Basics of Mineralogy. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Basics of Mineralogy. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists"

Transcription

1 Basics of Mineralogy Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

2 Terms to Know: Atom Molecule Proton Neutron Electron Isotope Ion Bonding ionic covalent metallic

3 Fig. 3.3 Periodic Table of the Elements

4 Fig 3.4A Ionic Bonding

5 Fig 3.4B Covalent Bonding

6 Figure The effects of temperature and pressure on the physical state of matter, in this case water.

7 The 6 Crystal Systems All have 3 axes, except for 4 axes in Hexagonal system Isometric -- all axes equal length, all angles 90 ο Hexagonal -- 3 of 4 axes equal length, three 90 ο, 120 ο Tetragonal -- two axes equal length, all angles 90 ο (not common in rock forming minerals) Orthorhombic -- all axes unequal length, all angles 90 ο Monoclinic -- all axes unequal length, only two angles are 90 ο Triclinic -- all axes unequal length, no 90 ο

8 Pyrite -- an example of the isometric crystal system: cubes

9 Galena -- an example of the isometric crystal system: cubes

10 Fluorite -- an example of the isometric crystal system, octahedrons, and an example of variation in color

11 Garnet -- an example of the isometric crystal system: dodecahedrons

12 Garnet in schist, a metamorphic rock

13 Large masses of garnet -- a source for commercial abrasives

14 Quartz -- an example of the hexagonal crystal system.

15 Amethyst variety of quartz -- an example of color variation in a mineral. The purple color is caused by small amounts of iron.

16 Agate -- appears to be a noncrystalline variety of quartz but it has microscopic fibrous crystals deposited in layers by ground water.

17 Calcite crystals. Calcite is in the hexagonal crystal system.

18 Tourmaline crystals grown together like this are called twins. Tourmaline is in the hexagonal crystal system.

19 Andalusite -- an example of the orthorhombic crystal system

20 Olivine crystals in a nickel-iron matrix from a meteorite. Olivine is in the orthorhombic crystal system.

21 Gypsum crystals -- an example of the monoclinic system

22 A gypsum rose. An example of different crystal habits, sheets instead of blades, for the same mineral.

23 Orthoclase -- a K-feldspar, an example of the monoclinic system

24 Microcline -- a K-feldspar, an example of the triclinic system

25 Kyanite -- an example of the triclinic system

26 Bauxite -- an amorphous mineral (noncrystalline). Bauxite is aluminum ore that forms by tropical weathering of aluminum silicates.

27 Crystal systems and example minerals: Isometric - diamond, garnet, halite, pyrite Hexagonal - quartz, calcite, dolomite Tetragonal - not common in rock forming minerals Orthorhombic - anhydrite, olivine, staurolite Monoclinic - orthoclase, biotite, muscovite, amphibole, pyroxene, gypsum, kaolinite Triclinic - plagioclase (Na-Ca-feldspar), microcline, kyanite

28 Chemical Classification of minerals and some examples: Native elements - gold, silver, copper Sulfides - pyrite (FeS 2 ), galena (PbS) Oxides - hematite, limonite (iron oxides) Halides - rock salt or halite, fluorite Carbonates - calcite, dolomite Sulfates - gypsum, anhydrite Silicates - quartz, biotite, K-feldspar, plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole

29 Chemical Composition of Minerals Many minerals have a precise chemical formula. Examples include: quartz, SiO 2 calcite, CaCO 3 Other minerals have a variable formula because of ionic substitution, which does not change crystal structure. Examples include: olivine (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 pyroxene (Mg, Fe)SiO 3 plagioclase NaAlSi 3 O 8 or CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8

30 Figure The relative size and electrical charge of ions.

31 Gold, a native element

32 Copper -- an example of a native element

33 Halite -- an example of a halide mineral

34 Anhydrite -- example of a sulfate mineral

35 Major Silicate Mineral Groups based on tetrahedral configurations: Isolated: olivine, garnet, kyanite Double: uncommon in rocks Rings: uncommon in rocks Single chains: pyroxenes Double chains: amphiboles Sheets: micas, chlorite, clay minerals Framework: feldspars and quartz

