What do these words have in common? at stamps crisp in end kept prompt up club

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1 1 Closed Syllable What do these words have in common? at stamps crisp in end kept prompt up club This kind of syllable is called closed. The abbreviation is cl. Why do you think it has this name? Fold back this bottom section, or place a sheet of paper over it. NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Please copy this page as an overhead transparency to introduce closed syllables. Record the following correct responses in any order. 1. All of these words have only one vowel.

2 2. The vowel is followed by one or more consonants on the right side. 3. The vowel is short. Mark the vowels immediately after students discover that all of the vowels are short. 4. All are one-syllable words. This type of syllable is called closed because the vowel is closed in by one or more consonants on the right side.

3 4b Short Vowel Signals ff, ll, ss, zz English has several short vowel signals, which come right after the short vowel. They say, "The vowel in front of me is short!" Some of the most common short vowel signals are ll as in fill, ss as in miss, ff, as in whiff, and sometimes zz as in jazz. All of them have a single sound. These words do not follow the rule: as, has, gas, was, is, if, his, us, bus, quiz, whiz, and yes. Draw lines from the word starters on the left to the short vowel signals on the right. Then write the new words on another sheet of paper. Read the new words. 1. sta ss 5. spi ss 9. swe ss 2. cla ll 6. dre ll 10. pre ll 3. ja ff 7. fi ff 11. fri ff 4. be zz 8. sni zz 12. cli zz Use the words in the box to complete the expressions: class shell fall fill miss wall wills cliff call dress 1. the bill 6. it quits 2. hit the 7. in love 3. up 8. a test of 4. hit or 9. a act 5. walk on egg 10. a hanger Write six rhyming words for bill: Write five rhyming words for call:

4 Write four rhyming words for mess: Write three rhyming words for whiff:

5 4e Syllabication Practice Do you remember what a closed syllable is? Closed syllables have three things in common. What are they? In the last lesson, you learned the second rule of syllabication. Do you remember it? If not, here it is one more time. Second Rule of Syllabication A word that has two consonants between two vowels is divided between the consonants (ad-mit). Do not divide between consonant digraphs. Highlight the vowels in the words below. Then draw a red line between the consonants in the middle. Next, write the words in syllables, separated by dashes. Finally, mark the vowels. When you re done, read the words at your teacher's direction. 1. expand ĕx pănd 2. invent 3. affect 4. helmet 5. expect 6. intend 7. insect 8. trespass 9. fishnet 10. inject 11. embellish

6 12. establish Draw the pictures of the prompts for short a, short i, and short e in the space below.

7 1 Vowel-Consonant-e Syllable What do these words have in common? ate scrape hike smile eve these drove broke cute use This type of syllable is called vowel-consonant-e. The abbreviation is vce. What does the abbreviation vce mean? Fold back this bottom section, or place a sheet of paper over it. _ NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Please copy this page as an overhead transparency to introduce vowelconsonant-e syllables. Record the following correct responses in any order. 1. All are one-syllable words. (Every syllable has only one vowel sound; silent vowels don t count.) 2. Each word has two vowels. The second vowel is always an e. 3. A consonant is between the vowels.

8 4. The first vowel is long; the e is silent. Mark the vowels immediately after students discover that the first vowel in each word is long and the e is silent (āte). The abbreviation vce stands for vowel-consonant-e.

9 2a Long a, Fourth Rule of Syllabication The long a sound is easy to learn because it says its own name. Do you remember the pattern of vowel-consonant-e syllables? The first vowel is long, followed by a consonant and a silent e. The silent e has the power to make the first vowel long. Mark it like this: lāte. Say the following words and listen to the long a sound in each of them. 1. made 2. cake 3. ate 4. grape Read the words below and mark the vowels. Write the name of the syllable next to each one. Use the abbreviation cl for closed syllables and the abbreviation vce for vowelconsonant-e syllables. Then read the words. 1. made 5. stamp 9. blade 13. snack 17. brave 2. mad 6. shape 10. flask 14. blaze 18. scrape 3. back 7. plate 11. skate 15. plant 19. scrap 4. bake 8. ants 12. snake 16. quake 20. strand Fourth Rule of Syllabication Divide a vowel-consonant-e syllable after the silent e. Highlight the vowels in the following words and draw a red line between the syllables. Then draw a line from the first syllable of each word to the correct syllable abbreviation on the left. Next, draw a line from the second syllable of each word to the correct syllable abbreviation on the right. Finally, read the words. cl inflate cl takeoff stalemate handmade pref engrave s blameless shameful

10 exhale vce makeshift vce On the back, write five rhyming words for save, five for late, and five for cake.

11 1 R-Controlled Syllable What do these words have in common? art March or sport shirt birth her clerk fur turn We call this type of syllable r-controlled. The abbreviation is rc. Why do you think it has this name? Fold back this bottom section, or place a sheet of paper over it. NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Please copy this page as an overhead transparency to introduce r- controlled syllables. Record the following correct responses in any order. 1. All of the words have only one vowel. 2. The vowels are followed by the letter r.

12 3. The letter r controls the vowel and changes it to say ar as in art and or as in sport. The other three vowels have the same sound: ur as in turn, ir as in birth, and er as in her. 4. All are one-syllable words. Mark the vowels by circling the vowel and the r, art. This syllable is called r-controlled because the r changes the vowel sounds.

13 3a R-Controlled Syllable or The r-controlled vowel or is not long or short. The letter r controls the o and changes it to say or as in for, fork, and born. A syllable that contains the or combination is called an r- controlled syllable. When the or sound comes at the end of a one-syllable word, it is followed by silent e, except for the words or, nor, and for. Words such as bore, tore, and more are still considered r-controlled syllables; however, the e is silent, so cross it out. The letter r is part of an r-controlled vowel. The abbreviation is rc. We mark it by circling the vowel and the r sport. Read the following words and highlight the vowels. Write the vowel sound next to each word and mark it. 1. sport 7. broke 13. core 19. close 2. moth 8. shore 14. grove 20. scorn 3. north 9. torch 15. storm 21. cord 4. spoke 10. prod 16. honk 22. port 5. slot 11. chore 17. cork 23. rock 6. short 12. stork 18. throb 24. norm On another sheet of paper write five rhyming words for port and five for torn. Read the following story first. Go back over it and underline or highlight all of the words with ar and or. An American Explorer Robert E. Peary (short e) loved to travel to cold places in the far North. While exploring Greenland in the 1890s, he hiked 600 miles over snow and ice to map the area. Afterwards, he informed the world that Greenland was not part of a continent. Instead, it was a large island. Peary had an even bigger goal for himself. He wanted to be the first human to reach the North Pole! Before he started, he organized an exploring party of six hardy men. Their ship departed from the port of New York in July While stopping at a port in Canada, Peary hired 17 Eskimos to support this enormous effort. In March 1909, he set sail for the frozen North. His ship carried 23 men, 133 dogs, and 17 dog sleds. Because the days were short, they traveled mostly in darkness. They endured bitter cold and harsh storms. Peary's remarkable party made history on April 6, On that date, they recorded planting the American flag on the North Pole.

14 (Paraphrased from 100 Years of Adventure and Discovery, National Geographic Society, 1987)

15 1 Vowel-Vowel Syllable What do these words have in common? aim eat sweep pie roast due stay steam tree tie throat fruit This kind of syllable is called vowel-vowel. The abbreviation is vv. Why do you think it has this name? Fold back this bottom section, or place a sheet of paper over it. _ NOTE TO INSTRUCTOR: Please copy this page as an overhead transparency to introduce vowelvowel syllables. Record correct responses in any order. 1. All of the words have two vowels next to each other. 2. The first vowel is long. 3. The second vowel is silent. Mark the vowels right after students discover the sounding rule. 4. They are all one-syllable words. Remind students that every syllable has only one vowel sound.

16 Another important concept is that the two vowels must be kept in the same syllable. Do not divide between them. This type of syllable is called vowel-vowel because two vowels are next to each other. The vowelvowel syllable is not to be confused with diphthongs. Diphthongs also have two vowels next to each other, but they follow an arbitrary sounding rule that must be memorized.

17 5a Prefix Group Work Write down five words that start with these prefixes. (For numbers 8 and 9, write two for each.) Next, deduce the definition of each prefix. Save your list because this is your studyguide for the test. 1. fore Definition: 2. tele Definition: 3. inter Definition: 4. a Definition: 5. bio Definition: 6. per Definition: 7. auto Definition: 8. in, im, il, ir Definition: 9. con, com, col, cor

18 Definition:

19 9b Latin Roots duct, duc, and duce Use the roots duct, duc, or duce with the listed prefixes and suffixes to create words. Prefixes Root Suffixes ab aque er con duc(t) ible de ive intro duce or pro (t)ion re 1. prefix + root + suffix: the director of an orchestra 2. prefix + root + suffix: The beginning of a book 3. prefix + root: To take an amount off a bill, to lessen a charge 4. prefix + prefix + root + suffix: A copy of a work of art 5. prefix + root + suffix: A person who finances and supervises the making of a movie 6. prefix + prefix + root + suffix: able to be copied easily 7. prefix + root: A canal that transports water from rivers to farms or cities 8. prefix + root + suffix: The transfer of heat through metal. 9. prefix + root: Noun: fresh vegetables, verb: to create, to make 10. prefix + root: A kidnapping 11. prefix + root + suffix: Describes a person who gets a lot done What do the roots duct, duc, and duce mean? Write four verbs that have a prefix and the root duce: Change three of the above verbs to nouns:

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