# Example 1: 2-wire resistance measurements vs. 4-wire resistance measurements using a DMM

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Example 1: 2-wire resistance measurements vs. 4-wire resistance measurements using a DMM"

## Transcription

1 Overview The basic circuits and electronics devices lab is one of the first electrical engineering lab courses students will take. In this lab, students become familiar with making basic electrical measurements using laboratory instruments such as digital multimeters (DMMs), power supplies, function generators, and oscilloscopes. Once they ve developed some competence in the use of these tools, students begin learning how basic components such as resistors, diodes, transistors, and operational amplifiers function. By the end of their lab coursework, students should be able to design, assemble, and use basic electronic circuits and have the skills necessary to measure and characterize their designs. Keithley offers a variety of educational lab instruments designed to speed and simplify this lab experience. As a leading manufacturer of electronics laboratory instrumentation, Keithley understands the importance of a solid understanding of measurement science, particularly for engineering students. To make the lab experience as instructive as possible, Keithley offers a variety of lab instruments, such as our Series 2000 DMMs and Series 2400 and 2600A SourceMeter instruments, that are well suited for student use in circuits and basic electronics labs. Measurement Example Example 1: 2-wire resistance measurements vs. 4-wire resistance measurements using a DMM Ohms law relates voltage V across a circuit component to current I through a circuit component and resistance R of that component: R = V/I. Two-terminal DMMs source test current through the measuring test leads, terminating at the HI-LO inputs of the DMM. This two-wire ohms system works fine for most resistance measurements applications. However, the I-R drop in the test leads (R L ) can cause inaccuracies that become apparent in lower resistance measurements.see the figure to the left. Four-wire ohms or Kelvin measurements bypass the voltage drop across R L by bringing two high

2 impedance voltage sense leads out to the unknown R X. There is very little current in the sense circuit because of the high input impedance, so there s effectively no I-R drop in the leads, and the voltage seen by the sense terminals is the same as the voltage developed across R X. Example 2: Using a source-measure unit as voltmeter, ammeter, ohmmeter, power supply, or a power load to measure volts, current, resistances, as well as I-V characterization and curve tracing. Source-measure units or SMU s can be used as stand-alone constant voltage or constant currents sources and as stand alone voltmeters or ammeters. However, their real strength is their ability to simultaneously source and measure applying voltage to a device under test (load) and measuring the current through it, or supplying current to a load and measuring the voltage drop across it, such as in measuring resistance. The basic SMU topology is shown to the left along with a variety of SMU configurations.

3 SMU s are core instruments for I-V characterization tests, for example, to explore the fundamental principles of diodes and transistors. SMU s allow you to perform measurements such as forward voltage, reverse leakage, and reverse breakdown voltage on diodes. Combining two SMU s allows the student to understand the principles of transistors, such as making threshold voltage, beta, and

4 transconductance parametric tests as well as the generating a family of semiconductor curves, as shown below. Example 3: Generating basic electrical signals or waveforms to test electronic circuits All electrical engineering students must work with signals or waveforms. In the basic circuits and electronics lab, students study how signals such as sine, square, ramp, pulse, and even noise waveforms pass through electronic circuits. The basic tool for generating these signals is the function generator. These instruments produce signals where parameters such as magnitude, frequency and shape are easily controlled. Combined with powerful waveform generation software, the student can experiment on electronic circuits with speed and simplicity.

5 KiWAVE Software. This waveform utility software allows the student to create standard waveforms such as sine, square, ramp, pulse, and noise as well as managing waveform memory. KiWAVE lets users view waveforms in real units and perform editing. Waveforms can then be uploaded to Keithley s arbitrary waveform/function generator. Example 4: Using a high performance 50 MHz arbitrary waveform/function generaor to generate unique waveforms and basic radio carriers and modulations. Quite often, it is necessary to create electrical waveforms that are not of the typical sine, square, or ramp types. To accomplish this, an arbitrary waveform/function generator is used. To simplify the waveform generation effort in a student teaching lab, waveform generation software is recommended, such as Keithley s KiWAVE utility.

