Adults media use and attitudes report

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1 Adults media use and attitudes report Research Document Publication date: March 01

2 Contents Section Page 1 Executive Summary... 4 Introduction Background Research methodology and analysis Take-up, preference and media use Household access to media devices Regular media activities Most-missed media activities....4 Internet use, by device Internet use, by location Volume of internet use.... Devices used to play games and volume of gaming use Understanding, attitudes and concerns about media Awareness of the main source of media funding Regulation of media content Online content regulation Protection against inappropriate or offensive media content Trust in news, by media type Concerns about media, among users Using the internet Confidence in aspects of using the internet Websites visited Online activities undertaken Content creation and social networking Frequency of visiting social networking sites Uses of social networking sites Trust in social networking site content Data privacy on social networking sites Understanding of how search engines operate Privacy concerns when posting information online Personal details prepared to provide online Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online... 1

3 5.1 Security concerns when entering personal details online Attitudes towards data privacy when purchasing online Online behavioural advertising Website terms and conditions/ privacy statements Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features Experience of negative online events in the past 1 months Online copyright infringement... Use of mobile phones Profile of those with a smartphone Activities undertaken at least weekly using a mobile phone Mobile phone users experience of negative events Awareness and use of mobile phone security measures or safety features... 9 Newer users of the internet Incidence of newer users within the online population Profile of new users Volume of internet consumption and types of internet use Websites visited Confidence as an internet user Understanding of how search engines operate Security concerns about providing personal information Judgements made about websites Privacy concerns when posting information online Security concerns when entering personal details online Awareness of use of online security measures/ safety features Experience of negative online events in the past 1 months Narrow users of the internet Defining breadth of use and Narrow users Volume and location of internet use Websites visited Confidence as an internet user Understanding of how search engines operate Security concerns about providing personal information Judgements made about websites Privacy concerns about sharing information online Security concerns about sharing information online Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features Experience of negative online events in the past 1 months... 10

4 9 Non-users of the internet Internet take-up and intention to get access at home Demographic profile of internet users and non-users Proxy use of the internet by non-users Reasons for not intending to get internet access at home Interest in internet functions among non-users... 1

5 Section 1 1 Executive Summary This report is designed to give an accessible overview of media literacy among UK adults aged 1 and over. The purpose of this report is to support people working in this area to develop and promote media literacy among these groups. Media literacy enables people to have the skills, knowledge and understanding they need to make full use of the opportunities presented both by traditional and by new communications services. Media literacy also helps people to manage content and communications, and protect themselves from the potential risks associated with using these services. Ofcom has a statutory duty to promote media literacy 1. The core focus of our research work is to understand UK adults usage habits and attitudes across TV, radio, internet, mobile phones and games. This report is the fifth full report since our survey began in 005. As we have tracked some of the core measures over time since 005, we can assess the relative strengths of media literacy in the UK today. We focus in this Executive Summary mainly upon online behaviours and attitudes, but include contextual evidence of other platforms where relevant. Greyed-out cells indicate where data are not available. 1 Consumption dashboard % of UK population 005 Use of internet anywhere, on any device Use of smartphone 0 44 Internet consumption (% of internet users) Weekly volume of internet use anywhere (hours) % of broad users (11-1 types of online use) Ever use internet for finding information about public 49 services provided by local/national government Ever use internet to find out information about leisure time activities Ever use internet to watch or download TV 45 4 programmes or films Ever use internet to bank and pay bills online Ever use internet to look at news websites Weekly use banking and paying bills 1 Weekly use looking at news Visit new websites per week 4 5 Set up SNS profile online Daily use of SNS sites (of those with SNS profile) Contributed comments to a blog 19 9 Mobile online use (% of mobile phone users) Weekly use of mobile websites Weekly use of mobile social networking 15 9 Weekly use of mobile s The promotion of media literacy is a responsibility placed on Ofcom by Section 11 of the Communications Act 00. Under Section 14 (a) of the Act we have a duty to make arrangements for the carrying out of research into the matters mentioned in Section 11 (1). The take-up figures collected for this report give useful contextual information to understand better the behavioural and opinion-based findings about media literacy. Official all-uk Ofcom take-up figures based on a larger survey can be found in the annual CMR (Communications Market Report) published in August each year 4

