Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules"

Transcription

1 Laser-induced microexplosions in transparent materials: microstructuring with nanojoules Chris B. Schaffer, André Brodeur, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur * Harvard University, Department of Physics and Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, MA 0238 ABSTRACT We tightly focus femtosecond laser pulses in the bulk of a transparent material. The high intensity at the focus causes nonlinear absorption of the laser energy, producing a microscopic plasma and damaging the material. The tight external focusing allows high intensity to be achieved with low energy, minimizing the effects of self-focusing. We report the thresholds for breakdown and critical selffocusing in fused silica using -fs pulses at both 400-nm and 800-nm wavelength. We find that permanent damage can be produced with only nj (25 nj) for 400-nm (800-nm) pulses, and that the threshold for critical self-focusing is 40 nj for the 400-nm pulses and 580 nj for the 800-nm pulses. The critical self-focusing thresholds are more than an order of magnitude above the breakdown thresholds, confirming that self-focusing does not play a dominant role in the damage formation. This lack of self-focusing allows a straightforward interpretation of the wavelength and bandgap dependence of bulk breakdown thresholds. The energies necessary for material damage are well within the range of a cavity-dumped oscillator, allowing for precision microstructuring of dielectrics with a high repetition-rate laser that is roughly one-third the cost of an amplified system. Keywords: laser-induced breakdown, optical damage, laser micromachining, nonlinear absorption mechanisms, self-focusing, femtosecond laser-matter interactions. INTRODUCTION Several groups have investigated the use of femtosecond lasers for materials processing and micromachining. 5 Compared to longer-pulse lasers, femtosecond lasers offer increased precision and minimized thermal damage to the material, thus enabling new machining processes. Femtosecond lasers have been used to microstructure a wide variety of materials, including metals, semiconductors, and insulators. In transparent materials, femtosecond lasers offer the potential for micromachining both on the surface and inside the bulk of the material with no damage to the surface. 6,7 In this paper we will focus on the interaction of femtosecond pulses with bulk transparent materials. When a high-intensity ultrashort laser pulse interacts with a transparent material, laser energy can be absorbed through nonlinear processes such as multiphoton absorption, 8 tunneling ionization, 8 and avalanche ionization. 9, This absorption produces a hot electron-ion plasma in the region where the energy is absorbed. When the absorption occurs at the surface of the material, the result is ablation. 3 If the laser is focused in the bulk of the material, the intensity at the focus can cause absorption of the laser energy inside the sample rather than at the surface. With tight external focusing, the absorption forms a microscopic, hot plasma at the laser focus, in the bulk of the material. This plasma then expands into the surrounding material, forming a cavity inside the sample. Previously we have reported the production of 200-nm diameter damage structures inside transparent solids using this technique. 6,7 In addition, we have studied the dynamics of the plasma expansion, and the thresholds for damage in several materials. 2 In this paper, we report on the production of microscopic damage inside fused silica with laser energies of only tens of nanojoules. Energies in this range are readily available from cavity-dumped 3,4 and long-cavity 5 laser oscillators. With these laser systems, our techniques could allow for bulk and surface microstructuring of transparent materials without an amplified laser. Furthermore, we determine that self-focusing can be neglected in our tight-focusing geometry, allowing threshold inten- * WWW:

2 sities to be determined. This knowledge of the intensity enables the wavelength and bandgap dependences of the breakdown threshold to be compared with theoretical predictions, and the dominant ionization mechanism to be determined. 2. BREAKDOWN THRESHOLD To measure the breakdown threshold, we use the scattering technique shown in Fig.. A -fs laser pulse is focused beneath the surface of the sample with a 0.65 numerical aperture (NA) microscope objective. By spatially expanding the gaussian input beam and selecting only the central region, we ensure a near flat-field input to the microscope objective and therefore use the full numerical aperture. The laser pulse is focused 70 µm beneath the surface of the material, where the microscope objective is designed to have minimal aberrations. Compared to our previous work, 6,7,2 the focusing in these experiments is both tighter (we utilize the full NA) and suffers fewer aberrations. To determine the breakdown threshold we illuminate the pumped region of the sample with a He:Ne laser and block the directly transmitted He:Ne light. When breakdown occurs, the material is damaged and we detect the He:Ne light scattered around the beam block by the damage spot. The femtosecond laser energy is measured with a calibrated photodiode (not shown in Fig. ). We find that the breakdown threshold for fused silica is nj for 400- nm pulses and 25 nj for 800-nm pulses. The damage produced with energies near the breakdown threshold is too small or does not yield sufficient contrast to be seen under an optical microscope. fs pump objective sample objective He:Ne laser beam block detection Fig.. Scattering setup for measuring laser breakdown thresholds in transparent materials. To corroborate the scattering data, we measured the transmission of the tightly-focused pulses through the sample. The transmission of 400-nm and 800-nm, -fs pulses through fused silica as a function of laser energy is shown in Fig. 2. For both wavelengths, the transmission drops abruptly just above the breakdown threshold measured by the scattering technique, indicating the onset of strong absorption. 3. VISIBLE DAMAGE MORPHOLOGY Because the damage produced near threshold cannot be resolved optically, we studied the morphology of damage produced by pulses with above-threshold energies. We find there is a sharp threshold (the visible damage threshold) for the production of damage that can be seen under a high-power microscope. For both 400-nm and 800-nm pulses, a single laser shot with only 40 nj of energy produces a visible change. Figure 3 shows an optical image of the damage produced with -fs, 800-nm laser pulses with 50 nj of energy. The photograph was taken in reflection using a.4 NA oil-immersion microscope objective. The horizontal spacing between damage spots is 5 µm, and the diameter of the damage structures is about 500 nm in the image. This diameter is only an upper limit, however, as it is at the resolution limit of the microscope. Visible damage similar to those shown in Fig. 3 were, in previous work, produced using slower focusing and more laser energy. 6 Scanning electron 6 and atomic force 7 microscopy of those damage spots revealed a 200-nm diameter. The inset in Fig. 3 shows a side-view of a single damage structure. The structure is about 2 µm long, indicating that the visible damage is elongated along the laser beam propagation direction. 4. CRITICAL SELF-FOCUSING To establish the role of self-focusing in our experiments we measured the threshold for white-light continuum generation in a slow-focusing geometry (0.20-m focal length). It has been shown that, in such a geometry, the threshold for critical self-focusing corresponds to the threshold for white-light continuum generation. 6 9 The correspondence of these two thresholds allows us to determine the critical power for self-focusing from a measurement of the white-light continuum threshold. Note that selffocusing does not depend on the external focusing geometry, but only on the peak power; 20 thus the critical self-focusing threshold is the same for fast and slow external focusing. We find that the threshold for critical self-focusing is 40 nj for the