36 Figure The silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

37 Figure Silicon-oxygen tetrahedral groups

38 Olivine -- isolated tetrahedra

39 Augite -- single-chain tetrahedra, a pyroxene mineral

40 Hornblende -- double-chain tetrahedra, an amphibole mineral

41 Plagioclase feldspar framework tetrahedra; notice the twinning striations characteristic of this mineral.

42 These are the physical properties most useful for mineral identification: Color (be careful, not always diagnostic) Luster Transparency or Opacity Crystal System Crystal Habit Twinning of crystals Cleavage Fracture Hardness: Table 3.1 in Textbook Specific Gravity or density Streak

43 Examples of cleavage A: biotite -- one direction B: calcite -- three directions

44 Moh s Scale of Hardness, Table Talc 2. Gypsum 3. Calcite 4. Fluorite 5. Apatite 6. Orthoclase 7. Quartz 8. Topaz 9. Corundum (ruby) 10. Diamond

45 Conchoidal fracture in quartz. Also an example of vitreous or glassy luster.

46 Density -- some examples water 1 g/cm 3 quartz 2.65 g/ cm 3 olivine g/ cm 3 lead 11 g/ cm 3 gold 20 g/ cm 3

47 Rock Forming Minerals Sialic Minerals Mafic Minerals Clay Minerals Non-silicate Minerals

48 Sialic Minerals - rich in Si and Al Feldspars K-feldspar: KAlSi 3 O 8 plagioclase: NaAlSi 3 O 8 -CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 Quartz: SiO 2 Muscovite: KAl 3 Si 3 O 10 (OH) 2

49 Mafic Minerals - rich in Mg & Fe Olivine: (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 Pyroxene: (Mg,Fe)SiO 3 Amphibole: Ca 2 (Mg,Fe) 5 Si 8 O 22 (OH) 2 Biotite: K(Mg,Fe) 3 AlSi 3 O 10 (OH) 2

50 Clay Minerals Form from weathering of silicate minerals; common in shale, mudstone, and soil. Kaolinite: Al 4 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 8 Montmorillonite or bentonite: (Al,Mg) 8 (Si 4 O 10 ) 3 (OH) H20 Illite: more complex than montmorillonite

51 SEM photograph of clay minerals: Permian, Supai Group, Grand Canyon; x 20,900. Figure 05-D, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1173.

52 Non-Silicate, Sedimentary Minerals Calcite: CaCO 3 Dolomite: CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 Halite: NaCl Gypsum: CaSO 4. 2H 2 O

Physical Properties of Minerals. Physical Properties. Hardness. ERSC 2P12 Minerals 2

Physical Properties of Minerals. Physical Properties. Hardness. ERSC 2P12 Minerals 2 Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness Colour Streak Lustre Cleavage Diaphaneity Parting Fracture Physical Properties Striations Magnetism Specific Gravity Crystal Form Aggregates Tenacity Acid Reaction

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION

LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION OBJECTIVES: LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION 1) to become familiar with the properties important in identifying minerals; 2) to learn how to identify the common rock-forming minerals. Preparatory

More information

Earth Materials: Minerals. Mineral Properties. Mineral Properties. Some optical properties. Three general categories:

Earth Materials: Minerals. Mineral Properties. Mineral Properties. Some optical properties. Three general categories: 1 2 Earth Materials: Minerals What is a mineral? Properties/characteristics of different types of minerals Mineral structures and bonding Major categories of minerals Importance and uses of minerals What

More information

What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure

What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions,

More information

Procedures for identifying minerals:

Procedures for identifying minerals: Procedures for identifying minerals: 1. Separate metallic/earthy minerals from nonmetallic minerals. If you re not sure about the luster of the mineral, then it is probably nonmetallic. a. EARTHY AND METALLIC

More information

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Minerals Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

More information

Lab 3: Minerals. Lab 3: Minerals

Lab 3: Minerals. Lab 3: Minerals Lab 3: Minerals Introduction Minerals Minerals are the basic building blocks that make up the solid Earth. Therefore, any study of the solid Earth must begin with an understanding of minerals. A mineral,

More information

Lab 3: Minerals. (2) Minerals are solids, therefore liquids and gases are not considered minerals.

Lab 3: Minerals. (2) Minerals are solids, therefore liquids and gases are not considered minerals. Introduction Minerals Minerals are the basic building blocks that make up the solid Earth. Therefore, any study of the solid Earth must begin with an understanding of minerals. A mineral, by definition,

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley Minerals Author: Rebecca Brindley CHAPTER 1 Minerals 1 Minerals Quartz: What is a Mineral? There are five things that must be true for a substance to be classified as a mineral. The five items are as follows:

More information

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10.

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10. Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structures. Chemical

More information

P1: Rock identification (I)

P1: Rock identification (I) P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia-

Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia- Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia- Minerals are the natural material that every inorganic material on planet Earth is composed of. They are the foundation of both our planet and most

More information

2 Identifying Minerals

2 Identifying Minerals CHAPTER 5 2 Identifying Minerals SECTION Minerals of Earth s Crust KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are seven physical properties scientists use to identify minerals?

More information

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1 Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

Earth Sciences: Course Presenters

Earth Sciences: Course Presenters Earth Sciences: Course Presenters 625-102 Geology Dr Stephen Gallagher Prof Andrew Gleadow Dr Malcolm Wallace Prof Ian Plimer Course Coordinator Room 214 Series - Lecture Topics 1. Mineralogy and Crystals

More information

Silicate Structures. The building blocks of the common rock-forming minerals

Silicate Structures. The building blocks of the common rock-forming minerals Silicate Structures The building blocks of the common rock-forming minerals Mineral classes and the silicates There are a total of 78 mineral classes 27 of these are the silicates which constitute ~92%

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100

GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 1. Chose a subdiscipline of geology and describe how mineralogy plays a central role in that field. (2 pts) Looking for reasonable answers

More information

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic

More information

Property Descriptions and Testing Procedures

Property Descriptions and Testing Procedures Lab 1: Mineral Identification OLLI Rock ID and Geologic Mapping Name: Introduction: In this lab activity you will become familiar with minerals and identifying their different properties. This lab will

More information

Lab 3: Minerals and Earth s Layers Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 3: Minerals and Earth s Layers Geology 202: Earth s Interior Introduction: Minerals and Rocks Lab 3: Minerals and Earth s Layers Geology 202: Earth s Interior Imagine that you were to pick up a stone on the beach. How could you tell if it was a mineral or a rock?

More information

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

More information

Student Exploration: Mineral Identification

Student Exploration: Mineral Identification Name: Date: Student Exploration: Identification Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, homogeneous, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1.

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Chapter 1. Minerals and Mineraloids

Chapter 1. Minerals and Mineraloids Chapter 1 Minerals and Mineraloids When most people think of minerals, they usually imagine expensive gemstones like diamonds, emeralds and sapphires, or economic minerals like silver, gold and copper.

More information

Global Building Blocks: Rocks and Mineral Identification

Global Building Blocks: Rocks and Mineral Identification Cave of the Winds Activity Eleven: Global Building Blocks Lesson for Grades 9-12 One lab of about 50 minutes Satisfies Colorado Model Content Standard for Science, Standard 4, Benchmark #1 for grades 9-12:

More information

Mineral ID Lab - Teacher Information

Mineral ID Lab - Teacher Information Mineral ID Lab - Teacher Information Objective: Complete the tasks/tests at six different stations and make observations to identify mineral samples. Station Descriptions: 1 - Color vs. Streak - Compare

More information

Minerals & Rocks Review Qs

Minerals & Rocks Review Qs Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. 1. Most of the rocks shown were formed by (1) compaction and/or cementation (3) heat and pressure

More information

Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals

Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals A mineral is any: Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals 1. naturally occurring 2. inorganic 3. solid, with a 4. definite chemical composition, and a 5. crystal structure Minerals are

More information

Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice

Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice Rocks and Minerals Multiple Choice 1. The basaltic bedrock of the oceanic crust is classified as (1) felsic, with a density of 2.7 g/cm3 (2) felsic, with a density of 3.0 g/cm3 (3) mafic, with a density