6 There has been a substantial increase in the proportion of the UK population now using the internet from 59% in 005 to 9% in. And internet users are spending more time online self-reported weekly hours have risen from 9.9 hours in 005 to 15.1 in. That said, considerable differences by socio-economic group (SEG) and by age remain for example, in 41% of those aged 5+ have the internet at home, and 0% of those in DE households, compared to 9% overall. Use of mobiles to go online is increasing substantially, with weekly use tripling since to 1% of those with a mobile phone in. Over time, people are doing more things online, with increases across most types of activity. Half of online users are now carrying out 11-1 types of activity. However, in some areas growth is not substantial, especially at a weekly level of activity for example, since 005 banking/paying bills has increased by five percentage points, and looking at news by six. When we ask internet users about their level of exploration online, three-quarters say they visit at least one or two new websites in a typical week. This has increased from around twothirds in, although this still leaves one quarter of internet users using only tried and tested websites in a typical week, with older users and those in DE groups being more likely to do this. Social networking is one area where there has been considerable growth, from % of internet users in to 59% in. Growth rates were most significant between and for younger age-groups, with rates for older age-groups growing faster since that time. Frequency of access has increased considerably over time, with % of social networkers accessing sites once a day or more, compared to 0% in. And 5% say they visit them more than once a day. Accessing social networking via a mobile phone has doubled in the past year from 15% of mobile phone users in to 9%. Attitudes and understanding dashboard % of users (variable bases) 005 Would miss TV the most Would miss internet the most Would miss mobile the most Would miss radio the most Would miss listening to music on a hi-fi/ CD or 1 5 tape player the most Concerns about TV overall Concerns about mobile Concerns about the internet overall Concerns over offensive/illegal content online Concerns over security/fraud online 1 1 Confidence overall as internet user * * 4 Confidence to do creative things online 4 9 Belief that online content is regulated Knowledge of how BBC TV is funded Knowledge of how BBC online is funded Understanding that search engine results not necessarily all accurate * Question asked in different context so trends over time not stable Television continues to be the medium that would be missed the most (4% of UK adults). That said, affinity with mobiles has grown over time, with nearly one in five adults (1%) 5

7 saying they would miss their mobile phone the most, an increase from 10% in 005. There are considerable differences by age and socio-economic group for example, 1-4s are twice as likely to miss their mobile phone (40%), an increase of 1 percentage points versus for this age group, meaning mobile phones are now their most-missed medium. 1% of UK adults would most-miss the internet, up from % in 005. Among internet users, there have been significant decreases in levels of concern since 005, and some decrease for TV viewers. Concerns about mobile are at relatively low levels. Concerns about offensive/illegal content online have reduced since. While around two-thirds of internet users say they feel confident about carrying out creative activities active content generation there has been little change since. There are high levels of overall confidence as an internet user, at over eight in ten. There has been a steady increase in the belief that content on internet and on radio is regulated (and since a steady increase in belief that audiovisual content online, and YouTube content, is regulated). There has been little change since 005 in understanding how BBC content on TV, radio and the internet is funded. In general, the younger age-groups are less likely than older age groups to know about licence fee funding. Broadly, around half of all internet users who use search engines understand the function of search engines; this has changed little since, although in comparison to there has been an increase, from 50% to 5%. Online privacy and safety skills and strategies dashboard % of users 005 Have some concerns about entering credit card details online (but would do so) Would make a judgement based on formal signs before entering personal details Only friends can see personal contact 1 information on their social networking profile Would not want anyone to see personal 4 information about feelings re work or college Read online terms and conditions thoroughly 4 Use anti-virus software on PC/laptop Can delete cookies from PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet web browser 5 The research results indicate a mixed message about whether or not people who are online are managing their online security and privacy adequately. While levels of comfort/confidence about being online are high, and levels of concern relatively low, people s skills and strategies in this area are variable. There has been little change since 005 in the extent to which people are happy about giving out various types of personal information online, with about half saying they would give out credit card details, albeit with some reservations. There has been a steady increase in the proportion of people saying they would decide whether or not to enter such details based on formal signs such as padlock signs and system messages, with just over half of respondents saying they use such types of formal judgement. This varies considerably by socio-economic group.

8 Younger people are less likely to be concerned about their privacy, and less likely to take protective steps than older adults. For example, while 4% of respondents say that they would not want anyone to see information about how they are feeling about work/college, this decreases to 1% of 1-4s, with 1% saying they would be happy for anyone to see this information, compared to % across all internet users. While six in ten (1%) of social networkers say only their friends can see their personal contact details, some 1% say this is available either to friends of friends, or anyone. And % say that personal information details such as date of birth and home town are available in this way. While there is high awareness of website terms and conditions/ privacy statements, only one in four (4%) internet users say they read these thoroughly, with the same proportion (4%) saying they never read them. Use of various types of security and safety features shows that % of home internet users have anti-virus software installed on the PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet they use at home, and just over half say they can delete cookies from their PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet web browser (5%). This overview of how media literacy has developed in the UK since 005 shows that: There has been substantial growth in the use of the internet, with four in five people (9%) now using the internet anywhere, on any device, up from 59% in 005. Use of a smartphone now stands at 44%, up from 0% in. Types of online usage have expanded over time, although rates of change differ between activities. Concerns about media have reduced over time, and confidence online remains high, while belief that online content is regulated has increased. Understanding about media funding is highest for TV and radio, the incumbent media technologies, and lower for online. In general, safety and privacy skills are varied. There has been positive change over time in the use of formal methods of judgement about website security, but little change in the degree of comfort in giving out some types of personal information. There is room for improvement in many of the skills in this area. There continue to be significant differences by age and socio-economic group across a variety of measures. And those that aren t online are more likely to be older and from DE socio-economic groups some 51% of those aged 5+ say they don t intend to get the internet at home, and 9% of those in DE socio-economic groups, compared to 15% of the UK population as a whole.