3 transmission (a) 400 nm fs fused silica breakdown threshold visible damage critical self-focusing 0. (b) breakdown threshold visible damage transmission 800 nm fs fused silica critical self-focusing laser energy (µj) Fig. 2. Transmission of tightly-focused, -fs pulses through fused silica (a) at 400-nm and (b) at 800-nm. The thresholds for breakdown, visible damage, and critical self-focusing are indicated. 400-nm pulses and 580 nj for the 800-nm pulses. These energies are more than an order of magnitude above the breakdown thresholds we measured using the scattering technique, indicating that self-focusing does not play a dominant role in the damage formation. This lack of self-focusing allows the spot size of the laser at the focus to be calculated with confidence. Thus intensity of the laser pulse can be known, allowing a straightforward interpretation of the wavelength and bandgap dependence of bulk breakdown thresholds. 5. DISCUSSION We discuss two issues: First, what is the utility of our techniques for microstructuring? Second, what new physics can we learn from the fact that we achieve breakdown without self-focusing? While the damage produced near threshold may find use in some microstructuring applications (perhaps where a small, localized index change is desired) most applications will probably use the structures formed at energies above the visible damage threshold. We have demonstrated binary three-dimensional data storage using such structures. 6 Other potential applications include the manufacture of three-dimensional diffractive optical elements and internal engraving of transparent materials. In this work, we produced optically-visible damage (shown in Fig. 3) with only 40 nj of incident laser energy. Let us consider how the visible damage threshold can be lowered further. Whether visible damage is produced or not depends on how much energy is deposited in the microscopic focal volume inside the sample. From Fig. 2 we see that at the visible damage threshold the transmission of both the 400-nm and 800-nm laser pulses is about 75%, indicating that about 25% or nj of the incident laser energy is deposited. 2 This nj produces damage with sufficient size and refractive-index change to be resolved optically and to be useful for microstructuring applications. If the absorption of the laser pulse could be increased,

4 Fig. 3.Top-view optical image of micro-damage produced in fused silica using -fs, 800-nm, 50- nj laser pulses. Inset shows a side-view of a single damage structure. the required nj would be deposited with less incident laser energy, and the visible damage threshold would be lowered. Increased absorption can be achieved by using shorter laser pulses, tighter focusing, or smaller bandgap materials. In these three cases the ionization is enhanced for a given energy and the absorption of the laser energy by the material is increased. We estimate that using 30-fs, 800-nm laser pulses and 0.65-NA focusing, visible damage could be achieved with 20 nj of incident laser energy (i.e. 50% absorption). State-of-the-art cavity-dumped laser oscillators could easily deliver 30-fs, 20-nJ pulses to the sample, allowing micromachining without an amplified laser. Furthermore, the repetition rate could be as high as MHz, providing high machining speeds. In our experimental geometry the breakdown thresholds are more than an order of magnitude smaller than the critical self-focusing thresholds (see Fig. 2). 8 Without self-focusing, we can calculate the spot size and peak intensity at threshold with some confidence. At the -nj (25-nJ) breakdown threshold, the spot size (FWHM) is 0.25 µm (0.5 µm) giving a peak intensity of.3 4 W/cm 2 (8. 3 W/cm 2 ) for the 400-nm (800-nm) pulses. From these intensities, we can calculate the Keldysh parameter. 8 A Keldysh parameter smaller than about.5 indicates tunneling ionization is the dominant ionization mechanism, while a large Keldysh parameter indicates multiphoton absorption dominates. We find the Keldysh parameter is.7 for the 400- nm pulses and. for the 800-nm pulses. While it is clear that with 400-nm pulses we are closer to the multiphoton ionization regime, and with the 800-nm pulses we are more in the tunneling regime, we cannot unambiguously determine which mechanisms are responsible. The ionization rates calculated for our peak intensities indicate that with 400-nm pulses the multiphoton ionization alone achieves a critical density plasma, the plasma density usually assumed to be necessary for breakdown. For the 800-nm pulses, the tunneling ionization rate is not sufficient to reach the critical density, indicating that there is some avalanche ionization which increases the carrier density. We estimate two to three generations occur in the avalanche. In future work, we will vary both the wavelength of the laser light and the bandgap of the material to observe, more clearly, different ionization regimes and the transitions between them. 6. CONCLUSIONS We have demonstrated the capability for three-dimensional microstructuring of transparent solids using tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses with only 40 nj of laser energy. State-of-the-art cavity-dumped and long-cavity Ti:Sapphire laser oscillators produce energies in this range at high repetition rates. Combining our technique with this laser technology opens the door to micromachining without amplified laser systems, greatly decreasing the cost and complexity of the laser. We measured the thresholds for both bulk optical breakdown and critical self-focusing in fused silica for femtosecond laser pulses of 400-nm and 800-nm wavelength. For both wavelengths, the self-focusing threshold was more than an order of magnitude larger than the

