Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab 5: Skeletal Lab

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1 Anatomy & Physiology 120 Lab 5: Skeletal Lab

2 What you Need to Know Structure of the bone Identify bones of the articulated skull Articulating surfaces of the bones Bone surface markings Bone organization Skull / Vertebral Column / Rib Cage You do NOT need to know the fetal skull and skeleton

3 Lab 11 Structure a Long Bone Long Bone Using the Femur Diaphysis The shaft of a long bone Epiphysis Each end of a long bone Hip Proximal Epiphysis Diaphysis Distal Epiphysis Knee

4 Articular cartilage On the outside of the bone Hyaline cartilage Spongy Bone Irregular connecting spaces Found at the ends and inside the shaft of the bone Contains branching boney plates Epiphyseal plates Compact Bone Solid found in the wall of the diaphysis Continuous Matrix (no gaps)

5 Medullary Cavity Hollow chamber in the diaphysis Endosteum The thin layer of cells lining the medullary cavity of a bone. Periosteum A tough layer of cells lining the outside of the whole bone except for the cartilage on the ends

6 Detailed Bone Structure Bone is made up of Osteon units Osteocytes Layers of matrix Lamellae Osteon Osteonic (Haversian) canal Osteonic (Haversion) canal one artery / one vein & one nerve Perforating Canals connect blood vessels from the oteonic canals

7 Microscopic View of Osteocyte Magnify d b) Osteocyte Bone cell a) Canaliculus allow for cell / cell processes to be passed (Microscopic canals that connect lacunae) d) Lacuna Space the Osteocyte can grow in c) Bone Hard matrix Made up of Collagen What kind of tissue is Collagen? (CT) Do not worry about the Developing Bone for lab

8 Organization of the Skeleton Label the skeleton man Only the axial skeleton today Know the bones location and any basic facts (ex: Hyoid supports the tongue) Know the terms used to describe skeletal (harder then it looks) * Terms are defined at the end of the lecture!! (Yes you have to know these)

9 Cranial Bones This needs to be done with your model. Frontal bone Frontal Sinuses Parietal bone Temporal bone Mandibular fossa External auditory meatus Mastoid process Styloid process Zygomatic process Occipital bone Occipital condyles Foramen magnum Sphenoid bone Sella turcica Ethmoid bone Perpendicular plate Cribriform plate Crista galli

10 The Sutures: Note Do Not Use a Pencil (only use the pointer) Coronal Parietal & Frontal meet Sagittal Parietal (R) and Parietal (L) meet Squamosal Parietal and Temporal meet Lambdoidal Parietal and Occipital meet

11 Facial Bones Maxillary bone Palatine process Mandible Mandibular condyle Nasal bones Vomer Lacrimal bones Inferior nasal conchae Zygomatic bones Palatine bones Hyoid bone

12 Sphenoid Bone Temporal Bone Lacrimal Bone Zygomatic Bone Maxilla Inferior Nasal Conchae

13 Palatine Process Zygomatic Arch

14 Vertebral Column & Thoracic Cage Identify the major features of the vertebral column Name features of a typical vertebra Distinguish between cervical, thoracic & lumbar vertebra (locate sacrum & coccyx) Identify structures of the rib cage (distinguish between true and false ribs)

15 Structures of the Vertebral Column Superior articulating process Spinous process Intervertebral foramina Thoracic Vertebra posterior anterior

16 Atlas (#1) Axis (#2) Odontoid process (dens) Cervical Vertebrae (7)

17 The Number of bones in the Vertebral Column Cervical (7 bones) Helpful Hints Breakfast is at 7:00 Thoracic (12 bones) Lumbar (5 bones) Lunch is at 12:00 Dinner is at 5:00 Sacrum (1 bone) Coccyx (1 bone)

18 Thoracic Cage Sternum Manubrium Body Xiphoid process Ribs True (pairs 1-7) False (pairs 8-12) Floating (11&12) Manubrium Body Xiphoid Process

19 Condyle A round process / articulates with another bone (occipital condyle) Crest A narrow, ridge like projection (coxa / hipbone) the same (Iliac crest) Epicondyle Projection above a condyle (femur epicondyle) or (humerus epicondyle) Facet Small nearly flat surface (vertebra) Fontanel Soft spot of the skull where membrane covers the space (anterior fontanel)

20 Foramen An opening through a bone (vertebral foramen or foramen magnum) Fossa relatively deep pit (Ulecranon fossa of the humerus) Fovea tiny pit (Fovea capitis of femur) Head enlargement on the end of a bone (femur) Meatus tube-like passage way within the bone (External auditory meatus of the ear)

21 Process prominent projection on the bone (mastoid process) Sinus Cavity within a bone (Frontal sinus) Spine thorn-like projection (Scapula) Suture Interlocking line of bones (Mostly in the skull) Trochanter Relatively large process (greater trochanter of the femur)

22 Tubercle Small & knob like process (greater tubercle of humerus) Tuberosity knob like usually larger than a tubercle (radial tuberosity of the radius) You will need to be able to identify these structures on the bone Today we will be reviewing the Axial Skeleton (head, neck, and trunk) or (skull, vertebra, and rib cage) Next week will be the appendicular skeleton (bones of the limbs and those that anchor the limbs to the Axial Skeleton)

23 Labs - To Do Today Lots of work today..get crack n Make sure you identify and look at all the correct Bones and their features Start making flash cards for muscle actions (From your Lab hand out packet) Picture references a-s.clayton.edu loudoun.nv.cc.va.us/.../skeletal/skel_lesson.htm

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