. What amount (in mol) of aluminium phosphate precipitates? ml of a M solution of Al(NO 3 ) 3 contains: number of moles of Al 3+ = concentration volume = c V = mol L L = mol 50.0 ml of a M solution of K 3 PO 4 contains: number of moles of PO 4 3- = concentration volume = c V = mol L L = mol As the ionic equation has a 1 : 1 ratio of Al 3+ : PO 4 3- reacting, PO 4 3- is the limiting reagent. The ionic equation shows that 1 mol of AlPO 4 is made from 1 mol of PO 4 3- so mol will produce mol. Answer: mol What is the final concentration of aluminium ions remaining in solution after the precipitation? Formation of mol of AlPO 4 requires mol of Al 3+. Therefore, the amount remaining is: number of moles of Al 3+ remaining = ( ) mol = mol After mixing the total solution volume is ( ) ml = ml. Hence, the concentration of Al 3+ (aq) is: concentration = number of moles / volume = n / V = mol / L = mol L -1 Answer: M

4 CHEM J-2 June /01(a) Explain why relative atomic masses are not always close to an integer. For example, copper has a reported value of Many elements consist of isotopes, i.e. atoms with different numbers of neutrons and hence different atomic masses. The atomic mass of each isotope is close to an integer value. The relative atomic mass of an element is calculated using all these different isotopic masses and their relative percentages. Analysis of a black-coloured mineral called pitchblende returned the following percentage composition by weight: 84.80% uranium and 15.20% oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this compound? 2 The mineral contains 84.80% U and 15.20% O. percentage divide by atomic mass U = O = divide by smallest value The ratio of U : O is 1 : The simplest whole number ratio can be obtained by multiplying this by 3 to give U : O equal to 3 : 8. The empirical formula is U 3 O 8. Answer: U 3 O 8

5 CHEM J-4 June /01(a) Balance the following equation: NH 3 (g) + O 2 (g) NO(g) + H 2 O(l) 3 4NH 3 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 4NO(g) + 6H 2 O(l) Calculate the mass of NH 3 required to produce 140. g of water. The molar mass of H 2 O is: molar mass = [ (H) (O)] g mol -1 = g mol -1 Hence, the number of moles of water produced is: number of moles = mass / molar mass = (140. g) / ( g mol -1 ) = mol From the balanced equation, 4 mol of NH 3 will produce 6 mol of H 2 O. Hence, to produce mol of H 2 O so: number of moles of NH 3 = (4/6) mol = 5.18 mol The molar mass of NH 3 is: molar mass = [14.01 (N) (H)] g mol -1 = g mol -1 The mass of NH 3 in 5.18 mol is therefore: mass = number of moles molar mass = (5.18 mol) ( g mol -1 ) = 88.2 g Answer: 88.2 g

6 CHEM J-2 June /01(a) Calculate the number of aluminium atoms in a block of pure aluminium that measures 2.0 cm 2.0 cm 3.0 cm. The density of aluminium is 2.7 g cm 3. 2 The volume of the block is: V = length width height = ( ) cm 3 = 12 cm 3 The mass can then be calculated from the density: density = mass / volume or mass = density volume mass = (2.7 g cm -3 ) (12.0 cm 3 ) = 32.4 g 1 mol of Al has a mass equal to its atomic mass, g mol -1 and contains mol -1. Hence, the number of atoms in 32.4 g is: number of atoms = number of moles Avogadro s number = (32.4 g / g mol -1 ) ( mol -1 ) = Answer:

7 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) Lead ions react with bromide ions according to the following equation. Pb 2+ (aq) + 2Br (aq) PbBr 2 (s) If M lead(ii) nitrate solution (100.0 ml) is added to M potassium bromide solution (300.0 ml), what amount (in mol) of lead(ii) bromide precipitates? 4 The number of moles of Pb 2+ ions in ml of a M solution of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 is: number of moles = concentration volume = (0.040 mol L -1 ) ( L) = mol The number of moles of Br - ions in ml of a M solution of KBr is: number of moles = (0.020 mol L -1 ) ( L) = mol The precipitation reaction requires 2 Br - ions for every Pb 2+ ion. As there is less than twice as much Br - than Pb 2+, it is the Br - that is the limiting reagent. From the chemical equation, 2 mol of Br - leads to 1 mol of PbBr 2 (s) and so: number of moles of PbBr 2 (s) formed = ½ mol = mol Answer: mol What is the final concentration of NO 3 (aq) ions remaining in solution after the reaction? NO 3 - is not involved in the reaction: it is a spectator ion. The amount present are the reaction is the same as at the beginning. When 1 mol of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 dissolves, it forms 1 mol of Pb 2+ (aq) and 2 mol of NO 3 - (aq). Hence, the number of moles of NO 3 - (aq) present is: number of moles = 2 (0.040 mol L -1 ) ( L) = mol After the solutions are mixed, the total volume is ( ) ml = ml. This amount is now present in this volume and so has a concentration: concentration = number of moles / volume = mol / L = M Answer: M

