ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison

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1 Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology animal cells Eukaryotes - organelles Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial cell most bacteria 1-10 microns eukaryotic cells microns Why study cells? Cells Tissues Organs Bodies bodies are made up of cells cells do all the work of life! micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter diameter of human hair = ~20 microns The Work of Life What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live breathe gas exchange: CO 2 vs. O 2 eat take in & digest food make energy build molecules proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids remove wastes control internal conditions respond to external environment build more cells growth, repair, reproduction & development Organelles Organelles do the work of cells each structure has a job to do keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive Model Animal Cell 1

2 Cells need power! Making energy to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must take in food & digest it take in oxygen (O 2 ) make remove waste organelles that do this work s vacuoles & vesicles Cell membrane separates cell from outside controls what enters or leaves cell O 2,CO 2, food, H 2 O, nutrients, waste recognizes signals from other cells allows communication between cells double layer of fat phospholipid bilayer receptor molecules proteins phosphate head lipid tail Vacuoles & vesicles small food particle moving material around cell storage membrane sac recognizes signals vacuole digesting food inside cell Food & water storage central vacuole food vacuoles animal cells contractile vacuole recognizes signals 2

3 Lysosomes s digest food clean up & recycle digest broken organelles membrane sac of digestive enzymes small food particle digesting broken organelles vacuole digesting food recognizes signals Mitochondria make energy from cellular respiration sugar + O 2 fuels the work of life double membrane in both animal & recognizes signals Plants make energy two ways! Mitochondria make energy cellular respiration sugar + O 2 Chloroplasts make energy + sugar from sunlight photosynthesis sunlight + CO 2 & sugar = active energy sugar = stored energy build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugars sugar Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells chloroplast 3

4 make in cellular respiration recognizes signals digestion & clean up central vacuole : food, water or waste cell wall support chloroplast make & sugars in photosynthesis Cells need workers (proteins)! Making proteins to run daily life & growth, the cell must read genes (DNA) build proteins structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws) enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) signals (hormones) & receptors organelles that do this work endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi apparatus Proteins do all the work! one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because DNA proteins do all the work! proteins structure enzymes signals receptors cells Nucleus control center of cell protects DNA instructions for building proteins nuclear membrane nucleolus ribosome factory chromosomes DNA recognizes signals chromosomes DNA Ribosomes protein factories read instructions to build proteins from DNA 2 subunits some free in some attached to ER Ribosomes on ER large subunit small subunit 4

5 recognizes signals Endoplasmic Reticulum part of protein factory helps complete the proteins makes membranes rough ER attached works on proteins smooth ER makes membranes recognizes signals ER helps finish proteins Golgi Apparatus finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins like UPS headquarters shipping & receiving department ships proteins in vesicles UPS trucks membrane sacs vesicles carrying proteins transport vesicles DNA RNA endoplasmic reticulum vesicle protein on its way! recognizes signals ER helps finish proteins Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins protein Making Proteins Golgi apparatus vesicle finished protein 5

6 control cell Golgi apparatus finish & ship proteins make in cellular respiration recognizes signals digestion & clean up endoplasmic reticulum processes proteins make proteins central vacuole : food, water or waste cell wall support chloroplast make & sugars in photosynthesis Cells need to make more cells! Making more cells to replace, repair & grow, the cell must copy their DNA make extra organelles divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new daughter cells organelles that do this work centrioles Centrioles help coordinate cell division one pair in each cell motor proteins centrioles cell division recognizes signals ER helps finish proteins Golgi apparatus finishes, packages & ships proteins Cell Summary Cells have 3 main jobs make energy need food + O 2 cellular respiration & photosynthesis need to remove wastes make proteins need instructions from DNA need to chain together amino acids & finish & ship the protein make more cells need to copy DNA & divide it up Our organelles do all those jobs! That s my cellular story Any Questions? AP Biology

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