Calculating Work. Thermodynamics. Isobaric Process. Isochoric (isovolumetric) Work from Graph: Example 1 2/27/2012. Chapter 15

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Calculating Work. Thermodynamics. Isobaric Process. Isochoric (isovolumetric) Work from Graph: Example 1 2/27/2012. Chapter 15"

Transcription

1 Pressure (X105 N/m2) Pressure (X105 N/m2) 2/27/2012 Thermodynamics Chapter 15 Calculating Work Work = area under Pressure vs. Volume graph W = Fd F = PA W=PAd W = P V Calculus link V 2 W = - p dv V 1 Isochoric (isovolumetric) No change in volume W = 0 Isobaric Process No change in pressure Volume expands and does work WORK = - AREA Pressure vs. Volume of an Ideal Gas Volume (ml) Work from Graph: Example 1 Pressure vs. Volume of an Ideal Gas A gas expands at a constant pressure of 1 X 10 5 N/m 2 (~100 kpa, ~ 1 atm) from a volume of 10 ml to a volume of 35 ml. Calculate the work done by the gas Volume (ml) 1

2 Pressure (N/m2) Pressure (N/m2) 2/27/2012 W = P V W = (1 X 10 5 N/m 2 )(0.035 L L) W = 2500 J Work from Graph: Example 2 A gas is cooled to produce a decrease in pressure. The volume is held constant at 10.0 m 3, and the pressure decreases from 1 X 10 5 N/m 2 to 0.5 X 10 5 N/m 2. Calculate the work done on the gas. Pressure vs. Volume 1.20E E E E E E E Volume (m3) W = P V W = P X 0 W = 0 J (No work is done) Work from Graph: Example 3 A gas expands and increases in pressure as shown in the next graph. Calculate the work done on the gas. (Remember to include the entire area under the graph). Pressure vs. Volume 1.20E E E E E E E Volume (m3) 2

3 Pressure (N/m2) Pressure (N/m2) 2/27/2012 Pressure vs. Volume 1.20E E E E E E E Volume (m3) Example 4 Calculate the work done from 500 to 1000 cm 3 on the following graph. Remember to go all the way down to the x-axis. ANS: Area under the curve Isothermal Systems Isothermal Example A cylinder contains 7.0 grams of nitrogen (N 2 ). W = - p dv = - nrt dv = - nrt dv V V W = -nrt ln V f = -p i V i ln V f = p f V f ln V f V i V i V i a. Calculate the moles of N 2 b. Calculate the work that must be done to compress the gas at a constant temperature of 80 o C until the volume is halved. Pressure vs. Volume of an Ideal Gas 1.20E E E E E E E E E E E E E E-01 Volume (m3) Top Line = at 500K Bottom Line = at 300K 3

4 Pressure (N/m2) 2/27/2012 Work and Cyclic Processes Cyclic process gas returns to its original state Important for studying Steam engine Car engine U = 0 Q = W Work = Area enclosed Pressure vs. Volume 4.50E E E E E E E E E E Volume (m3) Work and Cyclic Processes Heat (Q) Calculate the work shown in the previous graph. 1. Heat Energy transferred from one body to another because of a difference in temperature 2. Cooking a turkey hot oven cooler turkey 3. Extensive Property depends on amount of material (iceberg vs. water) 4. Unit Joules. Calorie calories 1. calorie amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius (or Kelvin) 2. Not a nutritional Calorie Converting between heat units 1 cal = 4.18 Joules 252 cal = 1 BTU 1054 Joules = 1 BTU 1 nutritional Calorie = 1000 calories (or 1 kilocalorie) 4