9 Table of figures Figure 1: Household take-up of key platforms: 005,,, and Figure : Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by age: 005,,, and Figure : Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by socio-economic group: 005,,, and... 1 Figure 4: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by age: 005,,, and... 1 Figure 5: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by socio-economic group: 005,,, and... 1 Figure : Regular media activities: 005,,, and Figure : Regular media activities, by age:... 1 Figure : Regular media activities, by socio-economic group:... Figure 9: Most-missed media activity among all UK adults : 005,,, and... Figure 10: Most-missed media activity, by age:... 4 Figure 11: Most-missed media activity, by socio-economic group and gender:... 5 Figure 1: Key measures of internet access and use:... Figure 1: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites:, and... Figure 14: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by age and device used:... Figure 15: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by age and device usage group:... 9 Figure 1: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by socio-economic group and device used:... 0 Figure 1: Where the internet is used by UK adults: 005,,, and... 1 Figure 1: Where the internet is used by UK adults, by age, gender and socio-economic group:... Figure 19: Volume of internet use per week: 005,,, and... Figure 0: Volume of internet use per week, by age, socio-economic group and gender: 005,,, and... 4 Figure 1: Ways of playing games at home or elsewhere:,, and... Figure : Volume of gaming per week: over time and by age, socio-economic group and gender... Figure : Awareness of the main source of funding for television programmes, radio stations and websites: 005,,, and Figure 4: Belief that content is regulated: 005,,, and Figure 5: Belief that online content is regulated:,, and... 4 Figure : Platform content users must be protected from inappropriate or offensive content: and Figure : Agreement with statement: When I watch TV news / listen to radio news / visit news websites / read newspapers I tend to trust what I see / hear / read or see :, and Figure : Concerns about platforms among users: 005,,, and... 4 Figure 9: Concerns about the internet among users:, and... 4 Figure 0: Concerns about television among users:, and... 4 Figure 1: Concerns about mobile phones among users:, and Figure : Concerns about gaming among users:, and Figure : Confidence as an internet user:,, and Figure 4: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used:,, and, and by age, gender and socio-economic group, in Figure 5: Individual uses of the internet, by activity group:... 5

10 Figure : Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week:,, and... 5 Figure : Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week, by age:... 5 Figure : Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week, by socio-economic group and gender: Figure 9: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week in and, and by age in... 0 Figure 40: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week, by socio-economic group and gender:... 1 Figure 41: Individual internet activities ever undertaken: 005,,, and Figure 4: Top ten individual online activities ever undertaken, by frequency:... 4 Figure 4: Experience of, and interest in, content creation:,, and... Figure 44: Set up own social networking site profile:,, and, by age, gender and socio-economic group... Figure 45: Frequency of visiting any social networking sites:,, and and by age, socio-economic group and gender in... Figure 4: Social networking site uses:,, and... 9 Figure 4: Agreement with statement: When I visit social networking sites like Facebook I tend to trust what I read or see :, and, by age, gender and socio-economic group in... 0 Figure 4: Privacy of information shown on social networking site profiles, by age:... 1 Figure 49: Search engine user attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: -, and by age, gender and socio-economic group in. Figure 50: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online:... Figure 51: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online, by age:... 4 Figure 5: Personal details prepared to enter online: 005,,, and... Figure 5: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online:, and, and by age, gender and socio-economic group in... Figure 54: Types of judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: 005,,, and... Figure 55: Security concerns when entering personal details online, by type of online activity:... 0 Figure 5: Agreement with statement: People who buy things online put their privacy at risk :, and, by age, gender and socio-economic group in... 1 Figure 5: Attitudes towards online behavioural advertising, by age, gender and socioeconomic group:... Figure 5: Awareness of, and reaction to, website terms and conditions/ privacy statements, by age, gender and socio-economic group:... 4 Figure 59: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: Figure 0: Experience of negative types of online activity:... Figure 1: Attitudes towards online copyright infringement:, and, by age, socio-economic group and gender in... Figure : Age and socio-economic group profile of mobile phone users: smartphone users and non-smartphone users in Figure : Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week: Figure 4: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week by smartphone users compared to those with another type of mobile phone:... 9 Figure 5: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week by smartphone users: and Figure : Top ten mobile phone activities ever undertaken, by frequency of use:... 9 Figure : Top ten mobile phone activities ever undertaken by smartphone users, by frequency of use:... 9 Figure : Experience of negative types of mobile phone activity:... 9 Figure 9: Awareness and use of mobile phone security measures/ safety features:. 99 Figure 0: When first used the internet, by age, gender and socio-economic group: 10 9