8 CHEM J-7 June /01(a) An unknown liquid contains H: 5.90 % and O: 94.1 % by mass and has a molar mass of 33.9 g mol 1. What is its molecular formula? 2 The liquid contains 5.90% H and so 94.1% O. percentage divide by atomic mass H.. = 5.85 O.. = 5.88 divide by smallest value 1 1 The ratio of H : O is 1 : 1 and so the empirical formula is HO. The molecular formula is (HO) n. The molar mass is: molar mass = n ( ) g mol -1 = n g mol -1 As the molar mass is 33.9 g mol -1, n = 2 and the molecular formula is (HO) 2 or H 2 O 2. It is hydrogen peroxide. Answer: H 2 O 2

9 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) A solution is prepared by dissolving lead(ii) nitrate (33.12 g) in 1.00 L of water. Write the balanced ionic equation for this dissolution reaction. 5 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (s) Pb 2+ (aq) + 2NO 3 (aq) When a ml portion of this solution is mixed with a solution of potassium iodide (0.300 M, ml), a bright yellow precipitate of lead(ii) iodide forms. Write the balanced ionic equation for this precipitation reaction. Pb 2+ (aq) + 2I (aq) PbI 2 (s) What mass of lead(ii) iodide is formed? The formula mass of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 is: formula mass = (207.2 (Pb) (N) (O)) g mol -1 = g mol -1 The number of moles in g is therefore: number of moles =.. = mol If this dissolved in 1.00 L and a ml portion is taken, this will contain mol of Pb 2+ (aq) ml of a M solution of KI contains: number of moles = concentration volume = mol L L = mol The precipitation reaction requires 2 mol of I - (aq) for every 1 mol of Pb 2+ (aq). The mol of Pb 2+ (aq) that is present requires mol of I - (aq). As there is more I - (aq) than this present, I - (aq) is in excess and Pb 2+ (aq) is the limiting reagent. From the precipitation reaction, 1 mol of Pb 2+ (aq) will produce 1 mol of PbI 2 (s). Therefore mol of Pb 2+ (aq) will produce mol of PbI 2 (s). The formula mass of PbI 2 is: formula mass = (207.2 (Pb) (I)) g mol -1 = g mol -1 The mass of mol is therefore: mass = formula mass number of moles = g mol mol = 4.61 g Answer: 4.61 g ANSWER CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE

10 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) What is the final concentration of I (aq) ions remaining in solution after the reaction is complete? As described above reaction of mol of Pb 2+ (aq) requires mol of I - (aq). As mol are initially present, there are ( ) mol = mol of I - (aq) after the precipitation reaction. After mixing the two solutions, the total volume becomes ( ) ml = ml. The final concentration of I - (aq) is therefore: concentration =.. = mol L-1 = M Answer: M

11 CHEM J-6 June /01(a) Three different oxides of lead are known. The oxide that is red in colour is found to consist of % lead. What is its empirical formula? 2 The oxide contains % Pb and so 9.33 % O. percentage divide by atomic mass Pb.. = O.. = divide by smallest value The ratio of Pb : O is 1 : 1.33 or 3: 4. The empirical formula is thus Pb 3 O 4. Answer: Pb 3 O 4