5 breakdown threshold, indicating that the external focusing, not self-focusing, determines the spot size. Because we can know the spot size of the laser, we can determine the intensities necessary for breakdown. This will allow for bandgap and wavelength dependence studies of breakdown thresholds to yield information about the fundamental ionization mechanisms at work, and to observe transitions between different ionization regimes. As a first step, we have indications that for femtosecond pulses in fused silica, multiphoton absorption dominates with 400-nm pulses while tunneling and avalanche ionization dominate at 800 nm. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by a Materials Research Science and Engineering Center grant. C.B.S. acknowledges a National Defence Science and Engineering Fellowship. A.B. acknowledges support by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. REFERENCES. B.C. Stuart, M.D. Feit, S. Herman, A.M. Rubenchik, B.W. Shore, and M.D. Perry, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 459 (996); Phys. Rev. B 53, 749 (996). 2. D. Du, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, Appl. Phys. B 63, 67 (996). 3. M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, F. Krausz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076 (998). 4. B.N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. von Alvensleben, and A. Tunnermann, Appl. Phys. B 63, 9 (996). 5. D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 26 (996). 6. E.N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T.-H. Her, J.P. Callan, and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 2, 2023 (996). 7. E.N. Glezer and E. Mazur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 882 (997). 8. L.V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 307 (965). 9. N. Bloembergen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-, 375 (974).. M. Sparks, D.L. Mills, R. Warren, T. Holstein, A.A. Maradudin, L.J. Sham, E. Loh, Jr., and D.F. King, Phys. Rev. B 24, 359 (98).. E.N. Glezer, C.B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura and E. Mazur, Opt. Lett. 22, 87 (997). 2. C.B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, and E. Mazur, to appear in Proc. SPIE A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M.S. Pshenichnikov, D.A. Wiersma, and Robert Szipocs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 75 (997). 4. M.S. Pshenichnikov, W.P. de Boeij, and D.A. Wiersma, Opt. Lett. 9, 572 (994). 5. S.H. Cho, B.E. Bouma, E.P. Ippen, J.G. Fujimoto, Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 998 Technical Digest Series 6, 559 (998). 6. P.B. Corkum and C. Rolland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2634 (989). 7. A. Brodeur and S.L. Chin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406 (998); A. Brodeur and S.L. Chin, to appear in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 8. By critical self-focusing we refer to the self-focusing experienced by a laser pulse at the critical power for self-focusing. 9. The intensity increases abruptly when critical self-focusing occurs leading to significant ionization of the material. The rapid change in the index of refraction caused by this ionization, together with self-phase modulation, leads to the production of a white-light continuum. 20. J.H. Marburger, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35 (975). 2. The loss of laser energy due to reflection and scattering is small, so the absorption is approximately one minus the transmission.

Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water

Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water Thresholds for femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in bulk transparent solids and water Chris B. Schaffer, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur * Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02138

More information

Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond

Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond Ultrashort pulse laser processing current industrial applications and beyond Stefan Nolte Institute of Applied Physics, Abbe Center of Photonics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Albert-Einstein-Str.

More information

Self-Guided Intense Laser Pulse Propagation in Air

Self-Guided Intense Laser Pulse Propagation in Air Nonlinear Analysis: Modelling and Control, 2000, v.6, No, 2-26 Self-Guided Intense Laser Pulse Propagation in Air R. Danielius, D. Mikalauskas, A. Dubietis and A. Piskarskas Department of Quantum Electronics,

More information

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material

What is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material Laser Ablation Fundamentals & Applications Samuel S. Mao Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Advanced Energy Technology Department March 1, 25 Laser Ablation What

More information

Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser

Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser Experimental and theoretical study of the laser micromachining of glass using a high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser Yuri Yashkir a*, Qiang Liu a a Institute for Optical Sciences, 60 St. George Street,

More information

Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

Femtosecond Laser Micromachining Femtosecond Laser Micromachining 02/03/2010 Spring 2010 MSE503 Seminar Deepak Rajput Center for Laser Applications University of Tennessee Space Institute Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388-9700 Email: drajput@utsi.edu

More information

Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses

Towards nanostructuring with femtosecond laser pulses Appl. Phys. A 77, 229 235 (2003) DOI: 10.1007/s00339-003-2110-z Applied Physics A Materials Science & Processing f. korte j. serbin j. koch a. egbert c. fallnich a. ostendorf b.n. chichkov Towards nanostructuring

More information

Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha

Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha Femtosecond ablation of silver with single and double pulses Ted Roberts, Anton du Plessis*, Lourens Botha CSIR National Laser Centre, Femtosecond Science group SAIP 29 Outline of talk Motivation of this

More information

PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS

PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS PICOSECOND LASER PROCESSING MATERIAL REMOVAL RATES OF METALS R. Penttilä 1, H. Pantsar 1, P. Laakso 1 1 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta, Finland Abstract A picosecond laser has been

More information

Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation

Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation Self assembled nanoparticle aggregates from line focused femtosecond laser ablation Craig A. Zuhlke, Dennis R. Alexander*, John C. Bruce III, Natale J. Ianno, Chad A. Kamler, and Weiqing Yang Department

More information

Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials

Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials Ultrafast Short Pulse Laser Material Processing of Aerospace Materials P.W. French 1, J. Clowes 2, W. Perrie 4, M. Sharp 1, J.Cheng 3, D. Homes 1, L. Mellor 3, K.G. Watkins 3 1 Lairdside, Cambeltown Rd,

More information

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and

More information

NANOFLAM. Projet ANR Blanc 2011 BS0401001. Aide allouée: 337 000, durée 36+8 mois (fin : Mai 2015) Laboratoire H. Curien

NANOFLAM. Projet ANR Blanc 2011 BS0401001. Aide allouée: 337 000, durée 36+8 mois (fin : Mai 2015) Laboratoire H. Curien Laboratoire H. Curien Centre de Physique Théorique F. Courvoisier R. Stoian & T. Itina A. Couairon NANOFLAM Projet ANR Blanc 2011 BS0401001 Contrôle de la filamentation et de la génération de plasma avec

More information

Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement

Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement Microsyst Technol (2009) 15:1045 1049 DOI 10.1007/s00542-009-0880-8 TECHNICAL PAPER Femtosecond laser-induced silicon surface morphology in water confinement Yukun Han Æ Cheng-Hsiang Lin Æ Hai Xiao Æ Hai-Lung

More information

Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms)

Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms) Part 5: Lasers Amplification Atomic (or molecular, or semiconductor) system has energy levels Some higher energy states are stable for a short time (ps to ms) Incident photon can trigger emission of an

More information

High Power Laser Assemblies

High Power Laser Assemblies Fiberguide s High Power Assemblies use our High Power SMA and High Power Industrial FD-80 connectors to provide a fiber optic link between the laser source and the target. These are ideal for laser cutting,

More information

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications

Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Scanning Near Field Optical Microscopy: Principle, Instrumentation and Applications Saulius Marcinkevičius Optics, ICT, KTH 1 Outline Optical near field. Principle of scanning near field optical microscope

More information

Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon

Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon Femtosecond laser-induced formation of spikes on silicon Tsing-Hua Her, * Richard J. Finlay, Claudia Wu, and Eric Mazur Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Department of Physics, Harvard University

More information

Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998)

Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998) Holographically corrected microscope with a large working distance (as appears in Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 1849-1853, 1 April 1998) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research Center

More information

Real-world applications of intense light matter interaction beyond the scope of classical micromachining.

Real-world applications of intense light matter interaction beyond the scope of classical micromachining. Dr. Lukas Krainer lk@onefive.com CEO Real-world applications of intense light matter interaction beyond the scope of classical micromachining. 1 Management & Company Company Based in Zürich, Switzerland

More information

Laser ablation fundamentals and application

Laser ablation fundamentals and application Laser ablation fundamentals and application Laserová ablace principy a použití Michal Lucki, Stanislav Kraus, Richard Zelený Czech Technical University in Prague, FEE, Department of Telecommunication Engineering

More information

the laser beam [CHR02], [KRD05]. Formation mechanisms of laser-generated ripples and the underlying microscopic processes are still discussed.

the laser beam [CHR02], [KRD05]. Formation mechanisms of laser-generated ripples and the underlying microscopic processes are still discussed. Introduction Laser-induced periodic surface structures were detected in early experiments on laser application [Bir65] and have been studied experimentally ever since. The first widely accepted theoretical

More information

University of Pécs in ELI

University of Pécs in ELI Dept. of Experimental Physics Institute of Physics 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság ú. 6. http://physics.ttk.pte.hu University of Pécs in ELI József Fülöp fulop@fizika.ttk.pte.hu Budapest, April 16, 2008 Outline ELI

More information

MATERIAL PROCESSING WITH FEMTOSECOND LASER PULSES. A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, E.E.B. Campbell*, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, H. Varel.

MATERIAL PROCESSING WITH FEMTOSECOND LASER PULSES. A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, E.E.B. Campbell*, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, H. Varel. MATERIAL PROCESSING WITH FEMTOSECOND LASER PULSES A. Rosenfeld, D. Ashkenasi, E.E.B. Campbell*, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, H. Varel Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitpunktspektroskopie Rudower

More information

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

More information

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems

Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Lecture : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Attenuation (Loss)

More information

Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm

Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm Laser micro-welding of transparent materials by a localized heat accumulation effect using a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm Takayuki Tamaki Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School

More information

Axial intensity distribution of lens axicon illuminated by Gaussian-Schell model beam

Axial intensity distribution of lens axicon illuminated by Gaussian-Schell model beam 46 1, 018003 January 2007 Axial intensity distribution of lens axicon illuminated by Gaussian-Schell model beam Yuan Chen Jixiong Pu Xiaoyun Liu Huaqiao University Department of Electronic Science and

More information

It has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and

It has long been a goal to achieve higher spatial resolution in optical imaging and Nano-optical Imaging using Scattering Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy Fehmi Yasin, Advisor: Dr. Markus Raschke, Post-doc: Dr. Gregory Andreev, Graduate Student: Benjamin Pollard Department of Physics,

More information

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing

Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Laser Based Micro and Nanoscale Manufacturing and Materials Processing Faculty: Prof. Xianfan Xu Email: xxu@ecn.purdue.edu Phone: (765) 494-5639 http://widget.ecn.purdue.edu/~xxu Research Areas: Development

More information

The Fiber Laser Advantage

The Fiber Laser Advantage The Fiber Laser Advantage White Paper PN 200-0200-00 Revision 1.1 January 2009 Calmar Laser, Inc www.calmarlaser.com Overview With the fiber optics revolution for telecommunications in the 1980s, fiber

More information

Ti:Sapphire Lasers. Tyler Bowman. April 23, 2015

Ti:Sapphire Lasers. Tyler Bowman. April 23, 2015 Ti:Sapphire Lasers Tyler Bowman April 23, 2015 Introduction Ti:Sapphire lasers are a solid state laser group based on using titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Al 2O 3) plates as a gain medium. These lasers are

More information

Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses

Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses Appl. Phys. B 66, 121 128 (1998) Applied Physics B Lasers and Optics Springer-Verlag 1998 Non-thermal ablation of neural tissue with femtosecond laser pulses F.H. Loesel 1,, J.P. Fischer 1,M.H.Götz 1,C.Horvath

More information

Time resolved study of femtosecond laser induced micromodifications inside transparent brittle materials

Time resolved study of femtosecond laser induced micromodifications inside transparent brittle materials 9th International Conference on Photonic Technologies LANE 2016 Time resolved study of femtosecond laser induced micromodifications inside transparent brittle materials F. Hendricks a, *, V.V. Matylitsky

More information

Numerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the Ionisation Growth in Gas Discharge Plasma

Numerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the Ionisation Growth in Gas Discharge Plasma Journal of Basrah Researches ((Sciences)) Volume 37.Number 5.A ((2011)) Available online at: www.basra-science -journal.org ISSN 1817 2695 Numerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the

More information

Femtosecond Laser Microprocessing of Aluminum Films and Quartz

Femtosecond Laser Microprocessing of Aluminum Films and Quartz University of Nebraska - Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations Electrical Engineering, Department of 8-31-2007 Femtosecond Laser Microprocessing

More information

Broadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna

Broadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 22-26 331 Broadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna Qing Chang 1, Dongxiao Yang 1,2, and Liang Wang 1 1 Zhejiang

More information

Passively Q-switched 0.1 mj Fiber Laser System at 1.53 µm

Passively Q-switched 0.1 mj Fiber Laser System at 1.53 µm Passively Q-switched 0.1 mj Fiber Laser System at 1.53 µm R. Paschotta, R. Häring, E. Gini, H. Melchior, and U. Keller Institute of Quantum Electronics Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) CH-8093

More information

PHYSICAL METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Vol. IV Femtosecond Measurements Combined With Near-Field Optical Microscopy - Artyom A.

PHYSICAL METHODS, INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS Vol. IV Femtosecond Measurements Combined With Near-Field Optical Microscopy - Artyom A. FEMTOSECOND MEASUREMENTS COMBINED WITH NEAR FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY Artyom A. Astafiev, Semyonov Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow, Russian Federation. Keywords: diffraction limit nearfield scanning

More information

OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System

OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System Ultra-broadband front end (NOPA1 to 4) 0.25 J, 2.5 ns, 160 nm OMEGA EP Beamline 4 Beamline 3 6.3 kj 2.5 ns 6.3 kj 2.5 ns Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier

More information

Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation

Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation PHYSICAL REVIEW B 72, 195422 2005 Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation A. Y. Vorobyev and Chunlei Guo The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester,

More information

Acousto-optic modulator

Acousto-optic modulator 1 of 3 Acousto-optic modulator F An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).

More information

High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells.

High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells. White Paper High power picosecond lasers enable higher efficiency solar cells. The combination of high peak power and short wavelength of the latest industrial grade Talisker laser enables higher efficiency

More information

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Taipei, March 5 8, 3 359 Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Yoshito Sonoda, Takashi Samatsu, and

More information

5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy

5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy 5. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy 5.1. Resolution of conventional optical microscopy Resolution of optical microscope is limited by diffraction. Light going through an aperture makes diffraction

More information

Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Imaging Guided and Propagating Fields

Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Imaging Guided and Propagating Fields Optical Microscopy Beyond the Diffraction Limit: Imaging Guided and Propagating Fields M. Selim Ünlü, Bennett B. Goldberg, and Stephen B. Ippolito Boston University Department of Electrical and Computer

More information

CHAPTER 5 ADDITIVE-PULSE MODE-LOCKED FIBER LASERS FORMED WITH THREE APODIZED CHIRPED FIBER GRATINGS

CHAPTER 5 ADDITIVE-PULSE MODE-LOCKED FIBER LASERS FORMED WITH THREE APODIZED CHIRPED FIBER GRATINGS CHAPTER 5 ADDITIVE-PULSE MODE-LOCKED FIBER LASERS FORMED WITH THREE APODIZED CHIRPED FIBER GRATINGS 5.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter, we analyze the APM fiber lasers formed with three apodized chirped

More information

Modeling Max-of-N Fluence Distribution for Optics Lifetime

Modeling Max-of-N Fluence Distribution for Optics Lifetime LLNL-JRNL-509595 Modeling Max-of-N Fluence Distribution for Optics Lifetime Z. M. Liao, J. Hubel, J. T. Trenholme, C. W. Carr October 31, 011 Proceedings of SPIE Disclaimer This document was prepared as

More information

Avalanche Photodiodes: A User's Guide

Avalanche Photodiodes: A User's Guide !"#$%& Abstract Avalanche Photodiodes: A User's Guide Avalanche photodiode detectors have and will continue to be used in many diverse applications such as laser range finders and photon correlation studies.

More information

SPATIAL-TIME PATTERN OF ELECTRICAL FIELD OF TERAHERTZ PULSE IN THE FAR FIELD

SPATIAL-TIME PATTERN OF ELECTRICAL FIELD OF TERAHERTZ PULSE IN THE FAR FIELD NANOSYSTEMS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, MATHEMATICS, 2013, 4 (2), P. 206 213 SPATIAL-TIME PATTERN OF ELECTRICAL FIELD OF TERAHERTZ PULSE IN THE FAR FIELD M. S. Kulya 1, Ya. V. Grachev 1, V. G. Bespalov 1, V.

More information

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

More information

Scientific Exchange Program

Scientific Exchange Program Scientific Exchange Program Electrical characterization of photon detectors based on acoustic charge transport Dr. Paulo Santos, Paul Drude Institute, Berlin,Germany Dr. Pablo Diniz Batista, Brazilian

More information

Introduction to microstructure

Introduction to microstructure Introduction to microstructure 1.1 What is microstructure? When describing the structure of a material, we make a clear distinction between its crystal structure and its microstructure. The term crystal

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

More information

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Introduction In this experiment we will explore the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to take us into the world of ultrasmall structures. This

More information

Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics

Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics Z. Sikorski, H. Polakowski Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., -98 Warsaw, e-mail: zsikorsk@wat.waw.pl Abstract In

More information

Study of optical fiber damage under tight bend with high optical power at 2140 nm

Study of optical fiber damage under tight bend with high optical power at 2140 nm Study of optical fiber damage under tight bend with high optical power at 2140 nm Xiaoguang Sun, Jie Li and Adam Hokansson OFS, Specialty Photonics Division 55 Darling Drive, Avon, CT, 06001 USA xgsun@ofsoptics.com

More information

11.1.1 Non-Colinear Pump-Probe Measurement: Pump pulse. Chopper. Lens. Probe pulse. Time delay between pump and probe pulse

11.1.1 Non-Colinear Pump-Probe Measurement: Pump pulse. Chopper. Lens. Probe pulse. Time delay between pump and probe pulse Chapter 11 Ultrafast Measurement Techniques 11.1 Pump Probe Measurements 11.1.1 Non-Colinear Pump-Probe Measurement: Mode-locked Laser Beam splitter Chopper Probe pulse Pump pulse Lens Test device Slow

More information

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Lasers became the first choice of energy source for a steadily increasing number of applications in science, medicine

More information

Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses

Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses Sergey Kobtsev *, Sergey Kukarin, Yurii Fedotov Laser Systems Laboratory, Novosibirsk State University,Pirigova 2, Novosibirsk,

More information

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers White Paper Micromachining with UV Laser Markers David Gillen, Blueacre Technology David Gillen, Blueacre Technology Laser Marking technology has come a long way from simply identifying parts with logos

More information

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

More information

Femto-LASIK. Pulsewidth: Ultrashort-pulse micro- machining can make sub- wavelength holes. micromachining

Femto-LASIK. Pulsewidth: Ultrashort-pulse micro- machining can make sub- wavelength holes. micromachining All-laser laser LASIK (Femto( Femto-LASIK) Femto-LASIK 台 大 眼 科 王 一 中 IntraLase 2/1 Perfect Vision Ziemer (DaVinci) Carl Zeiss Meditec Pulsewidth: Femtosecond laser (Nd:Glass)) 153 nm (near infrared) Each

More information

PIPELINE LEAKAGE DETECTION USING FIBER-OPTIC DISTRIBUTED STRAIN AND TEMPERATURE SENSORS WHITE PAPER

PIPELINE LEAKAGE DETECTION USING FIBER-OPTIC DISTRIBUTED STRAIN AND TEMPERATURE SENSORS WHITE PAPER PIPELINE LEAKAGE DETECTION USING FIBER-OPTIC DISTRIBUTED STRAIN AND TEMPERATURE SENSORS WHITE PAPER Lufan Zou and Taha Landolsi OZ Optics Limited, 219 Westbrook Road, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K0A 1L0 E-mail:

More information

Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing

Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing Advanced Laser Microfabrication in High Volume Manufacturing IPG Photonics Microsystems Division 220 Hackett Hill Road, Manchester NH, 03102USA E-mail: jbickley@ipgphotonics.com There is increased interest

More information

Photoinduced volume change in chalcogenide glasses

Photoinduced volume change in chalcogenide glasses Photoinduced volume change in chalcogenide glasses (Ph.D. thesis points) Rozália Lukács Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Theoretical Physics Supervisor: Dr. Sándor Kugler 2010

More information

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution

Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution Pump-probe experiments with ultra-short temporal resolution PhD candidate: Ferrante Carino Advisor:Tullio Scopigno Università di Roma ƒla Sapienza 22 February 2012 1 Pump-probe experiments: generalities

More information

VECTORIAL ELECTRIC FIELD MONTE CARO SIMULA- TIONS FOR FOCUSED LASER BEAMS (800 nm 2220 nm) IN A BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE

VECTORIAL ELECTRIC FIELD MONTE CARO SIMULA- TIONS FOR FOCUSED LASER BEAMS (800 nm 2220 nm) IN A BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 142, 667 681, 2013 VECTORIAL ELECTRIC FIELD MONTE CARO SIMULA- TIONS FOR FOCUSED LASER BEAMS (800 nm 2220 nm) IN A BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE Fuhong Cai 1, Jiaxin Yu

More information

Chapter 2 Laser Diode Beam Propagation Basics

Chapter 2 Laser Diode Beam Propagation Basics Chapter 2 Laser Diode Beam Propagation Basics Abstract Laser diode beam propagation characteristics, the collimating and focusing behaviors and the M 2 factor are discussed using equations and graphs.