5 James Prescott Joule Weight moves paddles Friction from paddles warms water Work falling = Heat paddles Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Heat: Example 1 How high would you have to climb to work off a 500 Calorie ( 500,000 cal) ice cream? Assume you mass 60 kg. (500,000 cal)(4.186j/cal) = 2.09 X 10 6 J Heat = Work Heat = mgh h = Heat/mg h = 2.09 X 10 6 J/(60 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 ) = 3600 m h ~ 11,000 ft Heat: Example 2 A 3.0 gram bullet travels at 400 m/s through a tree. After passing through the tree, the bullet is now only going 200 m/s. How much heat was transferred to the tree? KE = ½ mv 2 KE = ½ mv 2 KE = ½ (0.003 kg)(400 m/s) 2 KE = ½ (0.003 kg)(200 m/s) 2 KE = 240 J KE = 60 J Heat loss = 180 J to the tree The Laws of Thermodynamics 1 st Law Energy is conserved E = W + Q 2 nd Law Natural processes tend to move toward a state of greater disorder Heat goes hot to cold (Clausius) No device converts all heat to work (Kelvin- Planck) S >0 5

6 The Laws of Thermodynamics 3 rd Law The entropy of a pure crystal at absolute zero is zero G = H - T S Important Definitions Thermodynamics Study of the transfer of energy as heat and work System Objects we are studying Isolated System Closed System Open System No mass or energy may leave/enter Only energy may leave/enter, not mass (Earth) Mass and Energy may leave/enter First Law Sign Conventions Heat is added to the system + Heat is lost - Work on the system + Work done by the system - First Law Example J of heat is added to a system. This heat does 1800 J of work on the system. Calculate the change in internal energy. E = W + Q E = 1800 J J E = 4300 J First Law Example J of heat is added to a system. This increase in temperature allows the system to do 1800 J of work. Calculate the change in internal energy. E = W + Q E = J J E = 700 J Adiabatic Systems No heat exchange (Q=0) Fast processes Heat has no time to enter/leave system Car piston Q = 0 For an ideal gas E = W + Q E = 3/2 nrt E = W E = 3nR T 2 6

7 Work: Example 1 In an engine, 0.25 moles of gas in the cylinder expand adiabatically against the piston. The temperature drops from 1150 K to 400K. How much work does the gas do? (the pressure is not constant). Q = 0 E = Q-W E = W E = 3nR T 2 E = 3(0.25 mole)(8.315 J/K-mol)(400 K K) 2 U = 2300 J W = 2300 J Temperature and Internal Energy Temperature measure of the average kinetic energy of individual molecules Temperature Suppose we heat mugs of water from 25 o C to 90 o C. Internal (Thermal) Energy Total energy of all the molecules in an object U = 3 nrt 2 One Mug Two Mugs 25 o C to 90 o C 25 o C to 90 o C Same Temp. Change Same Temp. Change Requires less heat Requires more heat Specific Heat Specific Heat Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius or Kelvin Unit J/kg o C Symbol = C The higher the specific heat, the more energy needed to raise the temperature Wooden spoon versus a metal spoon Calculating Heat Examples: Al has a specific heat of 0.22 kcal/kg o C Gold has a specific heat of 0.03 kcal/kg o C Which gets hotter sitting in the sun? Water s specific heat: 1.00 kcal/kg o C or 4186 J/kg o C 7

8 Calculating Heat Suppose you immerse a hot pan into a dishpan of water to cool it. Which will experience a greater change in temperature (gain or loss)? Heat lost = -Heat gained Q1 + Q2 + Q3 +. = 0 Q = mc p Calculating Heat T Q = heat (J) m = mass (kg) C p = specific heat (J/kg o C) T = T final T initial Calculating Heat: Example 1 How much heat must be supplied to a gram iron pan (C = 450 J/kg o C) to raise its temperature from 20.0 o C to 100 o C? Q = mc T Q = (0.500 kg)(450/kg o C)(100 o C -20 o C) Q = (0.500 kg)(450/kg o C)( 80 o C) Q = 18,000 J or 18 kj Calculating Heat: Example 2 Suppose the pan is filled with 400 g of water. What would be the total heat? Q = mc T Q = (0.400 kg)(4186/kg o C)(100 o C -20 o C) Q water =134,000 J Q total = 152,000 J or 152 kj Calculating Heat: Example g of tea at 95 o C is poured into a 150-g glass (C = 840 J/kg o C) at 25 o C. What will be the final temperature of the cup/glass? Heat lost = -Heat gained m tea C tea T = -m cup C cup T (0.200 kg)(4186j/kg o C)(T-95 o C) = -(0.150 kg)(840j/kg o C)(T-25 o C) (837)(T-95 o C) = -(126)(T-25 o C) 837T 79,500 = T 963 T = 82,700 T = 86 o C Q tea = - Q cup m tea C tea T = -m cup C cup T 8