12 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) What mass of oxygen is required for the complete combustion of 5.8 g of butane, C 4 H 10. How many moles of CO 2 and H 2 O are produced? 4 The molar mass of butane, C 4 H 10, is: molar mass = M = ( (C) (H)) g mol -1 = g mol -1 Hence, the 5.8 g corresponds to: number of moles = = = The balanced equation for the combustion of butane is:.. = 0.10 mol C 4 H 10 (g) + O 2(g) 4CO 2 (g) + 5H 2 O(l) Hence, 13/2 moles of O 2 are required and 4 moles of CO 2 and 5 moles of H 2 O are produced for every mole of C 4 H 10 which combusts. As 0.10 mol of C 4 H 10 is present: number of moles of O 2 needed = 0.10 mol = 0.65 mol number of moles of CO 2 produced = mol = 0.40 mol number of moles of H 2 O produced = mol = 0.50 mol O 2 has a molar mass of ( ) g mol -1 = g mol -1. Hence the mass of O 2 required is: mass = number of moles molar mass = nm = (0.65 mol) (32.00 g mol -1 ) = 21 g

13 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) A white powder used in paints, enamels and ceramics has the following mass percentage: 69.6% Ba; 6.09% C; 24.3% O. What is its empirical formula? 2 Ba C O amount in 100 g ratio (divide by atomic mass) divide by smallest.. = ~ 1.. = ~ 1.. = ~ 3 The simplest possible ratio of Ba:C:O is thus 1:1:3 and the empirical formula is BaCO 3. Answer: BaCO 3

14 CHEM J-6 June /01(a) Lead(II) iodide precipitates when M lead(ii) nitrate solution (150.0 ml) is added to M potassium iodide solution (50.0 ml). Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction that occurs. 6 Pb 2+ (aq) + 2I (aq) PbI 2 (s) What amount (in mol) of lead(ii) iodide precipitates? Before precipitation, the number of moles of Pb 2+ (aq) and I - (aq) present are: number of moles of Pb 2+ = concentration volume = cv = (0.080 mol L -1 ) ( L) = mol number of moles of I - = (0.080 mol L -1 ) ( L) = mol The ionic equation shows that 2 moles of I - are required for every one mole of Pb 2+. As there is less I - present than Pb 2+, iodide is the limiting reagent and some of the lead(ii) ions are left in solution after precipitation. One mole of PbI 2 (s) is formed for every two moles of I - (aq) present and hence: number of moles of PbI 2 (s) = ½ mol = mol Answer: mol What amount (in mol) of Pb 2+ (aq) ions remain in solution after the reaction? From above, mol of Pb 2+ (aq) is initially present. The ionic equation shows that one mole of Pb 2+ (aq) is lost for every one mole of PbI 2 (s) formed. As mol of PbI 2 (s) precipitates, number of moles of Pb 2+ (aq) left = ( ) mol = mol Answer: mol ANSWER CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE

15 CHEM J-6 June /01(a) What is the final concentration of NO 3 (aq) ions remaining in solution after the reaction? The nitrate is not involved in the reaction so the amount of it is unchanged. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 contains two moles of NO 3 2- for every mole of Pb 2+. From above, mol of Pb 2+ is present so there must be ( ) mol = mol of NO 3 2- (aq). When the solutions are mixed, the total volume becomes ( ) ml = ml. Hence, the concentration of NO 3 2- (aq) becomes: concentration =.. = 0.12 mol L-1 Answer: 0.12 mol L -1 = 0.12 M

16 CHEM J-2 June /01(a) What mass of calcium chloride is required to make 250 ml of a 0.1 M solution? 3 The formula mass of calcium chloride, CaCl 2, is formula mass = (Ca) (Cl) = The number of moles in the solution is given by: number of moles = concentration volume = = mol The mass required is therefore: mass = number of moles formula mass = (0.025) (110.98) = 3 g Answer: 3 g What amount of chloride ions (in mol) is present in 30.0 ml of this solution? One moles of CaCl 2 (s) dissolves to give two moles of Cl - (aq) ions. Therefore, the number of moles present is: number of moles = concentration volume = (2 0.1) 30 = mol 1000 Answer: mol

