3 Snowball: Orwell describes Snowball as a pig very similar to Napoleon at least in the early stages. Both pigs wanted a leadership position in the "new" economic and political system But as time goes on, both eventually realize that one of them will have to step down.
4 Soon the differences become too great to deal with, so Napoleon decides that Snowball must be eliminated. Snowball represents Trotsky, the archrival of Stalin in Russia. The parallels between Trotsky and Snowball are uncanny.
5 Trotsky too, was exiled, not from the farm, but to Mexico, where he spoke out against Stalin. Stalin was very weary of Trotsky, and feared that Trotsky supporters might try to assassinate him. Trotsky was murdered in Mexico by the Russian internal police,the KGB. Trotsky was found with a pick axe in his head at his villa in Mexico.
6 Moses: Moses is perhaps Orwell's most intriguing character in Animal Farm. This raven, first described as the "especial pet" of Mr. Jones, is the only animal who doesn't work. He's also the only character who doesn't listen to Old Major's speech of rebellion. He claimed to know of the existence of a mysterious country called Sugar candy Mountain, to which all animals went when they died. It was situated somewhere up in the sky, a little distance beyond the clouds.
7 Moses represents Orwell's view of the Church. To Orwell, the Church is just used as a tool by dictatorships to keep the working class of people hopeful and productive. Orwell uses Moses to criticize Marx's belief that the Church will just go away after the rebellion. Orwell seems to offer a very cynical and harsh view of the Church.
8 Boxer: The name Boxer is cleverly used by Orwell as a metaphor for the Boxer Rebellion in China in the early twentieth century. It was this rebellion that signaled the beginning of communism in red China. Boxer is used by Orwell to represent the proletariat, or unskilled labor class in Russian society. This lower class is naturally drawn to Stalin (Napoleon) because it seems as though they will benefit most from his new system.
9 Squealer: He is first described as a manipulator and persuader. Squealer is a metaphor of Pravda, the Russian newspaper of the 1930's. The newspaper was used as a propaganda tool to spread the good news about the revolution. In Animal Farm, Squealer, like the newspaper, is the link between Napoleon and other animals.
10 Mollie: Mollie is one of Orwell's minor characters, but she represents something very important. Mollie is the animal who is most opposed to the new government under Napoleon. She doesn't care much about the politics of the whole situation; she just wants to tie her hair with ribbons and eat sugar, things her social status won't allow. Mollie characterizes the typical middleclass skilled worker who suffers from this new communism concept.
11 Benjamin: Old Benjamin, an elderly donkey, is one of Orwell's most intriguing characters on Animal Farm. He is described as rather unchanged since the rebellion. He still does his work the same way, never becoming too exited or too disappointed about anything that has passed. Benjamin symbolizes the older generation, the critics of any new rebellion.
12 Benjamin is the only animal who seems as though he couldn't care less about Napoleon and Animal Farm. It's almost as if he can see into the future, knowing that the revolt is only a temporary change, and will flop in the end. Benjamin is the only animal who doesn't seem to have expected anything positive from the revolution. He is not sucked in by Napoleon's propaganda like the others.
13 Muriel: Muriel is a knowledgeable goat who reads the commandments for Clover. Muriel represents the minority of working class people who are educated enough to decide things for themselves and find problems with their leaders. Unfortunately for the other animals, Muriel is not charismatic or inspired enough to take action and oppose Napoleon and the pigs.
14 Pigs: Orwell uses the pigs to surround and support Napoleon. They symbolize the communist party loyalists and the friends of Stalin. The pigs, unlike other animals, live in luxury and enjoy the benefits of the society they help control. The inequality and true hypocrisy of communism is expressed here by Orwell, who criticized Marx's view of a socialist, "utopian" society. Obviously Orwell doesn't believe such a society can exist.
15 Dogs: Orwell uses the dogs in his book, Animal Farm, to represent the KGB or perhaps more accurately, the bodyguards of Stalin. The dogs are the arch-defenders of Napoleon and the pigs, and although they don't speak, they are definitely a force the other animals have to contend with. Orwell describes the dogs as mindless robots, so dedicated to Napoleon that they can't really speak for themselves.
16 Mr. Frederick: The theme of the gun and flag rituals performed by the animals at the urging of Napoleon is strengthened through Orwell's description of Mr. Frederick, the neighbor of Animal Farm. Frederick, through the course of the book, becomes an enemy and then a friend and then an enemy again to Napoleon, who makes many secret deals and treaties with him.
