Earth Materials: Minerals. Importance of Minerals. Introduction to Scientific Classification

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Earth Materials: Minerals. Importance of Minerals. Introduction to Scientific Classification"

Transcription

1 Earth Materials: Minerals Intro. to Scientific Classification 1 Introduction to Scientific Classification Assigning objects, processes, etc. into groups or categories 2 What is a mineral? Importance and uses of minerals Describing and identifying minerals Mineral properties Why these properties? - Mineral structures, bonding, and composition Major categories of minerals Based on composition and structure Minerals and Mineral Resources information (updated often by D. Kuehn) Geologic materials like fossils, minerals, rocks, faults, and volcanoes have been classified into categories What is a mineral? - solid (excludes liquids and gases) - crystalline (three dimensional ordered arrangement of atoms or molecules) - specific composition (a single element or a compound that at least comes close to a specific chemical formula) - naturally-occurring (not exclusively made by people on purpose) - single-phase (made up of one kind of material; not a mixture i.e. to distinguish minerals from rocks) 3 Importance of Minerals Almost all rocks are made of minerals! Aesthetic value Natural resource value 4 usually not of biological origin / inorganic (somewhat artificial distinction here) Examples to test: Ice (e.g. in snow or a glacier) Obsidian Minerals as Constituents of Rocks 5 Aesthetic value 6 Native gold Smithsonian A large cut diamond Smithsonian Minerals in Granite 1

2 Natural Resource Value 7 Importance of Minerals 8 Natural resource value Our society can t function without minerals! Open pit copper mine south of Tucson, Arizona Mineral Information Institute - Lifetime consumption - Per-capita minerals use - Importance of mining - Fact sheets, etc. Fig Three general categories: Some optical properties Optical Physical Chemical Color Streak Luster Double refraction Fluorescence Transmission of light (transparent, translucent, or opaque) Streak Example: hematite Fig 2.26 Minerals of various colors 2

3 Metallic luster: gold and pyrite 13 Double refraction in a transparent piece of calcite 14 Non-metallic luster: feldspar, mica, olivine, and quartz Some physical properties Hardness Density Crystal shape How it breaks: cleavage and fracture 17 How a mineral breaks: 18 Fracture Cleavage Crystal of galena (left) (lead sulfide) Crystal of quartz (right) (silicon dioxide) These minerals differ in color, luster, light transmission, crystal form, hardness, cleavage, and streak. - key observations for cleavage: - number of directions - angles between them Fig

4 19 20 Conchoidal fracture in obsidian Fig 4.3 Cleavage of mica into thin sheets Fig Chemical properties Acid test Salty taste Many other chemical tests 22 Cleavage in calcite Fig 2.24 Fig barite rosettes (barium sulfate) needles of stibnite (antimony sulfide) 24 Some other properties Habit Some unusual crystal Habits Magnetism Geology 2 nd ed. Chernicoff Absorbs water Smell botryoidal malachite (green) with azurite (blue) (hydrous copper carbonates) stellate pyrite (iron sulfide) 4

5 25 26 In-class exercise Relationship to: Working in groups, examine and describe the properties of each mineral sample provided atomic composition atomic structure and bonding Chemical bonds - how multiple atoms are held together ionic covalent metallic other types of bonding Graphite and Diamond Both are composed of carbon but have very different properties. Fig 2.15 Carbon atom Fig Structures of graphite (left) and diamond (right) Geology 2 nd ed. - Chernicoff 5

6 31 Structure of halite (sodium chloride - salt) Fig 2.16 Regular arrangement of atoms in galena (left) Cube-shaped crystals (below) 32 Ionic bonds hold together Cl -1 and Na +1-1 The structure of galena is essentially the same as in halite. Therefore, both +1 grow and break to form cubes. Their color and luster are different, however, because they have different compositions (and bonding). Fig Some major groups of minerals 34 Silicates e.g. quartz, feldspar, mica, olivine (categorized by type of structure) Non-silicates: Carbonates Oxides Sulfides Sulfates Native elements Halides e.g. calcite e.g. magnetite, hematite e.g. pyrite, galena e.g. gypsum e.g. native gold, copper e.g. halite individual tetrahedra single chains double chains sheets Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron Fig 2.16 Types of silicate mineral structures Figs 2.17 and D frameworks 6

7 37 Some Online Resources Mineral resources info. from the USGS WebMineral Minerals Database MinDat Minerals Database Smithsonian Gem & Mineral Collection Smithsonian Department of Mineral Sciences More rock and mineral links (some with lesson plans) (Digital Library for Earth System Education) 7

Earth Materials: Minerals. Mineral Properties. Mineral Properties. Some optical properties. Three general categories:

Earth Materials: Minerals. Mineral Properties. Mineral Properties. Some optical properties. Three general categories: 1 2 Earth Materials: Minerals What is a mineral? Properties/characteristics of different types of minerals Mineral structures and bonding Major categories of minerals Importance and uses of minerals What

More information

What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure

What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure What is a mineral?? A homogenous, naturally occurring, solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms, ions,

More information

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Minerals Study Guide Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence or statement true.