More information

Depth Profiling of Materials and Coatings by Laser Ablation ICP-MS

Depth Profiling of Materials and Coatings by Laser Ablation ICP-MS Depth Profiling of Materials and Coatings by Laser Ablation ICP-MS 031LSX+0301 March 2001 Benefits of Laser Ablation for ICP Spectrometry Laser sampling using modern UV laser ablation systems provides

More information

Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer

Robert G. Hunsperger. Integrated Optics. Theory and Technology. Fourth Edition. With 195 Figures and 17 Tables. Springer Robert G. Hunsperger Integrated Optics Theory and Technology Fourth Edition With 195 Figures and 17 Tables Springer Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Advantages of Integrated Optics 2 1.1.1 Comparison of

More information

Ultrasound. - Dosimetry. Gail ter Haar. Joint Physics Department, Royal Marsden Hospital: Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey UK

Ultrasound. - Dosimetry. Gail ter Haar. Joint Physics Department, Royal Marsden Hospital: Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey UK Ultrasound - Dosimetry Gail ter Haar Joint Physics Department, Royal Marsden Hospital: Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey UK Measurable in water Exposure Reduced by: tissue acoustic properties

More information

Semiconductor Laser Diode

Semiconductor Laser Diode Semiconductor Laser Diode Outline This student project deals with the exam question Semiconductor laser diode and covers the following questions: Describe how a semiconductor laser diode works What determines

More information

High Power Laser Diode Module for Fiber Laser Pumping Source

High Power Laser Diode Module for Fiber Laser Pumping Source High Power Laser Diode Module for Fiber Laser Pumping Source Akira Sakamoto, 1 Hirokuni Ogawa, Shinichi Sakamoto, 3 Yuji Yamagata, and Yumi Yamada High power laser diode modules are essential devices for

More information

Interferometric diagnostics of ablation craters formed by femtosecond laser pulses

Interferometric diagnostics of ablation craters formed by femtosecond laser pulses Interferometric diagnostics of ablation craters formed by femtosecond laser pulses A. S. Zakharov, M. V. Volkov, and I. P. Gurov St. Petersburg State Institute of Precision Mechanics and Optics (Technical

More information

INFRARED MONITORING OF 110 GHz GYROTRON WINDOWS AT DIII D

INFRARED MONITORING OF 110 GHz GYROTRON WINDOWS AT DIII D GA A23981 INFRARED MONITORING OF 110 GHz GYROTRON WINDOWS AT DIII D by Y. GORELOV, J. LOHR, R.W. CALLIS, and D. PONCE MAY 2002 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an

More information

Short overview of TEUFEL-project

Short overview of TEUFEL-project Short overview of TEUFEL-project ELAN-meeting may 2004 Frascati (I) Contents Overview of TEUFEL project at Twente Photo cathode research Recent experience Outlook Overview FEL Drive laser Photo cathode

More information

HIGH-POWER, NANOSECOND-PULSE Q-SWITCH LASER TECHNOLOGY WITH FLATTOP BEAM-SHAPING TECHNIQUE FOR EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL LASER PROCESSING Paper #1286

HIGH-POWER, NANOSECOND-PULSE Q-SWITCH LASER TECHNOLOGY WITH FLATTOP BEAM-SHAPING TECHNIQUE FOR EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL LASER PROCESSING Paper #1286 HIGH-POWER, NANOSECOND-PULSE Q-SWITCH LASER TECHNOLOGY WITH FLATTOP BEAM-SHAPING TECHNIQUE FOR EFFICIENT INDUSTRIAL LASER PROCESSING Paper #1286 Jim Bovatsek and Rajesh S. Patel Spectra Physics, a division

More information

Development of MEMS micromirrors for intracavity laser control

Development of MEMS micromirrors for intracavity laser control Development of MEMS micromirrors for intracavity laser control Walter Lubeigt Centre for Microsystems and Photonics, EEE Department, University of Strathclyde,204 George Street, Glasgow G1 1XW,UK Motivation

More information

Femtosecond Lasers in LASIK Surgery

Femtosecond Lasers in LASIK Surgery Femtosecond Lasers in LASIK Surgery Dr Chan Tat Keong Senior Consultant Refractive Surgery Service Singapore National Eye Centre Disclosure Speaker has no financial interest in the products to be discussed

More information

A METHOD OF PRECISE CALIBRATION FOR PIEZOELECTRICAL ACTUATORS

A METHOD OF PRECISE CALIBRATION FOR PIEZOELECTRICAL ACTUATORS Uludağ Üniversitesi Mühendislik-Mimarlık Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt 9, Sayı, 24 A METHOD OF PRECISE CALIBRATION FOR PIEZOELECTRICAL ACTUATORS Timur CANEL * Yüksel BEKTÖRE ** Abstract: Piezoelectrical actuators