17 CHEM J-4 June /01(a) The complete combustion of butane, C 4 H 10, in air gives water and carbon dioxide as the products. Write a balanced equation for this reaction. 4 2C 4 H 10 (g) + 13O 2 (g) 8CO 2 (g) + 10H 2 O(g) or C 4 H 10 (g) + 13 /2O 2 (g) 4CO 2 (g) + 5H 2 O(g) What mass of oxygen is required for the complete combustion of 454 g of butane and what masses of carbon dioxide and water are produced? The molar mass of butane is ( (C)) + ( (H)) = Therefore, the amount of butane in 454 g is: number of moles of C 4 H 10 = mass 454 = = 7.81mol molar mass From the chemical equation, each mole of C 4 H 10 requires 13 /2 moles of O 2 and produces 4 moles of CO 2 and 5 moles of H 2 O. Therefore: number of moles of O 2 = 13 / = 50.8 mol number of moles of CO 2 = = 31.2 mol number of moles of O 2 = = 39.1 mol The molar masses of O 2, CO 2 and H 2 O are: molar mass of O 2 = = molar mass of CO 2 = (C) + ( ) = molar mass of H 2 O = ( (H)) (O)= Therefore: mass of O 2 = number of moles molar mass = = 1620 g = 1.62 kg mass of CO 2 = = 1380 g = 1.38 kg mass of H 2 O = = 704 g = kg

18 CHEM J-4 June /01(a) During physical activity, lactic acid forms in the muscle tissue and is responsible for muscle soreness. Elemental analysis shows that it contains by mass 40.0% C, 6.71% H and 53.3% O. Determine the empirical formula of lactic acid. 4 C H O amount in 100 g ratio (divide by atomic mass) = = = divide by smallest 3.33 = ~ ~ = = The simplest possible ratio of C:H:O is thus 1:2:1 and the empirical formula is CH 2 O. Answer: CH 2 O Given that lactic acid has a molar mass of g mol 1, determine its molecular formula. The molecular formula is (CH 2 O) n so the molar mass is: molar mass = n (12.01 (C) (H) (O)) = n = so n = 3 The molecular formula is thus (CH 2 O) 3 or C 3 H 6 O 3 Answer: C 3 H 6 O 3

19 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) If 50 ml of a 0.10 M solution of AgNO 3 is mixed with 50 ml of a 0.40 M solution of Na 2 CO 3, what mass of Ag 2 CO 3 will precipitate from the reaction? 4 The ionic equation for the precipitation reaction is: 2Ag + (aq) + CO 2-3 (aq) Ag 2 CO 3 (s) Thus, two moles of Ag + (aq) are required for every one mole of CO 2-3 (aq). The number of moles of Ag + (aq) and CO 2-3 (aq) are given by: n(ag + (aq)) = concentration volume = 0.10 n(co 3 2- (aq)) = = mol = mol There is insufficient Ag + (aq) to react with all of the CO 3 2- (aq) and so it is Ag + (aq) is the limiting reagent. From the chemical equation, 1 mole of Ag 2 CO 3 (s) is produced from every two moles of Ag + (aq) ions. The amount of Ag 2 CO 3 (s) produced is therefore: n(ag 2 CO 3 (s)) = ½ n(ag + (aq)) = ½ = mol The formula mass of Ag 2 CO 3 is ( (Ag)) (C) + ( (O)) = This number of moles thus corresponds to a mass of: mass of Ag 2 CO 3 = number of moles formula mass = = 0.69 g Answer: 0.69 g What is the final concentration of CO 3 2 ions in the solution after the above reaction? From the chemical equation, one mole of Ag 2 CO 3 (s) is produced from every mole of CO 3 2- which reacts. Therefore mol of CO 3 2- reacts. This leaves: number of moles of unreacted CO 3 2- = = mol The total volume of the solution after mixing is ( ) = 100 ml. The final concentration is therefore: concentration = number of moles = = 0.18 M volume Answer: 0.18 M ANSWER CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE

20 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) Give balanced ionic equations for the reactions that occur in each of the following cases. 3 Sodium metal is added to excess water. 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2Na + (aq) + 2OH (aq) + H 2 (g) Solutions of cobalt(ii) nitrate and sodium phosphate are mixed. 3Co 2+ (aq) + 2PO 4 3 (aq) Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) Solid calcium carbonate is dissolved in dilute nitric acid. CaCO 3 (s) + 2H + (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l)

21 CHEM J-2 June /01(a) Balance the following nuclear reactions by identifying the missing nuclear particle Th Pa -1 e Th 90 U + 4 He 92 2 A nugget contains atoms of gold. What amount of gold (in mol) is in this nugget and what is its mass (in kg)? 2 One mole of gold corresponds to Avogadro s number, , atoms atoms therefore corresponds to: number of moles = number of atoms = = 4.3mol Avogadro's number As one mole of gold has a mass, corresponding to the atomic mass, of g. 4.3 mol of gold therefore corresponds to: mass = number of moles atomic mass = = 850 g = 0.85 kg (Note that the number of atoms is given to 2 significant figures in the question and this is reflected in the answers). Amount: 4.3 mol Mass: 0.85 kg