6 KiWAVE Waveform Generation Software. This is an example of using the KiWAVE software to generate a simple sync waveform

7 Test Solution DMMs are the most commonly used type of test equipment for basic measurements of voltage, current, and resistance. Keithley s Series 2000 high performance, precision DMMs meet all of the measurement requirements for circuits and basic electronics labs. The entry-level Model 2100 provides eleven measurement functions that cover the most commonly measured parameters, including standard DMM functions such as volts, ohm, amps, and RTD temperature measurements, as well mx+b, db, and dbm math modifiers for more specialized measurement applications. Model 2100 Digital Multimeter For making measurements on active components such as diodes, transistors, and op-amps, Keithley s Series 2400 SourceMeter Instruments and Series 2600A System SourceMeter Instruments combine multiple test instruments in one enclosure.

8 Model 2602A Dual-Channel System SourceMeter Instrument These instruments combine the functions of a precision power supply, a true current source, and a DMM. Series 2600A also incorporate an arbitrary waveform generator, a V or I pulse generator with measurement, an electronic load, and a trigger controller. This built-in functionality eliminates the need for many of the lab instruments that were previously required, which took up a large amount of bench space. By using these instruments in conjunction with Keithley s LabTracer software, as shown below, students can make measurements that once required the use of expensive curve tracers with just the click of a mouse. For signal or waveform generation on a student lab bench, Keithley has paired the best-in-class performance of the Model 3390 Arbitrary Waveform/Function Generator with the best price in the industry to provide student labs with superior wave form generation functionality and flexibility at an unparalleled price.

9 The Model 3390 generates highly stable and accurate waveforms that allow students to create almost any desired shape. It uses direct digital synthesis (DDS) techniques to achieve this level of performance and functionality. The exceptional signal quality of the Model 3390 is a result of its high resolution, fast rise and fall times, and deep memory. This combined with its low price makes it the ideal solution for applications that use the 50MHz bandwidth and below. This instrument is easy to use. In most cases, pressing one button on the front panel or per forming one or two mouse clicks on your PC is all that is necessary to generate or modify a waveform. Model 3390 Arbitrary Waveform/Function Generator The Model 3390 s best-in-class performance and features include: 50MHz maximum sine wave frequency 25MHz pulse frequency with 10ns minimum width Arbitrary waveform generator with 256k-point, 14-bit resolution Built-in function generator capability including sine, square, triangle, noise, DC, etc. Precision pulses and square waves with fast (<10ns) rise/fall times Built-in 10MHz external time base for multiple unit synchronization Built-in AM, FM, PM, FSK, PWM modulation Frequency sweep and burst capability LXI Class C compliant Ethernet, TMC compliant USB and standard GPIB interfaces Digital pattern output port and control capabilities The Model 3390 is the only instrument in its class with a digital pattern mode. It provides the ability to transmit arbitrary 16-bit patterns via a multi-pin connector located on the rear panel of the instrument. This feature can be used for applications such as testing clock and data signals directly, sending simple protocols to devices under test, and simulating simple control functions.

10 With Keithley s KiWAVE software package, you can easily create complex and long patterns, which the Model 3390 can generate at varying speeds and amplitudes. Digital Pattern Generation Using Kiwave The KiWAVE software package, included with the model 3390, helps you or your students define and create custom arbitrary waveforms, manage waveform memory, apply filters to waveforms, and display waveforms on a PC

11 KiWAVe Waveform Genertion Software To learn more about selecting the best voltage measurement tool for your circuits and electronics lab, check out our new: Interactive Voltage Measurement Guide Quickly find the right solution for your application

### AFG-100/200 series USB Modular Arbitrary Function Generator. Date: Oct, 2014

AFG-100/200 series USB Modular Arbitrary Function Generator Date: Oct, 2014 Outline Product Overview Feature, Advantage and Benefit Comparison Chart Ordering Information 22 Product information AFG-125,

### DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b

DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #5. Clipping and Clamping Circuits. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #5 Clipping and Clamping Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose

### Inductors in AC Circuits

Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum

### RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer

RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.

### Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory

EE-100 Lab: - Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During

### APSYN420A/B Specification 1.24. 0.65-20.0 GHz Low Phase Noise Synthesizer

APSYN420A/B Specification 1.24 0.65-20.0 GHz Low Phase Noise Synthesizer 1 Introduction The APSYN420 is a wideband low phase-noise synthesizer operating from 0.65 to 20 GHz. The nominal output power is

### The RC Circuit. Pre-lab questions. Introduction. The RC Circuit

The RC Circuit Pre-lab questions 1. What is the meaning of the time constant, RC? 2. Show that RC has units of time. 3. Why isn t the time constant defined to be the time it takes the capacitor to become

### User s Guide DDS-3X25 USB ARBITRARY FUNCTION GENERATOR

User s Guide DDS-3X25 USB ARBITRARY FUNCTION GENERATOR Content General safety summary...1 Introduction...2 Chapter 1 Getting started...3 System Requirements...4 Installing Hardware...5 Installing Software...8

### Precise Measurement FAQs

Precise Measurement FAQs Here are some Frequently Asked Questions and Answers associated with low level measurements. If you don t find answers to your questions here, you can send a specific question

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region

Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region The FET can be used in two extreme ways. One is as a voltage controlled resistance, in the so called "Ohmic" region, for which V DS < V GS - V

### QUICK START GUIDE FOR DEMONSTRATION CIRCUIT 956 24-BIT DIFFERENTIAL ADC WITH I2C LTC2485 DESCRIPTION

LTC2485 DESCRIPTION Demonstration circuit 956 features the LTC2485, a 24-Bit high performance Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The LTC2485 features 2ppm linearity, 0.5µV offset, and 600nV RMS noise.

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### Fundamentals of Signature Analysis

Fundamentals of Signature Analysis An In-depth Overview of Power-off Testing Using Analog Signature Analysis www.huntron.com 1 www.huntron.com 2 Table of Contents SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION... 7 PURPOSE...

### TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin

TESTS OF 1 MHZ SIGNAL SOURCE FOR SPECTRUM ANALYZER CALIBRATION 7/8/08 Sam Wetterlin (Updated 7/19/08 to delete sine wave output) I constructed the 1 MHz square wave generator shown in the Appendix. This

### The unique waveform control section starts with simple familiar waves and curves them into waves you haven't heard before.

The Q167 LFO++ is a Low Frequency Oscillator and universal modulator with a wide range of interesting features. This functionally-dense module creates complex modulation with a variety of common and unusual

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### Simplify Data Acquisition with a Built-in LXI Web Server

M E A S U R E M E N T T I P S Volume 9, Number 3 Simplify Data Acquisition with a Built-in LXI Web Server Snapshot: Make temperature measurements quickly and easily There are many applications in which

### Annex: VISIR Remote Laboratory

Open Learning Approach with Remote Experiments 518987-LLP-1-2011-1-ES-KA3-KA3MP Multilateral Projects UNIVERSITY OF DEUSTO Annex: VISIR Remote Laboratory OLAREX project report Olga Dziabenko, Unai Hernandez

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit

EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, at Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of this

### The Oscilloscope, the Signal Generator and Your Filter s Test Setup SGM 5/29/2013

The Oscilloscope, the Signal Generator and Your Filter s Test Setup SGM 5/29/2013 1. Oscilloscope A multimeter is an appropriate device to measure DC voltages, however, when a signal alternates at relatively

### Multi-Channel Programmable DC Power Supplies

Dual and triple output models with two 30V/1.5A (45W) channels and a 6V/5A (30W) channel on the triple output supply All channels are independently controlled and have isolated outputs for maximum flexibility

### 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal.

CHAPTER 3: OSCILLOSCOPE AND SIGNAL GENERATOR 3.1 Introduction to oscilloscope 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graph-displaying device-it draws a graph of an electrical signal. 2. The graph show signal change

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation

Digital to Analog Conversion Using Pulse Width Modulation Samer El-Haj-Mahmoud Electronics Engineering Technology Program Texas A&M University Instructor s Portion Summary The purpose of this lab is to

### Introduction 1 Block diagram 1

Electric Druid VCLFO Introduction 1 Block diagram 1 Features 2 Fastest LFO frequency of around 12.8Hz 2 Slowest LFO frequency of around 0.05Hz 2 10-bit LFO output resolution 2 19.5KHz sample output rate

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### The OP AMP -, Figure 1

The OP AMP Amplifiers, in general, taking as input, one or more electrical signals, and produce as output, one or more variations of these signals. The most common use of an amplifier is to accept a small

### Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist.

Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist. Abstract. I have been asked to put together a detailed article on a SWR meter. In this article I will deal

### Arbitrary/Function Generators AFG3000C Series Datasheet

Arbitrary/Function Generators AFG3000C Series Datasheet Applications Electronic test and design Sensor simulation Functional test Education and training Unmatched performance, versatility, intuitive operation,

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter

### Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies

Soonwook Hong, Ph. D. Michael Zuercher Martinson Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies 1. Introduction PV inverters use semiconductor devices to transform the

### WHY DIFFERENTIAL? instruments connected to the circuit under test and results in V COMMON.

WHY DIFFERENTIAL? Voltage, The Difference Whether aware of it or not, a person using an oscilloscope to make any voltage measurement is actually making a differential voltage measurement. By definition,

### Impedance 50 (75 connectors via adapters)

VECTOR NETWORK ANALYZER PLANAR TR1300/1 DATA SHEET Frequency range: 300 khz to 1.3 GHz Measured parameters: S11, S21 Dynamic range of transmission measurement magnitude: 130 db Measurement time per point:

### Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National

### The 555 timer: Waveform shaping

The 555 timer: Waveform shaping Introduction: Oscillators are ubiquitous not only in research environments but also in our modern, technology-oriented society. Oscillators are used for communication, timing

### www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements

www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance

### EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS

EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES To understand the theory of operation of the clipping and clamping diode circuits. To design wave shapes that meet different circuits needs.

### MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS

Introduction to Digital Electronic Design Module 13, Interfacing Analog to Digital Circuits 1 MODULE 13 - INTERFACING THE ANALOG WORLD TO DIGITAL CIRCUITS OVERVIEW: Digital circuits require the input signal

### www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements

www.keithley.com LLM 6 th Edition Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance Measurements Low Level Measurements Handbook Precision DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance

### Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

### U1602A Handheld Oscilloscopes, 20 MHz

Products & Services Technical Support Buy Industries About Agilent United States Home >... > Oscilloscopes > U1600A Series handheld oscilloscopes (2 models) > U1602A Handheld Oscilloscopes, 20 MHz Product

### DDX 7000 & 8003. Digital Partial Discharge Detectors FEATURES APPLICATIONS

DDX 7000 & 8003 Digital Partial Discharge Detectors The HAEFELY HIPOTRONICS DDX Digital Partial Discharge Detector offers the high accuracy and flexibility of digital technology, plus the real-time display

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### 5 in 1 DVB-T Transmitter & Dual Cast Agile Digital Transposer TV EQUIPMENT

The VHF/UHF Dual cast Digital Transposers/ Digital Transmitters set new standards for ATV and DVB-T transposer and transmitter technology by combining top performance with an extensive number of features

### Engineering Sciences 151. Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory Assignment 3 Fall Term 1998-99

Engineering Sciences 151 Electromagnetic Communication Laboratory Assignment 3 Fall Term 1998-99 WAVE PROPAGATION II: HIGH FREQUENCY SLOTTED LINE AND REFLECTOMETER MEASUREMENTS OBJECTIVES: To build greater

### Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB

Product: Vector Network Analyzer R&S ZVB Performing Amplifier Measurements with the Vector Network Analyzer ZVB Application Note This document describes typical measurements that are required to be made

### Charged cable event. 1 Goal of the ongoing investigation. 2 Energy sources for the CDE. Content

Charged cable event David Pommerenke, david_pommerenke@hp.com, 916 785 4550 Last update: Feb.23, 2001 Content Goal Energy sources, which may lead to CDE. Complexity of the different discharge modes. Possible

### The Oscilloscope and the Function Generator:

The Oscilloscope and the Function Generator: Some introductory exercises for students in the advanced labs Introduction So many of the experiments in the advanced labs make use of oscilloscopes and function