More information

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley

Minerals. Author: Rebecca Brindley Minerals Author: Rebecca Brindley CHAPTER 1 Minerals 1 Minerals Quartz: What is a Mineral? There are five things that must be true for a substance to be classified as a mineral. The five items are as follows:

More information

LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION

LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION OBJECTIVES: LAB 2: MINERAL PROPERTIES AND IDENTIFICATION 1) to become familiar with the properties important in identifying minerals; 2) to learn how to identify the common rock-forming minerals. Preparatory

More information

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS

305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS DATE DUE: Name: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 ATOMS, ELEMENTS, AND MINERALS Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer. Use GEOLOGIC VOCABULARY where APPLICABLE!

More information

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 3 Lesson 1 Minerals. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Animal, Vegetable, or Mineral? What do minerals have in common? Not all minerals are sparkling gems, but they all have certain characteristics in common. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid

More information

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1

Minerals in granite. The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals. Figure 2.1 Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure

More information

Mineral ID Lab - Teacher Information

Mineral ID Lab - Teacher Information Mineral ID Lab - Teacher Information Objective: Complete the tasks/tests at six different stations and make observations to identify mineral samples. Station Descriptions: 1 - Color vs. Streak - Compare

More information

Property Descriptions and Testing Procedures

Property Descriptions and Testing Procedures Lab 1: Mineral Identification OLLI Rock ID and Geologic Mapping Name: Introduction: In this lab activity you will become familiar with minerals and identifying their different properties. This lab will

More information

2 Identifying Minerals

2 Identifying Minerals CHAPTER 5 2 Identifying Minerals SECTION Minerals of Earth s Crust KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What are seven physical properties scientists use to identify minerals?

More information

Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals

Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals A mineral is any: Regents Earth Science Unit 10: Minerals and Rocks Minerals 1. naturally occurring 2. inorganic 3. solid, with a 4. definite chemical composition, and a 5. crystal structure Minerals are

More information

Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia-

Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia- Identification of Rock forming mineral -Sean Tvelia- Minerals are the natural material that every inorganic material on planet Earth is composed of. They are the foundation of both our planet and most

More information

Mineral Identification

Mineral Identification Mineral Identification Name Notes Page Objectives Explain which mineral properties are most important in identification. Explain how to identify minerals by their properties. Classify some common minerals

More information

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate

Rocks & Minerals. 10. Which rock type is most likely to be monomineralic? 1) rock salt 3) basalt 2) rhyolite 4) conglomerate 1. Of the Earth's more than 2,000 identified minerals, only a small number are commonly found in rocks. This fact indicates that most 1) minerals weather before they can be identified 2) minerals have

More information

Lab 3: Minerals. Lab 3: Minerals

Lab 3: Minerals. Lab 3: Minerals Lab 3: Minerals Introduction Minerals Minerals are the basic building blocks that make up the solid Earth. Therefore, any study of the solid Earth must begin with an understanding of minerals. A mineral,

More information

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10.

** Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals ** 3. Hardness: A measure of resistance to scratching. On the Mohs Scale, it ranges from 1 to 10. Lab 2: Mineral Lab notes. Minerals are inorganic, solid, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical compositions, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structures. Chemical

More information

Student Exploration: Mineral Identification

Student Exploration: Mineral Identification Name: Date: Student Exploration: Identification Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, homogeneous, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1.

More information

MINERAL PROPERTIES DEFINITION. LUSTER - appearance of a fresh mineral surface in reflected light. HARDNESS - Resistance of a mineral to abrasion.

MINERAL PROPERTIES DEFINITION. LUSTER - appearance of a fresh mineral surface in reflected light. HARDNESS - Resistance of a mineral to abrasion. MINERAL PICTIONARY DEFINITION MINERALS Are inorganic, naturally occurring substances that have a characteristic chemical composition, distinctive physical properties, and crystalline structure. MINERAL

More information

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core

Crust: low density rocks. Mantle: high density rocks. Core: very high density metal. core Crust: low density rocks Mantle: high density rocks Core: very high density metal core mechanical) layering mechanical layers lithosphere: rigid & strong asthenosphere: plastic & weak mesosphere: plastic

More information

Lab 3: Minerals. (2) Minerals are solids, therefore liquids and gases are not considered minerals.

Lab 3: Minerals. (2) Minerals are solids, therefore liquids and gases are not considered minerals. Introduction Minerals Minerals are the basic building blocks that make up the solid Earth. Therefore, any study of the solid Earth must begin with an understanding of minerals. A mineral, by definition,

More information

Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan

Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan Mineral Identification Testing Lesson Plan Set up: Print Mineral Identification - Introduction to Mineral Tests Chart for students to record observations. Set up four mineral testing stations as follows:

More information

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing elements of the periodic table. LAB: Discovering properties of compounds. POST:

More information

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY

EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY EARTH SCIENCE 110 INTRODUCTION to GEOLOGY DR. WOLTEMADE NAME: SECTION: MINERALS & ROCKS LABORATORY INTRODUCTION The identification of minerals and rocks is an integral part of understanding our physical

More information

Earth Sciences: Course Presenters

Earth Sciences: Course Presenters Earth Sciences: Course Presenters 625-102 Geology Dr Stephen Gallagher Prof Andrew Gleadow Dr Malcolm Wallace Prof Ian Plimer Course Coordinator Room 214 Series - Lecture Topics 1. Mineralogy and Crystals

More information

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: KEY Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a naturally occurring, inorganic substance which has a definite chemical composition What would be the opposite of this? man-made,

More information

Minerals and Rocks C) D)

Minerals and Rocks C) D) Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers

More information

Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks

Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks Earth Science SOL Review Sheet #2: Minerals & Rocks Standards ES 4 The student will investigate and understand how to identify major rock-forming and ore minerals based on physical and chemical properties.

More information

Identifying Minerals Grade 4

Identifying Minerals Grade 4 TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) EARTH SCIENCE Identifying s Grade 4 Created by: Maria Schetter (Terrace Heights Elementary School), Jackie Akins (Terrace Heights Elementary School), Scott Welder

More information

Global Building Blocks: Rocks and Mineral Identification

Global Building Blocks: Rocks and Mineral Identification Cave of the Winds Activity Eleven: Global Building Blocks Lesson for Grades 9-12 One lab of about 50 minutes Satisfies Colorado Model Content Standard for Science, Standard 4, Benchmark #1 for grades 9-12:

More information

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background?

Atoms and Elements. Atoms: Learning Goals. Chapter 3. Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks. Clicker 1. Chemistry Background? Chapter 3 Atoms Atoms and Elements; Isotopes and Ions; Minerals and Rocks A Review of Chemistry: What geochemistry tells us Clicker 1 Chemistry Background? A. No HS or College Chemistry B. High School

More information

Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle

Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle Grade 9 Geography - Unit 3 Lesson 3 The Rock Cycle What is the difference between a Rock and a Mineral? Minerals are homogeneous, naturally occurring, inorganic solids. Each mineral has a definite chemical

More information

Procedures for identifying minerals:

Procedures for identifying minerals: Procedures for identifying minerals: 1. Separate metallic/earthy minerals from nonmetallic minerals. If you re not sure about the luster of the mineral, then it is probably nonmetallic. a. EARTHY AND METALLIC

More information

Physical Properties of Minerals. Physical Properties. Hardness. ERSC 2P12 Minerals 2

Physical Properties of Minerals. Physical Properties. Hardness. ERSC 2P12 Minerals 2 Physical Properties of Minerals Hardness Colour Streak Lustre Cleavage Diaphaneity Parting Fracture Physical Properties Striations Magnetism Specific Gravity Crystal Form Aggregates Tenacity Acid Reaction

More information

Identifying Minerals

Identifying Minerals Identifying Minerals All rocks are made up of minerals. Rocks have different colors, textures, and shapes. Some rocks or minerals are very hard. Some are soft. A gemstone is a mineral that is rare and

More information

Rock Identification Lab

Rock Identification Lab Rock Identification Lab Name Mineral Hardness Objective: You will determine the relative hardness of common objects relative to the known hardness of index minerals. We will use fingernail, copper, glass,