9 Calculating Heat: Example 4 A 100-g piece of aluminum (C = 900 J/kg o C) is heated to 100 o C and immersed in 250-g of water at 20 o C. What is the final temperature of the system? Heat lost = -Heat gained m Al C Al T = -m water C water T (0.100 kg)(900j/kg o C)(T-100 o C) = -(0.250 kg)(4186j/kg o C)(T-20 o C) (90)(T-100) = -(1047)(T-25) 90T 9,000 = 20, T 1137T = 29,930 T = 26 o C Q tea = - Q cup m Al C Al T = -m water C water T Phase Changes Definition - A change of state in which energy is absorbed or released without a temperature change. Example: Freezing water 1. Water is cooled from 25 o C to 0 o C (temperature change, not a phase change) 2. Water freezes at 0 o C (no temperature change occurs during freezing, phase change) Phase Change Suppose we are heating ice: All of the heat goes into melting the ice rather than increasing the temperature Temperature will only rise once it is all melted Solid molecules absorb the heat to get moving rather than increasing temperature Melted molecules now move freely Phase Changes: Think about it. 1. Can you get water above 100 o C in a pot if you are cooking? 2. Can you get steam above 100 o C in a pressure cooker or furnace? 3. Can you get ice below 0 o C in a freezer? Heating Curves Boili ng Meltin g 9

10 Latent Heat Heating Curves No Phase Change Q = mc p T Phase Change Q = ml f or Q = ml v Temperature ( o C) Use q = ml v Boili ng Use q = ml f L f = Latent heat of fusion (freezing/melting) L v = Latent heat of vaporization (boiling/condensing) Meltin g Use q = mc p T Heat (Joules) Important Values Here are some important values that we will need: Substance C Steam 2010 J/kg o C Water 4186 J/kg o C Ice 2100 J/kg o C Latent Heat of fusion (water) L f = 3.33 X 10 5 J/kg Latent Heat of vaporization(water) L v = 22.6 X 10 5 J/kg Heating Curves: Example 1 How much energy is required to cool grams of water at 20.0 o C to make ice at 10.0 o C? There are three steps involved here: 1. Cooling the water 2. Freezing the water 3. Cooling the ice down to 10.0 o C Let s look at the graph: Temperature ( o C) Freezing (q=ml f ) Ice cools (q=mc p T) Heat (Joules) Water cools (q=mc p T) Let s look at it step by step 1. Cooling the water Q = mc p T = (0.100 kg)(4186j/kg o C)(0 o C- 20 o C) Q = 837 J 2. Freezing the water Q = ml f = (0.100 g)(3.33 X 10 5 J/kg)= 3.33 X 10 4 J 10

11 Heating Curves: Example 2 3. Cooling the ice down to 10.0 o C q = mc p T = (0.100 kg)(2100j/kg o C)(-10 o C-0 o C) q = 2100 J How much energy does a refrigerator have to remove from 1.5 kg of water at 20 o C to make ice at -12 o C? Lastly, we just add the three heat values together: 837J + 33,000J J = 36,200 J ANS: 660 kj Calorimeter Foam cup Insulated metal container (thermos) Must consider heat absorbed by the calorimeter in the equations Calorimeter: Example 1 A kg sample of a new alloy is heated to 540 o C. It is placed into 400-g of water at 10.0 o C which is contained in a 200-g Aluminum calorimeter. The final temperature of the mixture is 30.5 o C. Calculate the specific heat of the new alloy. Heat lost = - Heat gained m alloy C alloy T = -[m water C water T + m cal C cal T] m water C water T = (0.400kg)(4186 J/kg o C)(30.5 o C 10.0 o C) m water C water T = 34,300 J m cal C cal T = (0.200kg)(900 J/kg o C)(30.5 o C 10.0 o C) m cal C cal T = 3700 J m alloy C alloy T = -[m water C water T + m cal C cal T] m alloy C alloy T = -[34,300 J J] m alloy C alloy T = -38,000 J (0.150-kg)(C alloy) (10 o C 540 o C) = -38,000 J (-79.5 kg o C)(C alloy ) = -38,000 J C alloy = 478 J/ kg o C 11

12 Example g of ice at -20 o C is added to 500 g of soad at 20 o C. a. Calculate the heat required to raise the temperature of the ice to the melting point. b. Calculate the heat required to melt the ice. c. Is there enough heat energy available if the soda cools to 0 o C? d. Calculate the final temperature of the soda We will skip specific heats of gases 1. Conduction 2. Convection 3. Radiation Heat Flow Conduction Conduction The transfer of energy from molecule to molecule through collisions. 1. Warmer (faster) molecules to slower(colder) molecules 2. Thermometers work through conduction. 3. Depends on the area of contact. Conduction: thermometer Conduction Slower (colder) mercury atoms get bumped and accelerat ed by the collisions with the air The warmer, faster moving air molecules collide with the glass and give some of their kinetic energy of motion to the glass and mercury. 4. Air is a poor conductor - molecules are so far apart, far fewer collisions than in a solid. 5. Insulators usually have a number of air pockets (like in home insulation) to slow the heat flow. 6. Cooking on top of a stove is usually conduction since the pan/pot is in contact with a hotter burner element or a flame. 12

13 Conduction Conduction: Example 1 Q = ka(t 1 T 2 ) t L Q t k A T 1 T 2 L = Rate of heat flow (heat/time) = Thermal Conductivity = Area = Change in Temperature = Length Calculate the rate of heat flow through a window 3 m 2 and 3.2 mm thick. The outer and inner temperatures are 14.0 o C and 15.0 o C Conduction: R-values R values commercial measure of the quality of insulation Higher R = more insulation R = length k R Glass 1 Brick 1 Insulation Convection Convection the transfer of hear by the movement of a large volume of air or liquid 1. Hot-air home heating 2. Radiator wars air that it comes in contact with through conduction. Convection takes over as it moves through the room 3. Convection ovens Convection Then convection causes the warm air to expand into the room (the hot air rises) The cold air sinks and comes in contact with the radiator again. A hot radiator warms air through conductio n (contact between the atoms/ molecules 13

14 Radiation Radiation The transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves 1. Light (microwaves, infrared, visible, etc..) 2. The waves give kinetic energy to molecules and cause them to move faster (increase in temperature). 3. Sun 4. Red heat lamps at fast-food places. Radiation Light and other radiation from the sun strike the earth impart some of their energy to the molecules on the earth Earth What type of heat transfer is occurring in each picture? 14

15 Radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Equation Q = e A(T 1 4 T 24 ) t = 5.67 X 10-8 W/m 2 K 4 (Stefan-Boltzmann constant) A = area T = Temperature (kelvin) e = Emissivity Radiation: Emissivity e = Emissivity Value between 0 and 1 1 Black substances Absorb and emit radiation well 0 Shiny substances Do not absorb or emit well Radiation: Example 1 An athlete is sitting in a locker room at is 15 o C. The athlete has a skin temperature of 34 o C and an e value of 0.7. If his surface area is 1.5 m 2, calculate the rate of heat loss. Q = e A(T 1 4 T 24 ) t Q = (0.7)(5.67 X 10-8 W/m 2 K 4 )(1.5m 2 )( ) t Q/ t = 120 W Radiation: Example 2 A ceramic teapot (e=0.70) and a shiny teapot (e = 0.10) filled with tea at 95 o C. Calculate the rate of heat loss of each if the room is 20 o C. Assume each teapot is about 0.05 m 2. Radiation and Sun Angle Get less radiation as the sun becomes less vertical Would you absorb more sun at midday or 6 PM? Would you absorb more sun in Mexico or Ohio? ANS: 22 W, 3.1 W 15