More information

The Creation of Micropatterns through the Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Diamond Materials

The Creation of Micropatterns through the Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Diamond Materials University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Masters Theses Graduate School 8-2009 The Creation of Micropatterns through the Femtosecond Laser Ablation of Diamond

More information

Pulsewidth and noise properties of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers:

Pulsewidth and noise properties of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Pulsewidth and noise properties of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers: Simulations and experiments Josep Mulet IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Palma de Mallorca, Spain Center COM, Technical University

More information

Aktivitäten des IAP im Bereich Fasern und Faserlaser

Aktivitäten des IAP im Bereich Fasern und Faserlaser Aktivitäten des IAP im Bereich Fasern und Faserlaser V. Romano Institutfür AngewandtePhysik, Universität Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland 1. Das Team 2. Motivation: Grenzen der Standardfaser

More information

Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy

Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy VI Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy In recent years, several types of apertureless near-field optical microscopes have been developed 1,2,3,4,5,6,7. In such instruments, light scattered from

More information

Femtosecond laser micro-structuring of aluminium under helium

Femtosecond laser micro-structuring of aluminium under helium Applied Surface Science 230 (2004) 50 59 Femtosecond laser micro-structuring of aluminium under helium W. Perrie a,*, M. Gill a, G. Robinson b,p.fox a, W. O Neill c a Department of Engineering, University

More information

Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy

Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy UCRL-ID-142178 Defect studies of optical materials using near-field scanning optical microscopy and spectroscopy M. Yan, J. McWhirter, T. Huser, W. Siekhaus January, 2001 U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory

More information

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics

Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Photonics Technical Note # 21 Fiber Optics Fiber Optics: Fiber Basics Optical fibers are circular dielectric wave-guides that can transport optical energy and information. They have a central core surrounded

More information

Rodenstock Photo Optics

Rodenstock Photo Optics Rogonar Rogonar-S Rodagon Apo-Rodagon N Rodagon-WA Apo-Rodagon-D Accessories: Modular-Focus Lenses for Enlarging, CCD Photos and Video To reproduce analog photographs as pictures on paper requires two

More information

Effects of cubic nonlinearity on frequency doubling of high-power laser pulses

Effects of cubic nonlinearity on frequency doubling of high-power laser pulses T. Ditmire et al. Vol. 3, No. 4/April 996/J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 649 Effects of cubic nonlinearity on frequency doubling of high-power laser pulses T. Ditmire, A. M. Rubenchik, D. Eimerl, and M. D. Perry Lawrence

More information

Deposition of Magnesium Silicide Nanoparticles by the Combination of Vacuum Evaporation and Hydrogen Plasma Treatment

Deposition of Magnesium Silicide Nanoparticles by the Combination of Vacuum Evaporation and Hydrogen Plasma Treatment Proc. Int. Conf. and Summer School on Advanced Silicide Technology 2014 JJAP Conf. Proc. 3 (2015) 011301 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics Deposition of Magnesium Silicide Nanoparticles by the

More information

Millijoules high master-slave pulse ratio 532 nm picosecond laser

Millijoules high master-slave pulse ratio 532 nm picosecond laser Millijoules high master-slave pulse ratio 532 nm picosecond laser Zhao You Fan Zhongwei 1, Bai Zhenao 12, Zhang Guoxin 2, Lian Fuqiang 12, Zhao You 3, Shen Ming 3 1 Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information

Excimer Laser Technology

Excimer Laser Technology D. Basting G. Marowsky (Eds.) Excimer Laser Technology With 257 Figures ^y Springer Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Introductory Remarks 1 1.1.1 The Unique Microstructuring Capabilities of Excimer Lasers

More information

FAST and CURIOUS A brief introduction to ultrafast lasers and their applications

FAST and CURIOUS A brief introduction to ultrafast lasers and their applications FAST and CURIOUS A brief introduction to ultrafast lasers and their applications Dr. Maria Ana Cataluna m.a.cataluna@dundee.ac.uk School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics University of Dundee How

More information

Laser Material Processing

Laser Material Processing William M. Steen Jyotirmoy Mazumder Laser Material Processing 4th Edition yq. Springer Contents Prologue 1 References 8 1 Background to Laser Design and General Applications 11 1.1 Basic Principles of

More information

Extended-cavity, tunable, GHz-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped at 76 MHz

Extended-cavity, tunable, GHz-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped at 76 MHz Extended-cavity, tunable, GHz-repetition-rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator pumped at 76 MHz Omid Kokabee, 1,* Adolfo Esteban-Martin, 1 and Majid Ebrahim-Zadeh 1,2 1 ICFO-Institut de Ciencies

More information

High-Performance Wavelength-Locked Diode Lasers

High-Performance Wavelength-Locked Diode Lasers Copyright 29 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. This paper was published in the proceedings of the SPIE Photonics West 29, Vol. 7198-38 (29), High-Power Diode Laser Technology and High-Performance

More information

Development of a Pulsed Laser System for Laserinduced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

Development of a Pulsed Laser System for Laserinduced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Development of a Pulsed Laser System for Laserinduced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) J. Neumann, T. Lang, R. Huss, M. Ernst, A. Moalem, C. Kolleck, D. Kracht Laser Zentrum Hannover e.v. Hollerithallee 8

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI I. Background theory. 1. Band structure of semiconductors. 2. The theory of operation of a semiconductor (diode)

More information