11 Figure 1: Age and socio-economic group profile of internet users: newer and established users in Figure : Volume of internet use per week in : newer and more established users: Figure : Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: newer and more established users: Figure 4: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week, by newer and more established users: Figure 5: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used: newer and established users: Figure : Confidence as an internet user in : newer and established users Figure : Search engine users attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: newer and more established users: Figure : Personal details prepared to enter online: newer and more established users: Figure 9: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: newer and more established users: Figure 0: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online: newer and more established users: Figure 1: Security concerns when entering personal details online: newer and more established users: Figure : Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: newer and more established users: Figure : Experience of negative types of online activity: newer and more established users: Figure 4: Breadth of use of the internet:, and, by age, gender and socioeconomic group in Figure 5: Volume of internet use per week in : Narrow, Medium and Broad users Figure : Visit to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: Figure : Confidence as an internet user in : Narrow users... 1 Figure : Search engine users attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: Narrow, Medium and Broad users:... 1 Figure 9: Personal details prepared to enter online: Narrow users in Figure 90: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: Narrow, Medium and Broad users:... 1 Figure 91: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online: Narrow users:... 1 Figure 9: Security concerns when entering personal details online: Narrow users:. 1 Figure 9: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: Narrow users: Figure 94: Experience of any negative types of online activity: Narrow users: Figure 95: Internet take-up and intentions: 005,,, and, by age and socio-economic group in... 1 Figure 9: Demographic profile of all UK adults, users and non-users of the internet:... 1 Figure 9: Proxy use of the internet in the past year among non-users: -, by age, gender and socio-economic group in Figure 9: Stated reasons for not intending to get home internet access in the next 1 months: 005,,, and Figure 99: Interest in internet functions among non-users:

12 Section Introduction.1 Background The promotion of media literacy is a responsibility placed on Ofcom by Section 11 of the Communications Act 00. Under Section 14 (a) of the Act we have a duty to make arrangements for the carrying out of research into the matters mentioned in Section 11 (1). Our media literacy research informs three of Ofcom s strategic priorities: to provide appropriate assurance to audiences on standards; to help communications markets work for consumers; and to contribute and implement public policy as defined by Parliament. Media literacy enables people to have the skills, knowledge and understanding they need to make full use of the opportunities presented both by traditional and by new communications services. Media literacy also helps people to manage content and communications, and protect themselves and their families from the potential risks associated with using these services. Ofcom s definition of media literacy is: the ability to use, understand and create media and communications in a variety of contexts. This report is designed to give an accessible overview of media literacy among adults aged 1 and over, and is based in one wave of research conducted in autumn. Where possible, within the overall sample of adults, demographic analysis is conducted by age, by gender and by household socio-economic group. The key objectives of this research are: to provide a rich picture of the different elements of media literacy across the key platforms of the internet, television, radio, and mobile phones; and to identify emerging issues and skills gaps that help to target stakeholders resources for the promotion of media literacy.. Research methodology and analysis This report draws on research from the Media Literacy Tracker with adults aged 1 and over. Comparisons are made between this research and the Media Literacy Audit surveys conducted in 005 and in, and the Media Literacy Audit Trackers conducted in and. These reports can be found at Media Literacy Tracker with adults: A quantitative survey comprising 1, in-home interviews with adults aged 1 and over; with interviews conducted from September to October. 11