16 Solar constant = 1350 W/m 2 (about 1000 when adjusted for the air) Q = (1000 W/m 2 )ea cos t Sun: Example 1 What is the energy absorption of a person (0.80 m 2, e = 0.70) getting a tan if the sun makes an angle of 30 o with the vertical. Q = (1000 W/m 2 )ea cos t Q = (1000 W/m 2 )(0.7)(0.80m 2 ) cos 30 o t Q/ t = 490 W (wearing light clothes will reduce e) Thermal Pollution Thermally polluting power plants Coal plants Oil plants Nuclear plants Non-thermally polluting power plants Hydroelectric Tidal energy Wind Solar Work: Example 4 Determine the change in internal energy of 1.0 liter of ware at 100 o C when it is fully boiled. It results in a 1671 L of steam at 100 o C. Assume the process is done at atmospheric pressure. U = Q W Q = ml =(1.0 kg)(22.6 X 10 5 J/kg) = 22.6 X 10 5 J W = P V (1 L = 1 X 10-3 m 3 ) W = (1 X 10 5 N/m 2 )(1671 X 10-3 m 3-1X 10-3 m 3 ) W = 1.7 X 10 5 J U = Q W U = 22.6 X 10 5 J 1.7 X 10 5 J U = 21 X 10 5 J (or 2.1 X 10 6 J) Work: Example 2 Determine the change in internal energy of 1.0 liter of ware at 100 o C when it is fully boiled. It results in a 1671 L of steam at 100 o C. Assume the process is done at atmospheric pressure. U = Q W Q = ml =(1.0 kg)(22.6 X 10 5 J/kg) = 22.6 X 10 5 J 16

17 W = P V (1 L = 1 X 10-3 m 3 ) W = (1 X 10 5 N/m 2 )(1671 X 10-3 m 3-1X 10-3 m 3 ) W = 1.7 X 10 5 J U = Q W U = 22.6 X 10 5 J 1.7 X 10 5 J U = 21 X 10 5 J (or 2.1 X 10 6 J) 17

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

More information

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb.

Name: Class: Date: 10. Some substances, when exposed to visible light, absorb more energy as heat than other substances absorb. Name: Class: Date: ID: A PS Chapter 13 Review Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. In all cooling

More information

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

More information

Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

More information

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy

Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Chapter 4: Transfer of Thermal Energy Goals of Period 4 Section 4.1: To define temperature and thermal energy Section 4.2: To discuss three methods of thermal energy transfer. Section 4.3: To describe

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION THERMAL ENERGY In general, when an object performs work on another object, it does not transfer all of its energy to that object. Some of the energy is lost as heat due to

More information

Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name:

Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name: Name:. In order for two objects to have the same temperature, they must a. be in thermal equilibrium.

More information

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

More information

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 0 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

More information

Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar

Forms of Energy. Freshman Seminar Forms of Energy Freshman Seminar Energy Energy The ability & capacity to do work Energy can take many different forms Energy can be quantified Law of Conservation of energy In any change from one form

More information

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below. UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

More information

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work?