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### BSNL TTA Question Paper-Instruments and Measurement Specialization 2007

BSNL TTA Question Paper-Instruments and Measurement Specialization 2007 (1) Instrument is a device for determining (a) the magnitude of a quantity (b) the physics of a variable (c) either of the above

### Circuits and Resistivity

Circuits and Resistivity Look for knowledge not in books but in things themselves. W. Gilbert OBJECTIVES To learn the use of several types of electrical measuring instruments in DC circuits. To observe

### Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by

### Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz

Technical Datasheet Scalar Network Analyzer Model 8003-10 MHz to 40 GHz The Giga-tronics Model 8003 Precision Scalar Network Analyzer combines a 90 db wide dynamic range with the accuracy and linearity

### 1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

### Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers

ECE 3550 - Practicum Fall 2007 Experiment 2 Diode Applications: Rectifiers Objectives 1. To investigate the characteristics of half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits. 2. To recognize the usefulness

### Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA1115, HFA1130, HFA1135)

Use and Application of Output Limiting Amplifiers (HFA111, HFA110, HFA11) Application Note November 1996 AN96 Introduction Amplifiers with internal voltage clamps, also known as limiting amplifiers, have

### Operational Amplifiers

1. Introduction Operational Amplifiers The student will be introduced to the application and analysis of operational amplifiers in this laboratory experiment. The student will apply circuit analysis techniques

### Dayton Audio is proud to introduce DATS V2, the best tool ever for accurately measuring loudspeaker driver parameters in seconds.

Dayton Audio is proud to introduce DATS V2, the best tool ever for accurately measuring loudspeaker driver parameters in seconds. DATS V2 is the latest edition of the Dayton Audio Test System. The original

### Digital Storage Oscilloscopes Models 2540B, 2542B, 2540B-GEN, 2542B-GEN

Data Sheet Digital Storage Oscilloscopes Models 2540B, 2542B, 2540B-GEN, 2542B-GEN The 2540B, 2542B, 2540B-GEN, and 2542B-GEN dual channel 60 MHz and 100 MHz digital storage oscilloscopes deliver performance

### Agilent BenchVue Software (34840B) Data capture simplified. Click, capture, done. Data Sheet

Agilent BenchVue Software (34840B) Data capture simplified. Click, capture, done. Data Sheet Use BenchVue software to: Visualize multiple measurements simultaneously Easily capture data, screen shots and

### Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

### Lab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope

PHYSICS 220 Physical Electronics Lab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope Object: To become familiar with the oscilloscope, a ubiquitous instrument for observing and measuring electronic signals. Apparatus: Tektronix

### LABORATORY FACILITIES

LABORATORY FACILITIES Communication Systems Laboratory Officer-In-charge Dr. Neetu Sood Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering DR B R AMBEDKAR NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR

### Signal Types and Terminations

Helping Customers Innovate, Improve & Grow Application Note Signal Types and Terminations Introduction., H, LV, Sinewave, Clipped Sinewave, TTL, PECL,,, CML Oscillators and frequency control devices come

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### TELEPHONE AND LINE ANALYZER

The TALAN represents state-of-the-art capability to rapidly and reliably detect and locate illicit tampering and security vulnerabilities on both digital and analog telephone systems. Marketing Characteristics

### Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED

Analog Devices Welcomes Hittite Microwave Corporation NO CONTENT ON THE ATTACHED DOCUMENT HAS CHANGED www.analog.com www.hittite.com THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK , 10 MHz to 20 GHz 2 Elizabeth Drive,

### Analog and Digital Meters

Analog and Digital Meters Devices and Measurements Objective At the conclusion of this presentation the student will describe and identify: Safety precautions when using test equipment Analog Multimeters

### Daniel Imfeld Derrick Kwong Mark Hsu Mike Hu

Daniel Imfeld Derrick Kwong Mark Hsu Mike Hu Product Description The Encore features a MIDI synthesizer and a sequencer in a portable package. It has MIDI In, MIDI Out and MIDI Thru ports to facilitate

### Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator

Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Engineering Electrical Department Experiment # (4) AM Demodulator Communications Engineering I (Lab.) Prepared by: Eng. Omar A. Qarmout Eng. Mohammed K. Abu Foul Experiment