13 Media Literacy Audit Tracker with adults: A quantitative survey comprising,11 in-home interviews with adults aged 1 and over; with 1,0 interviews conducted from April to May and 1,054 interviews conducted from September to October. Media Literacy Audit Tracker with adults: A quantitative survey comprising 1,4 in-home interviews with adults aged 1 and over; with 1 interviews conducted from April to May and 1,01 interviews conducted from September to October. The report was published in. Media Literacy Audit survey: A quantitative survey comprising,905 in-home interviews with adults aged 1 and over from October to December. The report was published in 00. Media Literacy Audit survey: 005 A quantitative survey comprising,44 in-home interviews with adults aged 1 and over from June to August 005. The report was published in 00. Where possible, we have included findings from 005,,, and. Some questions, however, have not featured in each year that the research has been conducted. Comparisons are generally made between the and findings and not the long term trends, as detailed below. Significance testing Significance testing at the 95% confidence level was carried out and any findings detailed in this report have been found to be significant to a 95% confidence level. This means that where findings are commented on, there is only a 5% or less probability that the difference between the samples is by chance. Statistically significant findings between and are indicated in the figures in the report by circles or arrows. In addition to reporting on differences over time, we also look at adults in the different age groups and socio-economic groups and compare these to all adults interviewed in, to see if there are any significant differences within these subgroups. Differences between men and women are also reported on. Take-up figures The take-up figures in this report give useful information to contextualise people s media literacy-related behaviour and attitudes. Official all-uk Ofcom take-up figures based on a larger survey can be found in the annual CMR (Communications Market Report) published in the summer of each year. 1

14 Section Take-up, preference and media use This section looks at UK adults access to, and personal use of, media devices in their household and elsewhere. One of the core benefits of our media literacy tracker is its ability to show how different media compare to each other in levels of consumption and use. As such, this section documents which media are used regularly, and which devices adults would miss the most. It details the different devices used to go online, and the volume of internet use. Finally, it looks at the devices used to play games and the volume of gaming use. More detail about the use of the internet and mobile phones can be found in Sections 5 and of the report. Key findings Take-up of digital television, the internet and digital video recorders in the home have all increased in. Television remains popular, continuing to be the most-missed medium (4%) and watched on a regular basis by over nine in ten (95%) adults of all ages. However, the report shows some stark differences by age and socio-economic groups in terms of the take-up, use and attitudes towards other media, and in particular mobiles and the internet. While total mobile phone ownership has remained stable year on year (9%), the type of phone people own has changed significantly. Two in five adults (44%) now use a smartphone, an increase from 0% in. With the exception of those aged 5+ (5%), all age groups have increased, with 1-4s most likely to use a smartphone (1%). Affinity with this device has also grown. One in five adults (1%) say they would miss their mobile phone the most, an increase from 1% in. However, 1-4s are twice as likely to miss their mobile phone (40%), an increase of 1 percentage points versus for this age group, meaning mobile phones are now the most-missed medium for this age group. Smartphones are also affecting the means by which people go online at home. Over four in ten adults now use a mobile phone to go online (45%) up from 1% in.. Over three-quarters of UK adults (%) go online at home using any device. While the means of accessing the internet at home is becoming more varied, to include devices such as games consoles, mobiles and tablets, our results indicate that these tend to supplement rather than substitute for PC/laptop access. The PC/laptop remains the most popular means of home internet access, with seven in ten (%) going online at home in this way. While close to half (4%) use a device other than a PC/laptop to go online, fewer than one in twenty (4%) only use other devices to go online at home. This is higher among those in DE socio-economic group and those aged 1-4 (both %). 1

15 Eight in ten adults (9%) use the internet on any device in any location an increase of 5 percentage points since. However, 1% of adults do not use the internet anywhere. This is higher for those in DE socio-economic group (%) and those aged 5+ (%). There has been no statistically significant change in the self-reported volumes of internet use per week compared to, with UK adults spending on average 15.1 hours online..1 Household access to media devices Take-up of digital television, internet and DVRs within the home have all increased in Since take-up of digital television, the internet (PC/ laptop based access) and digital video recorders (DVRs) has increased. There has been no change in personal use of a mobile phone since. Figure 1: Household take-up of key platforms: 005,,, and Digital TV Mobile phone* *Personal use Internet** **(PC/ laptop based access) DVR T1/ T/ IN1/ M1 Do any of your TV sets receive extra channels in addition to BBC1, BBC, ITV1, Channel 4 or S4C and Five?/ Do you have a DVR system such as Sky Plus, V Plus, Freeview Plus or any other similar system?/ Do you or does anyone in your household have access to the internet at home through a computer, laptop or netbook?/ Do you personally use a mobile phone?. (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in ). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October Access to media remains lower among those in DE households and older adults As shown in Figures and, almost all UK adults (95%) live in a household with a digital television service. Access has increased since (from 91%). This increase since has been driven by an increase among adults aged 5-4 (9% vs. 9%) and among adults aged 55 and over (95% vs. 90% for 55-4s and 90% vs. 1% for those aged 5 and over). However, access to digital television remains lower among adults aged 5 and over, compared to all adults (90% vs. 95%). Figure shows that take-up of digital television has also increased since for those in the AB (9% vs. 90%), C1 (94% vs. 9%) and C socio-economic groups (9% vs. 9%)