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

Minerals & Rocks. 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds

Minerals & Rocks. 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds Minerals & Rocks Minerals 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds Inorganic Found as a solid in nature Definite chemical make up and regular atomic structure A. Minerals

More information

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists

Igneous Rocks. Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate

More information

Rocks and Mineral Mapping

Rocks and Mineral Mapping Rocks and Mineral Mapping UTAH CORE CURRICULUM Grade K Standard III Objectives 3 a, c Grade 1 Standard III Objectives 3 c Grade 4 Social Studies Standard VI Objective 4 BACKGROUND Utah is a great place

More information

FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE. John J. Thomas

FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE. John J. Thomas FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE John J. Thomas Purpose An exercise in the identification of minerals that uses minerals with very distinct characteristics. The students will learn the characteristics

More information

Science and Social Studies Standards Covered:

Science and Social Studies Standards Covered: Science and Social Studies Standards Covered: SS (9-12) Geology 3. Explain natural phenomena that shape the surface of Earth, including rock cycles, plate motions and interactions, erosion and deposition,

More information

Identifying Minerals Grade 4

Identifying Minerals Grade 4 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Identifying s Grade 4 Created by: Maria Schetter (Terrace Heights Elementary School), Jackie Akins (Terrace Heights Elementary School), Scott Welder

More information

Lab Activity on Minerals

Lab Activity on Minerals Lab Activity on Minerals 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Introduction Rocks are made of many mineral grains stuck together.

More information

Identifying Minerals

Identifying Minerals Identifying Minerals All rocks are made up of minerals. Rocks have different colors, textures, and shapes. Some rocks or minerals are very hard. Some are soft. A gemstone is a mineral that is rare and

More information

Presents the. Rock Test Study Resource

Presents the. Rock Test Study Resource Presents the Rock Test Study Resource Created by Simone Markus Published by EngLinks 1 Preface This is a free resource provided by EngLinks for students in APSC 151. This presentation is a supplementary

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral? What do minerals have in common? Not all minerals are sparkling gems, but they all have certain characteristics in common. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid

More information

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES

BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES BOWEN'S REACTION SERIES Purpose John J. Thomas Frequently, people cannot visualize the mineral associations that form the sequences of igneous rocks that you find in the earth's crust and what happens

More information

ROCKS & MINERALS: PRECIOUS COMMODITIES

ROCKS & MINERALS: PRECIOUS COMMODITIES ROCKS & MINERALS: PRECIOUS COMMODITIES 2014 Eco-Meet Varsity The study of rocks and minerals is an appropriate beginning to the appreciation of nature. Rocks provide a looking glass into the past, as far

More information

Mineral Identification

Mineral Identification Laboratory Manual for Physical Geology Mineral Identification Overview... 2 Materials Needed... 2 Scientific Definition of Minerals... 2 Physical Properties of Minerals... 5 Identification Process... 13

More information

Mineral Identification

Mineral Identification Mineral Identification Name Notes Page Objectives Explain which mineral properties are most important in identification. Explain how to identify minerals by their properties. Classify some common minerals

More information

Mineral Properties. Hand sample description

Mineral Properties. Hand sample description Mineral Properties Hand sample description How do we characterize minerals? 1) Color and streak 2) Luster 3) Hardness 4) Fracture and tenacity 5) Crystal form and system 6) Crystal shape and habit 7) Cleavage

More information

THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust

THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS. Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust THE COMPOSITION OF EARTH: ROCKS AND MINERALS Ruth Siddall University College London, UK Keywords: petrology, petrography, mineralogy, rock classification, crust Contents 1. Introduction 2. Minerals 2.1.

More information

Properties of Minerals

Properties of Minerals CHAPTER 1 Properties of Minerals Introduction Materials Needed Pencil Hand lens Calculator Set of mineral samples To understand most geologic processes, we must understand rocks. And to understand rocks

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks

Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks Standards ES 4 The student will investigate and understand how to identify major rock-forming and ore minerals based on physical and chemical properties.

More information

Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan

Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan Set up: Print Mineral Identification - Introduction to Mineral Tests Chart for students to record observations. Set up four mineral testing stations as follows:

More information

GEOLOGY Vol. III - Analytical Techniques for Elemental Analysis of Minerals - Richard Tessadri

GEOLOGY Vol. III - Analytical Techniques for Elemental Analysis of Minerals - Richard Tessadri ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS Richard Tessadri University of Innsbruck, Austria Keywords: elemental analysis, minerals, bulk methods, beam methods, electron microprobe analysis

More information

Rock Identification Lab

Rock Identification Lab Rock Identification Lab Name Mineral Hardness Objective: You will determine the relative hardness of common objects relative to the known hardness of index minerals. We will use fingernail, copper, glass,

More information

MINERAL PROPERTIES DEFINITION. LUSTER - appearance of a fresh mineral surface in reflected light. HARDNESS - Resistance of a mineral to abrasion.

MINERAL PROPERTIES DEFINITION. LUSTER - appearance of a fresh mineral surface in reflected light. HARDNESS - Resistance of a mineral to abrasion. MINERAL PICTIONARY DEFINITION MINERALS Are inorganic, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical composition, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structure. MINERAL

More information

FIFTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIFTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WEEK 1. PRE: Describing a chemical reaction. LAB: Illustrating how molecules move. POST: Comparing salt and sugar crystals. ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW

More information

Rocks and Minerals 5 th Grade Kelly Krupa

Rocks and Minerals 5 th Grade Kelly Krupa Rocks and Minerals 5 th Grade Kelly Krupa Benchmark and SLC#: SLC 12: A. Students will classify rocks by their characteristics. Objectives: Students will classify rocks by their characteristics; learn

More information

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing elements of the periodic table. LAB: Discovering properties of compounds. POST:

More information

P2: Rock identification (II)

P2: Rock identification (II) P2: Rock identification (II) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

SIXTH GRADE MINERALS

SIXTH GRADE MINERALS SIXTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different solutions. LAB: Exploring how elements can be released from compounds.

More information

Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall

Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall High School Duration 2-3 classes and a Museum visit Location Gem & Mineral Hall Supplies See individual lessons Standards Chemistry 1.2.3.6.7.9 Module Overview How is

More information

IDENTIFYING MINERALS Lesson Plan

IDENTIFYING MINERALS Lesson Plan IDENTIFYING MINERALS Lesson Plan TARGET AUDIENCE Third through Sixth grade STANDARDS VA grades 3-5: Scientific investigation, reasoning and logic; Matter. MD grades 3-6: Constructing knowledge; Communicating

More information

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia.

7) A clastic sedimentary rock composed of rounded to subrounded gravel is called a A) coal. B) shale. C) breccia. Please read chapters 10 and 5 CHAPTER 5 Sedimentary Rocks 1) Sedimentary rocks A) form by compaction and cementation of loose sediment. B) are widespread on the continents and ocean floor. C) are common

More information

1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals D. crystals

1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals D. crystals The Rock Cycle describes how rocks form and change over time What are Rocks and Minerals 1. The building blocks of rocks are naturally occurring solid materials called A. granules B. grains C. minerals

More information

Silicate Structures, Structural Formula, Neso-, Cyclo-, and Soro- Silicates

Silicate Structures, Structural Formula, Neso-, Cyclo-, and Soro- Silicates Page 1 of 13 EENS 2110 Tulane University Mineralogy Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Silicate Structures, Structural Formula, Neso-, Cyclo-, and Soro- Silicates This document last updated on 15-Jun-2012 Silicate

More information

Phyllosilicates (Silicate Sheets)

Phyllosilicates (Silicate Sheets) Phyllosilicates (Silicate Sheets) Many members have a platy or flaky habit with one very prominent cleavage. (Si 2 O 5 ) 2- etrahedral sheet (6-fold) Minerals are generally soft, low specific gravity,

More information

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth.