### Class A Amplifier Design

Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common

### AC Measurements Using the Oscilloscope and Multimeter by Mr. David Fritz

AC Measurements Using the Oscilloscope and Multimeter by Mr. David Fritz 1 Sine wave with a DC offset f = frequency in Hz A = DC offset voltage (average voltage) B = Sine amplitude Vpp = 2B Vmax = A +

### PCM Encoding and Decoding:

PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### Lab 1: DC Circuits. Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu

Lab Date Lab 1: DC Circuits Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu I. Introduction The purpose of this lab is to allow the students to become comfortable with the use of lab

### High Definition Oscilloscopes

PRELIMINARY High Definition Oscilloscopes HDO4000 and HDO6000 Key Features 12-bit ADC resolution, up to 15-bit with enhanced resolution 200 MHz, 350 MHz, 500 MHz, 1 GHz bandwidths Long Memory up to 250

### Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

### FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS

FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYZERS Dynamic Response Analyzers Servo analyzers When you need to stabilize feedback loops to measure hardware characteristics to measure system response BAFCO, INC. 717 Mearns Road

### MAKE SURE TA & TI STAMPS EVERY PAGE BEFORE YOU START

Laboratory Section: Last Revised on December 15, 2014 Partners Names Grade EXPERIMENT 10 Electronic Circuits 0. Pre-Laboratory Work [2 pts] 1. How are you going to determine the capacitance of the unknown

### Model 3390 Arbitrary Waveform Generator

www.keithley.com Model 3390 Arbitrary Waveform Generator User s Manual 3390-900-01 Rev. C / January 2009 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E O F C O N F I D E N C E WARRANTY Keithley Instruments, Inc. warrants

### Measuring Temperature withthermistors a Tutorial David Potter

NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS The Software is the Instrument Application Note 065 Measuring Temperature withthermistors a Tutorial David Potter Introduction Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors used in

### Agilent 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer dc to 600 khz

Agilent 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer dc to 600 khz Technical Specifications Build complex waveforms from common signals The Agilent Technologies 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer uses VLSIC technology

### TOTALLY SOLID STATE NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO BEACONS 190-535 khz

TOTALLY SOLID STATE NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO S 190-535 khz This family of radio transmitters has been developed as extremely efficient, highly reliable Non Directional Beacons. ND2000A/4000A» MODULAR CONSTRUCTION»

### DIODE CIRCUITS CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2 DIODE CIRCUITS As discussed in the previous section, diodes are essentially one-way valves. They carry current in one direction, but block current in the other. In addition, in the forward conduction

### PC FUNCTION GENERATOR

PC FUNCTION GENERATOR Create standard signal waves like e.g. sine, triangle and rectangle are available; other sine waves can be easily created with integrated software. Total solder points: 954 Difficulty

### BJT Characteristics and Amplifiers

BJT Characteristics and Amplifiers Matthew Beckler beck0778@umn.edu EE2002 Lab Section 003 April 2, 2006 Abstract As a basic component in amplifier design, the properties of the Bipolar Junction Transistor

### The scalable solution for high speed R&D and functional testing

I-V testing The scalable solution for high speed R&D and functional testing Series 2600 System SourceMeter Multi-Channel I-V Test Instruments A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E O F C O N F I D E N C E Cut your

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### Electricity & Electronics 8: Capacitors in Circuits

Electricity & Electronics 8: Capacitors in Circuits Capacitors in Circuits IM This unit considers, in more detail, the charging and discharging of capacitors. It then investigates how capacitors behave

### RLC Series Resonance

RLC Series Resonance 11EM Object: The purpose of this laboratory activity is to study resonance in a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function

### Fluke 8808A Digital Multimeter Extended Specifications

Fluke 8808A Digital Multimeter Extended Specifications Making measurements is as simple as pushing a button The Fluke 8808A 5.5 digit multimeter has a broad range of functions, measuring volts, ohms and

### RF Network Analyzer Basics

RF Network Analyzer Basics A tutorial, information and overview about the basics of the RF Network Analyzer. What is a Network Analyzer and how to use them, to include the Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA),