BLUE SKY SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL MASSAGE AND THERAPEUTIC BODYWORK. Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Kinesiology AXIAL SKELETON

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1 BLUE SKY SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL MASSAGE AND THERAPEUTIC BODYWORK Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Kinesiology AXIAL SKELETON MSAK101-I Session 2 Learning Objectives: 1. List the bones and structures of the Axial Skeleton. 2. Identify the bony landmarks of the Axial Skeleton. 3. Identify the sutures of the Skull. 4. Identify the number of bones for each area of the Axial Skeleton 5. Classify ribs by location. 6. Locate, list and describe the layering of the muscles attaching to the Axial Skeleton. 1) LEARNING BONES AND BONY LANDMARKS: a) In order to learn anatomy of the body, one must first start with a foundation: the bones. b) Bony landmarks are certain and specific areas on a bone. They serve as muscle attachment points and are landmarks for palpation. Underlined landmarks are important for therapists to be able to palpate. Start practicing as you study MSAK and CST! 2) AXIAL SKELETON: These bones make up the head, neck and trunk of the human body. 3) SKULL (22 bones): a) Cranial bones i) Frontal (1): supraorbital ridges (margins) orbit (eyesocket) ii) Parietal (2) iii) Occipital (1): external occipital protuberance (EOP or inion) occipital condyles superior and inferior nuchal lines Updated 2/11 Blue Sky School of Professional Massage and Therapeutic Bodywork Page 1 of 6

2 iv) Temporal (2): mastoid process external auditory meatus (ear canal) temperomandibular joint (TMJ) styloid process zygomatic process (part of zygomatic arch) v) Sphenoid (1) vi) Ethmoid (1) b) Sutures: Named for PLANES! i) coronal ii) sagittal (anterior fontanel) iii) parietal (squamous) iv) lamdoidal (posterior fontanel) (1) wormian bones (sutural bones) Updated 2/11 Blue Sky School of Professional Massage and Therapeutic Bodywork Page 2 of 6

3 c) Facial Bones (13 bones): 1. Maxilla 2. Palatine 3. Zygomatic 4. Lacrimal 5. Nasal 6. Vomer d) Mandible (1 bone): i) angle ii) ramus iii) body iv) coronoid process v) head or condyle 4) EAR BONES (6 bones): (Covered further in CAPP) i. Malleus (2) ii. Incus (2) iii. Stapes (2) 5) HYOID BONE (1 bone) a) located in anterior neck b) The only bone in the human body that does not articulate with another bone. Updated 2/11 Blue Sky School of Professional Massage and Therapeutic Bodywork Page 3 of 6

4 6) VERTEBRAL COLUMN (26 bones): a) Anatomy of a Vertebrae: i) spinous process (SP) ii) transverse process (TP) iii) body iv) lamina v) pedicles vi) superior facets vii) inferior facets viii) vertebral or spinal canal ix) intervertebral foramina b) Intervertebral Disc i. nucleus pulposis (center of disc) ii. annulus fibrosis (fibrous material surrounding nucleus pulposis) c) Cervical Vertebrae (7) = C1 C7: i. atlas (C1) (No SP, has posterior tubercles) ii. axis (C2) a) odontoid process (dens) iii. bifid spinous processes (C2 C6) iv. vertebra prominens (C7) v. transverse foramina (one in each transverse process) a) anterior and posterior tubercles Updated 2/11 Blue Sky School of Professional Massage and Therapeutic Bodywork Page 4 of 6

5 d) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) = T1 T12: e) Lumbar Vertebrae (5) = L1 L5: f) Sacrum (5 fused segments) = S1 S5: i. median sacral crest ii. sacral foramina (anterior & posterior) iii. base (promontory) iv. apex g) Coccyx (4 fused segments) = CC1 CC4 h) Spinal Curves: i. Primary = thoracic and sacral a) kyphotic curves develop in utero ii. Secondary = cervical and lumbar a) lordotic curves develop as child grows i) Cervical curve develops as child learns to crawl ii) Lumbar curve develops as child learns to walk 7) THORACIC CAGE (25 bones): a) Sternum: i. Manubrium ii. Sternal angle (Angle of Louis) iii. Body iv. Xyphoid process b) Ribs (12) = R1 R12: i. True ribs = R1 R7 (direct attachment to the sternum) ii. False ribs: = R8 R10 (attached to sternum by cartilage) iii. Floating ribs = R11 R12 (no sternal attachments) iv. Costochondral Junction Updated 2/11 Blue Sky School of Professional Massage and Therapeutic Bodywork Page 5 of 6

6 8) LAYERING OF MUSCLES: Muscles are listed from superficial to deep. Know location and layering of BOLD muscles. CHEST i) Pectoralis Group (Major & Minor) b) ABDOMINAL Group i) Rectus Abdominus ii) External Obliques iii) Internal Obliques iv) Transverse Abdominus c) BACK AND POSTERIOR NECK MUSCLES: LISTED FROM SUPERFICAL TO DEEP i) Trapezius Group most superficial muscle of back ii) Latissimus Dorsi (while Lats is superficial in lower back, it tucks under trap in midback) iii) Rhomboids (Major & Minor) iv) Erector Spinae Group (Spinalis, Longissumus, Iliocostalis) v) Quadratus Lumborum 9) Medical Terminology: This is FYI and not specifically tested in MSAK Axial Pertaining to (PT) the axis Sphenoid wedge like Cranial PT the cranium Ethmoid sieve like Frontal PT the front Lamdoidal resembling the greek letter Supraorbital PT above the eye Wormian bones Dutch anatomist, Parietal PT the wall of any cavity Vomer wedge Occipital PT the occiput (the back of skull) Ramus branch Condyle knuckle Hyoid U shaped or V shaped Nuchal PT nape or back of neck Odontoid tooth like Temporal PT the temple Pectoralis PT chest Mastoid resembling a breast Rectus straight Styloid resembling a pillar or post Trapezius resembling a trapezium Zygomatic PT cheekbone Rhomboid resembling a rhombus Updated 2/11 Blue Sky School of Professional Massage and Therapeutic Bodywork Page 6 of 6

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