More information

FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE. John J. Thomas

FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE. John J. Thomas FAIRLY SIMPLE MINERAL IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE John J. Thomas Purpose An exercise in the identification of minerals that uses minerals with very distinct characteristics. The students will learn the characteristics

More information

IDENTIFYING MINERALS Lesson Plan

IDENTIFYING MINERALS Lesson Plan IDENTIFYING MINERALS Lesson Plan TARGET AUDIENCE Third through Sixth grade STANDARDS VA grades 3-5: Scientific investigation, reasoning and logic; Matter. MD grades 3-6: Constructing knowledge; Communicating

More information

Lab Activity on Minerals

Lab Activity on Minerals Lab Activity on Minerals 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Introduction Rocks are made of many mineral grains stuck together.

More information

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness

Objectives: Vocabulary: Materials: Students will: Safety: Element Mineral Streak. Absolute Hardness : Finding Clues Like a Scientist Author: Kris Poduska Date Created: 2000 Subject: Earth Science, Classification Level: Elementary and Middle School Standards: New York State- Intermediate Science (www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/)

More information

FIFTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIFTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WEEK 1. PRE: Describing a chemical reaction. LAB: Illustrating how molecules move. POST: Comparing salt and sugar crystals. ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com

Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 Mark Place, www.learnearthscience.com Name: Rocks & Minerals 1 KEY CONCEPT #1: What is a mineral? It is a, substance which has a What would be the opposite of this? KEY CONCEPT #2: What causes minerals to have different physical properties?

More information

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire

1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire UNIT 3 EXAM ROCKS AND MINERALS NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on on the photographs and news article below. Old Man s Loss Felt in New Hampshire FRANCONIA, N.H. Crowds

More information

Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle

Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle Name Date Per Unit 8.3.1 Study Guide: Rocks, Minerals, and the Rock Cycle I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should

More information

Minerals & Rocks Review Qs

Minerals & Rocks Review Qs Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. 1. Most of the rocks shown were formed by (1) compaction and/or cementation (3) heat and pressure

More information

Science & Literacy Activity GRADES 3-5

Science & Literacy Activity GRADES 3-5 Science & Literacy Activity GRADES 3-5 OVERVIEW This activity, which is aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts, introduces students to scientific knowledge and language

More information

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see.

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see. Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what

More information

Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks. Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure

Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks. Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure Investigation 1-Part 1: Investigating Mock Rocks Geology: the scientific study of Earth s history and structure Geologist: a person who studies the Earth and the materials of which it is made Property:

More information

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 1.Group I elements do not occur free (native state) in the nature because a. They are unstable b. Their compounds with other elements are highly

More information

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard

Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding. Chris J. Pickard Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure

More information

Rocks and Mineral Mapping

Rocks and Mineral Mapping Rocks and Mineral Mapping UTAH CORE CURRICULUM Grade K Standard III Objectives 3 a, c Grade 1 Standard III Objectives 3 c Grade 4 Social Studies Standard VI Objective 4 BACKGROUND Utah is a great place

More information

1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures. Susana Morales Bernal

1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures. Susana Morales Bernal 1º ESO UNIT 3: Pure substances and mixtures Objectives 1. To know that a substance is identified according to its characteristic properties like: density and melting or boiling points. 2. To know the concepts

More information

Science and Social Studies Standards Covered:

Science and Social Studies Standards Covered: Science and Social Studies Standards Covered: SS (9-12) Geology 3. Explain natural phenomena that shape the surface of Earth, including rock cycles, plate motions and interactions, erosion and deposition,

More information

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64

CHAPTER 3: MATTER. Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 CHAPTER 3: MATTER Active Learning Questions: 1-6, 9, 13-14; End-of-Chapter Questions: 1-18, 20, 24-32, 38-42, 44, 49-52, 55-56, 61-64 3.1 MATTER Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies volume We study

More information

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Minerals & Rocks. 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds

Minerals & Rocks. 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds Minerals & Rocks Minerals 5 Characteristics: Naturally occurring Formed from elements or compounds Inorganic Found as a solid in nature Definite chemical make up and regular atomic structure A. Minerals

More information

P1: Rock identification (I)

P1: Rock identification (I) P1: Rock identification (I) Examine the rocks specimens provided with the aid of these notes. All the rocks come from Ireland, as detailed on the attached map. Answer the short question on each specimen

More information

Lab 3: Minerals and Earth s Layers Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 3: Minerals and Earth s Layers Geology 202: Earth s Interior Introduction: Minerals and Rocks Lab 3: Minerals and Earth s Layers Geology 202: Earth s Interior Imagine that you were to pick up a stone on the beach. How could you tell if it was a mineral or a rock?