16 Four in five adults (9%) live in a household with access to the internet through a PC or laptop. Access has increased since (from 4%). This overall increase has been driven by an increase among those aged (% vs. %, see Figure ) and by C1s (% vs. 9%, see Figure ). It remains the case that take-up of the internet at home (through a PC/ laptop) is lower among adults aged 5 and over (41% vs. 9%) and among DE households (0% vs. 9%). Just under half of all UK adults live in a household with a DVR; an increase since (49% vs. 45%). This increase has been driven by those aged 5-4 (55% vs. 44%), (59% vs. 4%, see Figure ) and among adults in AB households (1% vs. 51%, see Figure ). Figure : Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by age: 005,,, and 005 Digital television (Household) Internet* (Household) *PC/ laptop based access) DVR* (Household) Total T1/ IN1/ T Do any of your TV sets receive extra channels in addition to BBC1, BBC, ITV1, Channel 4/ S4C and Five?/ Do you or does anyone in your household have access to the internet at home through a computer, laptop or netbook?/ Do you have a DVR system such as Sky Plus, V Plus, Freeview Plus or any other similar system? (*NB Amended since ) (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in, 5 aged 1-4, 5 aged 5-4, 94 aged 5-44, aged 45-54, 1 aged 55-4, 54 aged 5+). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October 15

17 Figure : Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by socioeconomic group: 005,,, and 005 Digital television (Household) Internet* (Household) *PC/ laptop based access) DVR* (Household) Total AB C C DE T1/ IN1/ T Do any of your TV sets receive extra channels in addition to BBC1, BBC, ITV1, Channel 4/ S4C and Five?/ Do you or does anyone in your household have access to the internet at home through a computer, laptop or netbook?/ Do you have a DVR system such as Sky Plus, V Plus, Freeview Plus or any other similar system? (*NB Amended since ) (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in, 415 AB, 59 C1, C, 50 DE). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October Smartphone take-up has increased in As shown in Figures 4 and 5, more than nine in ten adults (9%) use a mobile phone, with no change since at an overall level. Seven in ten adults aged 5 and over (0%, see Figure 4) now use a mobile phone, an increase since (from %). As shown in Figure 5, there has been no increase in use of a mobile phone among any of the socio-economic groups. As with PC/ laptop-based internet access, those aged 5 and over remain less likely to use a mobile phone (0% vs. 9% of all adults) as are DEs (5% vs. 9%). More than two in five adults (44%) use a smartphone 4. This represents an increase since (from 0%). This increase in smartphone use has occurred across all age groups, with the exception of those aged 5 and over. The largest percentage point increase in use since is among those aged 5-44 (5% vs. 4%), followed by 5-4s (% vs. 45%) and 1-4s (1% vs. 5%). Smartphone use has increased among all socio-economic groups since, with the biggest growth being among adults in C1 (51% vs. 0%) and C (41% vs. 4%) households. While DEs are now more likely to use a smartphone than in (1% vs. 1%), they continue to be less likely to use one compared to all adults (1% vs. 44%). 4 The following definition was offered as an explanation of a smartphone. A smartphone is a phone on which you can easily access s and download files as well as view websites and generally surf the internet. Popular brands of smartphone include BlackBerry, iphone and HTC. 1

18 Figure 4: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by age: 005,,, and 005 Mobile phone (Personal use) Smartphone (Personal use) Total M1/ M Do you personally use a mobile phone?/ Is this a Smartphone? A Smartphone is a phone on which you can easily access s and download files as well as view websites and generally surf the internet. Popular brands of Smartphone include BlackBerry, iphone and HTC. (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in, 5 aged 1-4, 5 aged 5-4, 94 aged 5-44, aged 45-54, 1 aged 55-4, 54 aged 5+). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October

19 Figure 5: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by socio-economic group: 005,,, and 005 Mobile phone (Personal use) Smartphone (Personal use) Total AB C C DE M1/ M Do you personally use a mobile phone?/ Is this a Smartphone? A Smartphone is a phone on which you can easily access s and download files as well as view websites and generally surf the internet. Popular brands of Smartphone include BlackBerry, iphone and HTC. (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in, 415 AB, 59 C1, C, 50 DE). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October 1

