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1 Lguistic ociety of merica Open yllable Lengtheng West Germanic uthor(s): diti Lahiri and B. Elan ource: Language, Vol. 75, No. 4 (Dec., 1999), pp. - Published by: Lguistic ociety of merica table URL: ccessed: 01/04/ :29 Your use of the JTOR archive dicates your acceptance of JTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at. JTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, part, that unless you obtaed prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content the JTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regardg any further use of work. Publisher contact formation may be obtaed at. Each copy of any part of a JTOR transmission must conta the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or prted page of such transmission. JTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content a trusted digital archive. We use formation technology and ols crease productivity and faciate new forms of scarship. For more formation about JTOR, please contact Lguistic ociety of merica is collaboratg with JTOR digitize, preserve and extend access Language.

2 DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff DITI LHIRI B. ELN DREHER University of Konz University of Toron Vowels stressed syllables the West Germanic s-e.g. Middle English, Middle Dutch and Middle High German-e lengthened under certa circumces. There been two different explanations for. The traditional assumption a process of open syllable lengtheng dardize kosch 1939, among others). The second, quite different, approach assumes that the lengtheng process (at least Middle English) is not OL but some sort of compensary lengtheng caused loss of a fal schwa (Mkova 1982, 1985, Lass 1985, Hayes 1989, Kim 1993). We attempt show that OL was part of the grammar of all three s, but that the motiion depended on the local contexts. We claim that all three s endeavored mata and maximize the Germanic foot ( & Lahiri 1991), and OL contributed different ways 1. OPEN YLLBLE : uncontroversial assumption that stressed syllables all the West Germanic s underwent a process of open syllable lengtheng durg the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Prokosch 1939:140). ccordg dard account, OL lengthens the vowels of short stressed syllables of the form CoV, changg them proposals concerng Middle English (ME)1 open syllable lengtheng (MEOL) which suggest that, at least, there was no general rule that lengthened vowels open This move away from MEOL as open syllable lengtheng was augurated by Mkova (1982, 1985).2 Basg her argument on a list of 326 native and candavian words compiled from the entries Holthausen (1934) and weet (1888), supplemented by 107 words borrowed from nglo-norman collected by Bliss (1952/53), Mkova claims that 'MEOL depends crucially on the type of syllable followg the stressed short syllable. The change operates unfailgly only cases when there is syllabic Middle English, i.e. when the second syllable of the origal form is lost due fal schwa deletion Middle English', (1982:42, * Earlier versions of (parts of) article e presented by diti Lahiri at the EUROTYP conference Lucca 1991, the seventh International Phonology conference at Krems, 1992, tanford University, 1993, ICHL XII, Manchester, 1995, and at the University of Tuibgen, 1997, on the occasion of Herman Paul's centenary; and by Elan at the Workshop on Markedness and Language Change, chloss Maurach, like thank Ricardo, Paula Fikkert, Jennifer Fitzrick-Cole, ven, Richard Hogg, Harry van der Hulst, strid Kraebenmann, Paul Kiparsky, Donka Mkova, Frans Plank, Henng Reetz, and Tomas Riad for very useful comments, and for sharg their views with us. Needless say, some of our opions rema unchanged. Fally, we greatly appreciate the comments by Mark ronoff and two anonymous referees. This research was supported part by ocial ciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada research grant Elan, and onderforschungsbereich 471(4) and the Max-Planck-Humboldt diti Lahiri. 1 We used the followg abbreviations: WGmc (West Germanic), OE (Old English), OHG 2 Mkova (1982: 42-43) cites some earlier antecedents of her position, cludg arraz 1898, Mkoff

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