More information

*The first spelling is used if the stem of the element begins with a consonant and the second spelling if the stem of the element begins with a vowel.

*The first spelling is used if the stem of the element begins with a consonant and the second spelling if the stem of the element begins with a vowel. NAMING INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Introduction A primary control in chemical experiments is knowing the identity of the initial substances. This knowledge can be communicated by the name of the substances and

More information

Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Composition

Chapter 3. Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Composition Chapter 3 Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Composition Elements and Compounds Elements combine together to make an almost limitless number of compounds. The properties of the compound are totally different

More information

SIXTH GRADE MINERALS

SIXTH GRADE MINERALS SIXTH GRADE MINERALS 2 WEEKS LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different solutions. LAB: Exploring how elements can be released from compounds.

More information

UNIT 1 MATERIALS ON THE EARTH

UNIT 1 MATERIALS ON THE EARTH ... MATERIALS ON THE EARTH S CRUST The Earth crust is the outer layer of our planet. It covers the whole Earth surface. The thickness of this layer varies from 6 to 12 Km on the seabed to up 60 Km in the

More information

During photosynthesis, plants use light energy (sunlight) from the sun, carbon dioxide (CO 2. ) and water (H 2

During photosynthesis, plants use light energy (sunlight) from the sun, carbon dioxide (CO 2. ) and water (H 2 Scientist Guide The Spice of Life Introduction Plants make the oxygen we breathe and the food we consume. They do this through a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the single most important

More information

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2).

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule

More information

9.2 Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids

9.2 Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids 9.2 Network Covalent, Ionic, and Metallic Solids YOU ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO: Classify non-molecular solids as either network covalent solids, ionic solids, or metallic solids. Relate the physical properties

More information

Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall

Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall Chemistry in the Gem & Mineral Hall High School Duration 2-3 classes and a Museum visit Location Gem & Mineral Hall Supplies See individual lessons Standards Chemistry 1.2.3.6.7.9 Module Overview How is

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties of Materials

Physical and Chemical Properties of Materials Physical and Chemical Properties of Materials 40- to 2 50-minute sessions ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 14 L A B O R ATO R Y Students explore the properties of a wide variety of materials and examine the relationship

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study

Name Date Class. Guided Reading and Study Describing Matter This section describes the kinds of properties used to describe matter. It also defines elements and contrasts compounds and mixtures. Use Target Reading Skills Write a definition of

More information

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE

MAL 201E: Materials Science. COURSE MATERIALS (with text) GRADING 25.09.2012 COURSE SCHEDULE MAL 201E: Materials Science Course Objective... Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science You will learn about: material structure how structure dictates properties how processing can change

More information

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth.

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS. Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Sedimentary rocks are formed near or at the surface of the earth. They are derived from preexisting source rocks. They are composed by sediments, this is material that has been weathered,

More information

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents

KS3 Science: Chemistry Contents summary KS3 Science MyWorks Guide Chemistry KS3 Science: Chemistry Mini zes: 40 Super zes: 5 Extension zes: 4 Skills zes: 6 TOTAL 54 What are MyWorks zes? MyWorks zes are short individual learning tasks

More information

GY 111 Lecture Note Series Elemental Chemistry

GY 111 Lecture Note Series Elemental Chemistry GY 111 Lab Notes D. Haywick (2007-08) 1 Lecture Goals: A) Basic Atomic structure (Chemistry 101) B) The Periodic Table GY 111 Lecture Note Series Elemental Chemistry Reference: Press et al. (2004), Chapter

More information

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

More information

Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 MINERALS SECTION I: INTRODUCTION From the perspective of a gemologist a mineral is an exciting thing! Most gems are minerals and minerals even in their natural form can be quite beautiful and

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

2 MATTER. 2.1 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes

2 MATTER. 2.1 Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes 2 MATTER Matter is the material of which the universe is composed. It has two characteristics: It has mass; and It occupies space (i.e., it has a volume). Matter can be found in three generic states: Solid;

More information

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons.

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons. Chapter 6, Section 2 Key Concept: Chemical bonds hold compounds together. BEFORE, you learned Elements combine to form compounds Electrons are located in a cloud around the nucleus Atoms can lose or gain

More information

Chapter 5, Lesson 3 Why Does Water Dissolve Salt?