17 Mr.Pilkington: Orwell uses Pilkington, another neighbor of Animal Farm, as a metaphor for the Allies of World War II (excluding, of course Russia). Like the Soviet Union before World War II, Animal Farm wasn't sure who their allies would be. But after losing the relationship with Frederick (Germany), Napoleon (Stalin) decides to befriend Pilkington, and ally with him.
18 Pigeons: The pigeons symbolize Soviet propaganda, not to Russia, but to other countries, like Germany, England, France, and even the United States. Russia had created an iron curtain even before WWII. The Communist government raved about its achievements and its advanced technology, but it never allowed experts or scientists from outside the country to check on its validity.
19 METAPHOR ANALYSIS Farmhouse: The Jones' farmhouse represents in many ways the very place where greed and lust dominate. Unlike the barn, which is the fortress of the common man, the genuine concept of socialism, the farmhouse, where Napoleon and the pigs take over, symbolizes the Kremlin.
20 Animalism: The vague yet often referred to concept of animalism is used by Orwell to signify the generic view of socialism. This view was first expounded by Karl Marx (old Major), who, in Orwell's opinion was naive in thinking that his philosophy would actually work. Orwell, was critical of Marx because he didn't take into account the greed and jealousy which would eventually undermine the entire cause.
21 Gun/Flag: Probably the most profound metaphor in Orwell's Animal Farm is the idea of the gun and flag. The nationalism the animals' feel is demonstrated through their daily processions and rituals where they practically worship the flag (their institution of the state and obviously not God).
22 The gun represents the triumphant yet violence-ridden overthrow of Mr. Jones. Again, opposing Marx's ideal that rebellion is to be accomplish through honesty, innocence, and passive determination, Napoleon and even Snowball rise to power prematurely by using death and destruction.
23 Thus they prove themselves no better than Jones and the previous administration. The fact that Napoleon outlaws Beasts of England demonstrates the formal power of the state. No longer is socialism just a generic belief in equality made by everyday common animals, but now it is a money-hungry powerhouse of oppression run by the government.
24 Battle of Cowshed: The Battle of Cowshed is a clear metaphor for the overthrow of the old Russian government based on czars (Mr. Jones). In Russia, this change took the Soviet Union out of World War I and eventually led to the rise of Lenin and Stalin. The violence used in the battle, however was not condoned by Marx (old Major) or Orwell, who both believed in pacifism. Snowball and Napoleon, though, were too greedy and were required to use force in order to establish their corrupt government.
25 Sugarcandy Mountain: Orwell uses Sugarcandy Mountain to symbolize the Christian concept of Heaven. The Church is criticized in Animal Farm because it is the institution that inspires the animals to work using "lies" and manipulation.
26 Ribbons & Sugar: Orwell's use of ribbons and sugar symbolizes the luxuries of life enjoyed by the old middle class under the old government. Mollie, the symbol for the capitalist, is particularly fond of ribbons and sugar - so much so that she leaves the farm for them.
27 Milk: Orwell uses milk to represent the care and love that mothers give to their children. When Napoleon takes the milk for himself and the other pigs, he is, in essence, stealing the very core of the people. Now he can raise the children (other farm animals) as a tool of the state. No longer is the power in the family; now the cornerstone of civilization is in the totalitarian government of Napoleon (Stalin).
28 Alcohol: Orwell uses alcohol to represent the "Old" Russia. He first notes that the reason Jones lost control of the farm and began being cruel to the animals was because of alcohol. It symbolizes, more than anything, a corrupt government a government drunk on prosperity (a prosperity which never trickles down to the common animal).
29 Windmill: The windmill is used by Orwell to symbolize Soviet industry. In the book, the windmill was destroyed several times before it finally was complete. This represents the trials the communists in Russia went through to establish their arms - production industry. Eventually, however, Russian industry did stabilize, despite the lack of safety precautions and trivial concern for the people's well being. The average middle-class worker received no special treatment and was treated as a "person of the state."
30 SONGS: Animal Farm is filled with songs, poems, and slogans, including Major s stirring Beasts of England, Minimus s ode to Napoleon, the sheep s chants, and Minimus s revised anthem, Animal Farm, Animal Farm. All of these songs serve as propaganda.
31 By making the working-class animals speak the same words at the same time, the pigs evoke an atmosphere of grandeur and nobility associated with the recited text s subject matter. The songs also erode the animals sense of individuality and keep them focused on the tasks by which they will achieve freedom.