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. They are derived from preexisting source rocks. They are composed by sediments, this is material that has been weathered,

More information

Silica (quartz) Silica is the fourteenth element on the periodic table. It can sometimes be found as the

Silica (quartz) Silica is the fourteenth element on the periodic table. It can sometimes be found as the Silica (quartz) Silica, SiO 2, is a white or colorless crystalline compound found mainly as quartz, sand, flint, and many other minerals. Silica is an important ingredient to manufacture a wide variety

More information

rotation,, axis of rotoinversion,, center of symmetry, and mirror planes can be

rotation,, axis of rotoinversion,, center of symmetry, and mirror planes can be Crystal Symmetry The external shape of a crystal reflects the presence or absence of translation-free symmetry y elements in its unit cell. While not always immediately obvious, in most well formed crystal

More information

Quartz. Joseph R. Smyth. Adopt-a-Mineral Project Example Paper

Quartz. Joseph R. Smyth. Adopt-a-Mineral Project Example Paper Quartz Joseph R. Smyth Adopt-a-Mineral Project Example Paper 1 I. Introduction Quartz, or α-quartz, is the mineral form of SiO 2 stable at low temperatures and pressures. The English word derives from

More information

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon.

On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. The Earth is made up of rocks and minerals. The core of the Earth is molten rock. On the outside, there's a crust. Within this crust, the most abundant elements (by mass) are oxygen and silicon. Sometimes

More information

Minerals Definition, Types, and Identification Forensic Applications

Minerals Definition, Types, and Identification Forensic Applications Minerals Definition, Types, and Identification Forensic Applications Transparent emerald, the green variety of beryl, on calcite matrix Niocalite (blue) in sovite (calcite + apatite). Oka carbonatite complex.

More information

Diagnostic features: low hardness (H = 2, scratched by fingernail), planes of cleavage forming rhombic plates.

Diagnostic features: low hardness (H = 2, scratched by fingernail), planes of cleavage forming rhombic plates. Sulfate Gypsum CaSO 4 2 H 2 O Diagnostic features: low hardness (H = 2, scratched by fingernail), planes of cleavage forming rhombic plates. Habit: well-formed crystals are tabular, with a rhombic outline

More information

Properties of Minerals

Properties of Minerals Some of the samples used in Mineralogy Lab are museum specimens. Please do not destroy them. You can do just about anything you want to the grungy ones, but be nice to the pretty specimens as they are

More information

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks

Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks Deposited at the earth s surface by wind, water, glacier ice, or biochemical processes Typically deposited in strata (layers) under cool surface conditions. This is

More information

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness : Finding Clues Like a Scientist Author: Kris Poduska Date Created: 2000 Subject: Earth Science, Classification Level: Elementary and Middle School Standards: New York State- Intermediate Science (www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/)

More information

Page 1. Name:

Page 1. Name: Name: 1) According to the Earth Science Reference Tables, which sedimentary rock would be formed by the compaction and cementation of particles 1.5 centimeters in diameter? A) shale B) conglomerate C)

More information

Rock Mechanics I Course CEE9577. Properties of Rocks

Rock Mechanics I Course CEE9577. Properties of Rocks Rock Mechanics I Course CEE9577 Properties of Rocks Rock as an Engineering Material Rock as an Engineering Material It differs from other engineering materials in that it contains discontinuities such

More information

REDSTONE EXPLORATION SERVICES: FILE NOTE SERIES Note 03. ROCK FORMING MINERALS IN THE FIELD A BASIC INTRODUCTION

REDSTONE EXPLORATION SERVICES: FILE NOTE SERIES Note 03. ROCK FORMING MINERALS IN THE FIELD A BASIC INTRODUCTION 3 REDSTONE EXPLORATION SERVICES: FILE NOTE SERIES Note 03. ROCK FORMING MINERALS IN THE FIELD A BASIC INTRODUCTION January 2013 Compiled by Dr. Mike Mlynarczyk So... It s your first day ever in the field

More information

Earth & Space Science

Earth & Space Science Earth & Space Science evidence An open source text edited by MPS teachers Credits Copyright, Mesa Public Schools, 2013. Revised August 14, 2013. Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this book are licensed

More information

Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION From the perspective of a gemologist a mineral is an exciting thing! Most gems are minerals and minerals even in their natural form can be quite beautiful and