20 . Regular media activities Regular use of the internet via a PC or laptop continues to increase year on year We ask respondents about a range of possible media activities to find out which, if any, they regularly do 5. Having asked this question since 005 we can see whether overall media habits are changing. While some media activities have seen a decline in regular use since 005 (in particular, listening to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player), there are no media activities that are less likely to be undertaken regularly, compared to. Watching television remains the dominant media activity, with no change since in the proportion of adults stating they regularly watch television (both 95%). Five media activities see an increase in : using a mobile phone (% vs. %), listening to the radio (4% vs. 9%), using the internet via a PC or laptop (% vs. %), listening to a portable music device/ MP player (4% vs. %) and using a portable media player (1% vs. 14%). Regular use of the internet via a PC or laptop has increased at each wave of the survey since 005. Figure : Regular media activities: 005,,, and Watch television Use a mobile phone Listen to the radio Read newspapers/ magazines Use the internet (via PC/ laptop) Watch videos/ DVDs Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player Listen to a portable music device/ MP player Play console/ computer games Use a portable media player NANA A1 Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses, multi-coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in ). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October 5 Respondents were not provided with a definition of regularly. 19

21 Younger age groups are more likely to undertake a wide range of activities Compared to all adults, as shown in Figure, 1-4s are more likely regularly to undertake six of the ten activities: use a mobile phone (94% vs. %), use the internet via a PC/ laptop (0% vs. %), watch videos/ DVDs (% vs. 59%), listen to a portable music device (% vs. 4%), play console/ computer games (49% vs. 5%) and use a portable media player (% vs. 1%). They are less likely than all adults regularly to undertake three activities: watch television (91% vs. 95%), listen to the radio (0% vs. 4%) and read newspapers/ magazines (% vs. %). Adults aged 5-4 are also more likely regularly to undertake these same six activities: use a mobile phone (91% vs. %), use the internet via a PC/ laptop (% vs. %), watch videos/ DVDs (9% vs. 59%), listen to a portable music device (45% vs. 4%), play console/ computer games (% vs. 5%) and use a portable media player (% vs. 1%). No activities, however, are less likely to be regularly undertaken by those aged 5-4. There are three activities more likely to be undertaken regularly by those aged 5-44: use a mobile phone (90% vs. %), use the internet via a PC/ laptop (5% vs. %) and listen to a portable music device (4% vs. 4%). No activities are less likely to be regularly undertaken by those aged There are no differences in regular media activities undertaken, compared to all adults, among 45-54s. Adults aged 55-4 are more likely to regularly listen to the radio (5% vs. 4%) and less likely to listen to a portable music device (19% vs. 4%), use a portable media player 4% vs. 1%) or to play console/ computer games (10% vs. 5%). Those aged 5 and over are more likely to regularly read newspapers or magazines (% vs. %), but otherwise are less likely to undertake seven activities: use a mobile phone (51% vs. %), use the internet via a PC/ laptop (% vs. %), watch videos/ DVDs (% vs. 59%), listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player (1% vs. 44%), listen to a portable music device (5% vs. 4%), play console/ computer games (5% vs. 5%) and use a portable media player (% vs. 1%). 0

22 Figure : Regular media activities, by age: Total Watch television 95% 91% 9% 94% 94% 9% 9% Use a mobile phone % 94% 91% 90% % % 51% Listen to the radio 4% 0% % % % 5% % Read newspapers/ magazines % % 4% 0% 9% 5% % Use the internet (via PC/ laptop) % 0% % 5% % % % Watch videos/ DVDs 59% % 9% 1% 5% 5% % Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player 44% 4% 5% 49% 44% 4% 1% Listen to a portable music 4% % 45% 4% % 19% 5% device/ MP player Play console/ computer games 5% 49% % % 0% 10% 5% Use a portable media player 1% % % 0% 15% 4% % A1 Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses, multi-coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (1 aged 1+, 5 aged 1-4, 5 aged 5-4, 94 aged 5-44, aged 45-54, 1 aged 55-4, 54 aged 5+ ). Significance testing shows any difference between any age group and all adults aged 1 Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October Adults in DE households are less likely regularly to undertake most media activities Figure below shows any differences in regular media activities undertaken by socioeconomic group. Compared to all adults, those in DE socio-economic group are less likely to regularly undertake six of the ten activities: use a mobile phone (% vs. %), read newspapers/ magazines (% vs. %), listen to the radio (% vs. 4%), use the internet via a PC/ laptop (5% vs. %), listen to a portable music device/ MP player (% vs. 4%) and use a portable media player (11% vs. 1%). Among those in the AB socio-economic group, five activities are more likely to be undertaken: use a mobile phone (9% vs. %), read newspapers/ magazines (9% vs. %), use the internet via a PC/ laptop (5% vs. %), listen to a portable music device/ MP player (4% vs. 4%) and use a portable media player (% vs. 1%). Two activities are more likely to be undertaken by those in the C1 socio-economic group: use the internet via a PC/ laptop (0% vs. %) and listen to a portable music device/ MP player (41% vs. 4%). There are no differences in regular media activities undertaken, compared to all adults, among adults in the C socio-economic group. 1