Chapter 5, Lesson 3 Why Does Water Dissolve Salt? Chapter 5, Lesson 3 Why Does Water Dissolve Salt? Key Concepts The polarity of water molecules enables water to dissolve many ionically bonded substances. Salt (sodium chloride) is made from positive sodium

More information

Mineral Properties. Hand sample description

Mineral Properties. Hand sample description Mineral Properties Hand sample description How do we characterize minerals? 1) Color and streak 2) Luster 3) Hardness 4) Fracture and tenacity 5) Crystal form and system 6) Crystal shape and habit 7) Cleavage

More information

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth

Earth Materials: Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks. The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals

More information

Ex 10 Mineral Resources

Ex 10 Mineral Resources 103 Exercise 10 Mineral Resources James S. Reichard Georgia Southern University Student Name Section In this lab you will: explore the connection between society and its use of mineral and rock resources.

More information

Complete tests for CO 2 and H 2 Link observations of acid reactions to species

Complete tests for CO 2 and H 2 Link observations of acid reactions to species Acids and Bases 1. Name common acids and bases found at home and at school 2. Use formulae for common acids and bases 3. Give examples of the uses of acids and bases 4. State that all solutions are acidic,

More information

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY

[Mg] +2 [ S ] -2. HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY HONORS Chemical Bonds and the Chemical Reactions Study Guide KEY Complete the following problems to help prepare for the test. Objective 1: Students will know ionic and covalent bonding. 1. Which subatomic

More information

FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY

FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES ROCK CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE CHEMISTRY WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing solids, gases, liquids, and plasma. LAB: Exploring how states of matter can

More information

Earth & Space Science

Earth & Space Science Earth & Space Science evidence An open source text edited by MPS teachers Credits Copyright, Mesa Public Schools, 2013. Revised August 14, 2013. Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this book are licensed

More information

Recommended Group Size: Groups of 2-3 This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science Lab

Recommended Group Size: Groups of 2-3 This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science Lab Grade: 3rd Activity #: 1 Activity Title: Studying Rocks and Minerals Recommended Group Size: Groups of 2-3 Special Notes: This is a wet experiment and should ideally be done in the Science Lab Purpose

More information

A hands-on introduction to building an organized rock and mineral collection

A hands-on introduction to building an organized rock and mineral collection 3.C.6 Making a Rock and Mineral Collection A hands-on introduction to building an organized rock and mineral collection Grade Level 3 Sessions Seasonality Instructional Mode(s) Team Size WPS Benchmarks

More information

Friday 23 May 2014 Morning

Friday 23 May 2014 Morning Friday 23 May 2014 Morning AS GCE CHEMISTRY A F321/01 Atoms, Bonds and Groups *1168266380* Candidates answer on the Question Paper OCR supplied materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry A (inserted) Other materials

More information

Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The Periodic Table. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. The Periodic Table. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids The Periodic Table Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids A table listing all of the known elements The most important organizing principle in chemistry Properties of metals high luster (shiny) solids at room

More information

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take!

ANSWER KEY. Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! ANSWER KEY Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference

More information

ROCKS & MINERALS: PRECIOUS COMMODITIES

ROCKS & MINERALS: PRECIOUS COMMODITIES ROCKS & MINERALS: PRECIOUS COMMODITIES 2014 Eco-Meet Varsity The study of rocks and minerals is an appropriate beginning to the appreciation of nature. Rocks provide a looking glass into the past, as far

More information

file:///biology Exploring Life/BiologyExploringLife04/

file:///biology Exploring Life/BiologyExploringLife04/ Objectives Compare and contrast ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Describe various ways to represent molecules. Summarize what happens in a chemical reaction. Key Terms ionic bond ion covalent bond molecule

More information

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION

THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION THIS IS A NEW SPECIFICATION ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE CHEMISTRY A Atoms, Bonds and Groups F321 *CUP/T73721* Candidates answer on the question paper OCR Supplied Materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry A (Inserted)

More information

Chapter 4, Lesson 5: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding

Chapter 4, Lesson 5: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding Chapter 4, Lesson 5: Energy Levels, Electrons, and Ionic Bonding Key Concepts The attractions between the protons and electrons of atoms can cause an electron to move completely from one atom to the other.

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,69,77,79,81,83 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2

Atoms. Chemistry 100. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Atoms Classifications of Matter: Elements An Element is a substance (for example,

More information