22 CHEM J-4 June /01(a) The complete combustion of propane, C 3 H 8, in air gives water and carbon dioxide as the products? Write a balanced equation for this reaction. 7 C 3 H 8 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 3CO 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(l) What mass of oxygen is required for the complete combustion of 454 g of propane and what masses of CO 2 and H 2 O are produced? The molar mass of propane is ( (C)) + ( (H)) = Therefore, 454 g corresponds to: number of moles = mass 454 = =10.3 mol molar mass mol of O 2 (g) is required for every 1 mol of propane. Therefore, = 51.5 mol of O 2 is required. The molar mass of O 2 is ( ) = so the mass of O 2 required is: mass = number of moles molar mass = = 1650 g = 1.65 kg 3 mol of CO 2 and 4 mol of H 2 O are produced for every 1 mol of propane. Therefore, = 30.9 mol of CO 2 and = 41.2 mol of H 2 O are produced. The molar mass of CO 2 is (12.01 (C)) + ( (O)) = and the molar mass of H 2 O is ( (H)) + (16.00 (O)) = The masses of CO 2 and H 2 O produced are therefore: mass of CO 2 = = 1360 g = 1.36 kg mass of H 2 O = = 742 g = kg (Note that the mass of propane is given to three significant figures in the question and this is reflected in each answer). Explain the law of conservation of mass. Show whether or not the above combustion conforms to this law. The law of conservation of mass states that mass may neither be created nor destroyed. In this reaction: mass of reactants = kg (C 3 H 8 ) kg (O 2 ) = 2.10 kg mass of products = 1.36 kg (CO 2 ) kg (H 2 O) = 2.10 kg This combustion obeys the law (to 3 significant figures).

23 CHEM J-5 June /01(a) The reaction of methane and water is one way to prepare hydrogen for use as a fuel. CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + 3H 2 (g) Which compound is the limiting reactant if you begin with 995 g of methane and 2510 g of water? 3 The molar mass of methane, CH 4, is (12.01 (C)) + ( (H)) = The number of moles of methane is therefore: moles of methane = mass 995 = = 62.0 mol molar mass The molar mass of water, H 2 O, is ( (H)) + (16.00 (H)) = The number of moles of water is therefore: moles of methane = mass 2510 = = 139 mol molar mass As the reaction is a 1:1 reaction of methane and water, methane is the limiting reagent. Answer: methane, CH 4 What mass of the excess reactant remains when the reaction is completed? As the reaction is a 1:1 reaction, ( ) = 77 mol of H 2 O will be left unreacted. This corresponds to a mass of: mass of water = moles of water molar mass = = 1400 g = 1.4 kg. Answer: 1.4 kg

24 CHEM J-6 June /01(a) An unknown compound contains carbon and hydrogen only. If g of the compound is burned in oxygen, g of CO 2 and g of H 2 O are isolated. What is the unknown compound s empirical formula? 4 The molar mass of CO 2 is (12.01 (C)) + ( (O)) = The molar mass of H 2 O is ( (H)) + (16.00 (O)) = The number of moles of each after burning is therefore: n CO = 2 mass molar mass = = mol, n H 2 O= = mol The moles of C in the compound is equal to the number of moles of CO 2, as the latter possesses one carbon atom per molecular unit. The moles of H in the compound is equal to 2 number of moles of H 2 O, as the latter contains two hydrogen atoms per molecular unit. The C:H ratio is therefore 1:2 Answer: CH 2 If its molar mass is found to be 70.1 g mol 1, what is its molecular formula? If the molar mass = 70.1, the number of moles in g is: number of moles = mass = = mol molar mass 70.1 As mol contains mol of carbon, 1 mol contains = 5.01mol As C:H is 1:2, the compound must contain 10 hydrogen atoms. Answer: C 5 H 10 What amount (in mol) of chloride ion is contained in 100 ml of 0.25 M magnesium chloride solution? 1 Magnesium chloride dissolves according to the equation, MgCl 2 (s) à Mg 2+ (aq) + 2Cl - (aq) so that two moles of chloride is produced for every mole of MgCl 2 present. The number of moles of MgCl 2 present is : number of moles = concentration volume = The number of moles of Cl - (aq) is therefore = mol = mol Answer: mol