23 Figure : Regular media activities, by socio-economic group: Total AB C1 C DE Watch television 95% 95% 94% 94% 9% Use a mobile phone % 9% % 9% % Listen to the radio 4% % % % % Read newspapers/ magazines % 9% 4% 0% % Use the internet (via PC/ laptop) % 5% 0% % 5% Watch videos/ DVDs 59% 1% 0% 59% 5% Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player 44% 4% 4% 9% 4% Listen to a portable music device/ MP 4% 4% 41% % % player Play console/ computer games 5% % % % % Use a portable media player 1% % 1% 1% 11% A1 Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses, multi-coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (1 aged 1+, 415 AB, 59 C1, C, 50 DE). Significance testing shows any differences between any socio-economic group and all adults aged 1+. Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October. Most-missed media activities Television continues to be the most-missed medium among adults, although mobile phones are more likely to be missed in than in To understand how much importance people attach to various media, we asked them to say which single media activity they would miss the most if it was taken away. Among adults as a whole, television is typically given as the medium they would miss the most, by around one in two (4%). While saw a decrease in nominations for television as the most-missed media activity (compared to ), this trend has not continued into (4% in vs. 44% in ). Around one in six adults say they would miss using the internet via a PC/ laptop the most, as in (both 1%). Compared to, adults are more likely to miss using a mobile phone (1% vs. 1%). Four in five adults (0%) would miss either television, the internet or their mobile phone, with fewer than one in ten adults nominating other media as being missed the most. This question is asked of all UK adults rather than of users of particular media, in order to be able to capture an overall picture. It is therefore possible that an increase in take-up of a medium could see an increase in mentions for this medium as the most-missed media activity.

24 Figure 9: Most-missed media activity among all UK adults : 005,,, and Use a portable media player ( onwards) Watch videos/ DVDs Play console/ computer games Listen to a portable music device/ MP player Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD or tape player Read newspapers/ magazines Listen to the radio Use the internet via computer/ laptop Use a mobile phone Watch television 005 A Which one of these would you miss doing the most? (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (44 in 005, 905 in, 14 in, 11 in, 1 in ). Significance testing shows any change between and Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October 1-4s are more likely to miss their mobile phone than any other medium There are variances in the most-missed medium, by age (as shown in Figure 10), gender and socio-economic group (as shown in Figure 11). In, 1-4s are more likely than all adults to nominate using a mobile phone as their most-missed activity (40% vs. 1%). While all UK adults are more likely to say they would miss using a mobile phone, compared to (as shown in Figure ), this increase since is greater among those aged 1-4 (40% vs. % in ) than among all adults (1% vs. 1% in ). This age group is also more likely to miss playing console/ computer games (% vs. %) and to miss listening to a portable music device (4% vs. %). Adults aged 1-4 are less likely to miss watching television (1% vs. 4%), and are the only age group where watching television is not the top nomination for the most-missed medium. They are also less likely to miss listening to the radio the most (% vs. %). By contrast, those aged 5 and over are more likely than adults as a whole to say they would miss watching television (% vs. 4%), listening to the radio (14% vs. %), or reading newspapers or magazines (10% vs. %). They are less likely to say they would miss using a mobile phone (1% vs. 1%) and to miss using the internet via a PC/ laptop (5% vs. 1%). The categories watch television or listen to radio do not specify the particular platform being used for these activities.

25 Figure 10: Most-missed media activity, by age: Use a portable media player Watch videos/ DVDs Play console/ computer games Listen to a portable music device/ MP player Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD or tape player Read newspapers/ magazines Listen to the radio Use the internet via computer/ laptop 1 Use a mobile phone Total Watch television A Which one of these would you miss doing the most? (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 1+ (1 aged 1+, 5 aged 1-4, 5 aged 5-4, 94 aged 5-44, aged 45-54, 1 aged 55-4, 54 aged 5+). Significance testing shows any difference between any age group and all adults aged 1 Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to October Women are more likely to miss watching television, and men are more likely to miss the internet Women are more likely than men to say they would miss watching television (49% vs. 4%) while men are more likely to say they would miss using the internet via a PC or laptop (1% vs. 1%). Adults in the AB socio-economic group are less likely to say they would miss watching television (% vs. 4% of all UK adults) and more likely to say they would miss using the internet via a PC/ laptop (% vs. 1%). Adults in the C1 socio-economic group are also less likely to miss watching television (40% vs. 4%), while adults in the DE socio-economic group are more likely to miss watching television (5% vs. 4%) and less likely to say they would miss using the internet via a PC/ laptop (% vs. 1%). 4

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