More information

Contributions to Aquifer. Geology & Geological Engineering

Contributions to Aquifer. Geology & Geological Engineering Modeling the Electron Donor Contributions to Aquifer Denitrification: Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe ND Scott F. F Korom Geology & Geological Engineering Denitrification NO3- NO2- NO N2O N2 Four Requirements (Firestone,

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 INTRODUCTION TO ROCKS AND THE ROCK CYCLE Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer Provide specific and detailed

More information

Ex 10 Mineral Resources

Ex 10 Mineral Resources 103 Exercise 10 Mineral Resources James S. Reichard Georgia Southern University Student Name Section In this lab you will: explore the connection between society and its use of mineral and rock resources.

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

GEOL1010 Hour Exam 1 Sample

GEOL1010 Hour Exam 1 Sample GEOL1010 Hour Exam 1 Sample 1. The inner core of the Earth is composed of a) solid silicate b) liquid silicate magma c) liquid metal d) solid metal e) olivine. 2. The upper mantle of the Earth is composed

More information

The Characteristics of Clay. Table of Contents

The Characteristics of Clay. Table of Contents The Characteristics of Clay Table of Contents Preview...2 Objectives...2 Readings...2 Introduction...3 Structure of clay minerals...3 Physical features...3 Mineralogical features...4 A. Basic structure

More information

Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007

Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 Metamorphic Rocks Practice Questions and Answers Revised October 2007 1. Metamorphism is a that involves no melt phase. 2. The protolith of a metamorphic rock is the (a) sibling (b) brother (c) parent

More information

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE AVERAGE SHALE

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE AVERAGE SHALE MINERAL COMPOSITION OF THE AVERAGE SHALE By D. H. YAAtON Department of Geology, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. [Received 7th October, 1961] ABSTRACT Mineralogical compositions have been calculated from

More information

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS

ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS ES 104: Laboratory # 7 IGNEOUS ROCKS Introduction Igneous rocks form from the cooling and crystallization of molten rock material. This can occur below the surface of the earth forming intrusive rocks

More information

14.2 Theory 14.2.1 Compton Scattering and Photo-Electric Absorption

14.2 Theory 14.2.1 Compton Scattering and Photo-Electric Absorption 14. THE LITHO-DENSITY LOG 14.1 Introduction The litho-density log is a new form of the formation density log with added features. It is typified by Schlumberger s Litho-Density Tool (LDT). These tools

More information

İfade olarak: Hydrothermal = Hot solution; Alteration= Change; Changes caused by hot solutions

İfade olarak: Hydrothermal = Hot solution; Alteration= Change; Changes caused by hot solutions İfade olarak: Hydrothermal = Hot solution; Alteration= Change; Changes caused by hot solutions Scientically: Chemical, mineralogical and physical changes in a rock caused by the chemical and physical interaction

More information

Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Earth Science Rock Lab. Introduction

Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Earth Science Rock Lab. Introduction Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks Earth Science Rock Lab Introduction A rock is any natural aggregate composed of minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic particles. There are three primary rock

More information

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart

Rock Type Identification Flow Chart Rock Type Identification Flow Chart SEDIMENTARY AMORPHOUS No Crystals or Clasts fairly hard very soft hard & cherty vague crystals SEDIMENTARY IGNEOUS - VOLCANIC CLASTS Broken pieces of rocks or minerals

More information

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids.

Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Metamorphic Rocks, Processes, and Resources Metamorphic rocks are rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure, and/or the action of hot fluids. Protolith or parent rock is

More information

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure

More information

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed?

What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does the texture of a rock reveal about how it was formed? CHAPTER 4 1 The Rock Cycle SECTION Rocks: Mineral Mixtures BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a rock? How are rocks classified? What does

More information

Recommended Group Size: Groups of 2-3 This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science Lab

Recommended Group Size: Groups of 2-3 This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science Lab Grade: 3rd Activity #: 1 Activity Title: Studying Rocks and Minerals Recommended Group Size: Groups of 2-3 Special Notes: This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science Lab Purpose

More information