25 CHEM J-6 June /01(a) If 25.0 ml of 1.50 M hydrochloric acid is diluted to 500 ml, what is the molar concentration of the diluted acid? 1 The number of moles of HCl present in 25.0 ml of a 1.50 M solution is: number of moles = concentration volume = This number of moles in a 500 ml solution gives a concentration of: = mol concentration = number of moles = = M volume ( ) Answer: M

26 CHEM J-9 June /01(a) Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction of solid sodium hydrogencarbonate, NaHCO 3, and dilute sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4. 2 NaHCO 3 (s) + H + (aq) Na + (aq) + H 2 O(l) + CO 2 (g)

27 CHEM J-4 June 2005 The element boron forms a series of hydrides, which includes B 2 H 6, B 4 H 10, B 5 H 9, B 6 H 10 and B 10 H 14. Which one of these hydrides consists of 85.63% boron by mass? 2 The molar mass of the boranes are: molar mass of B 2 H 6 = ( (B)) + ( (H)) g mol 1 = g mol -1 molar mass of B 4 H 10 = ( (B)) + ( (H)) g mol 1 = g mol -1 molar mass of B 5 H 9 = ( (B)) + ( (H)) g mol 1 = g mol -1 molar mass of B 6 H 10 = ( (B)) + ( (H)) g mol 1 = g mol -1 molar mass of B 10 H 14 = ( (B)) + ( (H)) g mol 1 = g mol -1 mass of boron in one mole of hydride The percentage of boron = 100% molar mass of hydride percentage boron in B 2 H 6 = 100% 78.14% percentage boron in B 4 H 10 = % 81.10% percentage boron in B 5 H 9 = 100% 85.63% percentage boron in B 6 H 10 = 100% 86.55% percentage boron in B 10 H 14 = 100% 88.45% Complete the following table. Answer: B 5 H 9 2 Formula K 2 SO 4 CuCl 2 SF 4 K 2 CrO 4 Name potassium sulfate copper(ii) chloride sulfur(iv) fluoride (or sulfur tetrafluoride) potassium chromate

28 CHEM J-4 June 2004 Solid sodium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide to produce sodium carbonate and water. Calculate the mass of sodium hydroxide required to prepare 53.0 g of sodium carbonate. 3 The chemical reaction is: 2NaOH +CO 2 à Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O The molar mass of Na 2 CO 3 is: molar mass = ( (Na)) (C) + ( (O))) = g mol -1 The number of moles of this in 53 g is therefore: number of moles = mass(ing) 53.0 = mol = 0.50 mol 1 molar mass(ingmol ) For every 1 mole of Na 2 CO 3 produced, 2 moles of NaOH are required. To make 0.50 mol therefore requires 1.00 mol of NaOH. The molar mass of NaOH is: molar mass = (Na) (O) (H) = g mol -1 As 1.00 mol is required, the mass required is 40.0 g. Answer: 40.0 g Analysis of an unknown compound returned the following percentage composition by weight: nitrogen: 26.2%; chlorine: 66.4% hydrogen 7.5% What is the empirical formula of this compound? 3 N Cl H amount in 100 g ratio (divide by = 1.87 = = atomic mass) divide by smallest = ~1 = 1.00 ~ 1 = 3.98 ~ Answer: NClH 4

29 CHEM J-2 June 2003 The relative atomic mass of magnesium is reported as Show how this figure is calculated given the natural abundances of the following isotopes of magnesium: 24 Mg (79.0 %); 25 Mg (10.0 %); 26 Mg (11.0 %). 2 The relative atomic mass of magnesium is the weighted average of the masses of its isotopes: g mol With examples, briefly explain what allotropes are. 2 Allotropes are different structural arrangements of the same atoms of an element. Carbon occurs naturally as either graphite, which consists of sheets of planar hexagonal rings, and diamond, a three dimensional structure with tetrahedrally coordinated carbon. carbon. Oxygen exists as either the gaseous diatomic O 2 molecule or the gaseous triatomic O 3 (ozone). Complete the following table. 2 Formula Na 2 CO 3 Fe 2 O 3 PCl 3 NH 3 Name sodium carbonate iron(iii) oxide phosphorus trichloride ammonia

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