What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? What is Energy? What is the relationship between energy and work? Compare kinetic and potential energy What are the different types of energy? What is energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Great, but

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE

ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE ES 106 Laboratory # 2 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Introduction Heat transfer is the movement of heat energy from one place to another. Heat energy can be transferred by three different mechanisms: convection,

More information

Temperature. Temperature

Temperature. Temperature Chapter 8 Temperature Temperature a number that corresponds to the warmth or coldness of an object measured by a thermometer is a per-particle property no upper limit definite limit on lower end Temperature

More information

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat Chapter 10: Temperature and Heat 1. The temperature of a substance is A. proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance. B. equal to the kinetic energy of the fastest moving

More information

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics The First aw of Thermodynamics Q and W are process (path)-dependent. (Q W) = E int is independent of the process. E int = E int,f E int,i = Q W (first law) Q: + heat into the system; heat lost from the

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

More information

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold

Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Every mathematician knows it is impossible to understand an elementary course in thermodynamics. ~V.I. Arnold Radiation Radiation: Heat energy transmitted by electromagnetic waves Q t = εσat 4 emissivity

More information

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature:

2. Room temperature: C. Kelvin. 2. Room temperature: Temperature I. Temperature is the quantity that tells how hot or cold something is compared with a standard A. Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of molecular translational

More information

What Is Heat? What Is Heat?

What Is Heat? What Is Heat? What Is Heat? Paul shivered inside the wood cabin. It was cold outside, and inside the cabin it wasn t much warmer. Paul could hear the rain beating down on the roof. Every few minutes there would be a

More information

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator

Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator SHPE Jr. Chapter May 2015 STEM Activity Instructor Resource Chillin Out: Designing an Insulator Students learn about the three ways heat can be transferred from one object to another. They also learn what

More information

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

More information

Chapter 4 Practice Quiz

Chapter 4 Practice Quiz Chapter 4 Practice Quiz 1. Label each box with the appropriate state of matter. A) I: Gas II: Liquid III: Solid B) I: Liquid II: Solid III: Gas C) I: Solid II: Liquid III: Gas D) I: Gas II: Solid III:

More information

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces: Introduction Intermolecular Forces Forces between separate molecules and dissolved ions (not bonds) Van der Waals Forces 15% as strong as covalent or ionic bonds Chapter 11 Intermolecular

More information

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

More information

In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an

In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an What is energy? In science, energy is the ability to do work. Work is done when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force. Energy is expressed in units of joules (J). A joule is calculated

More information

Energy Conversions I. Unit of measure (most common one) Form Definition Example

Energy Conversions I. Unit of measure (most common one) Form Definition Example Energy Conversions I Energy can take many forms, but any one form can usually be converted into another. And no matter what form we talk about, we can use conversion factors to calculate equivalent amounts

More information

Topic Page Contents Page

Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy (11-16) Contents Topic Page Contents Page Heat energy and temperature 3 Latent heat energy 15 Interesting temperatures 4 Conduction of heat energy 16 A cooling curve 5 Convection 17 Expansion

More information

HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

More information

A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2

A n = 2 to n = 1. B n = 3 to n = 1. C n = 4 to n = 2. D n = 5 to n = 2 North arolina Testing Program EO hemistry Sample Items Goal 4 1. onsider the spectrum for the hydrogen atom. In which situation will light be produced? 3. Which color of light would a hydrogen atom emit

More information

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred.

AZ State Standards. Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. Forms of Energy AZ State Standards Concept 3: Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred. PO 1. Describe the following ways in which

More information

Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX

Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX Refrigeration 101 Rusty Walker, Corporate Trainer Hill PHOENIX Compressor Basic Refrigeration Cycle Evaporator Condenser / Receiver Expansion Device Vapor Compression Cycle Cooling by the removal of heat

More information

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

More information

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

More information

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

More information

The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

More information

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature

SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature SAM Teachers Guide Heat and Temperature Overview Students learn that temperature measures average kinetic energy, and heat is the transfer of energy from hot systems to cold systems. They consider what

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Sample Mid-Term 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, its period A) is quartered.

More information

Convection, Conduction & Radiation

Convection, Conduction & Radiation Convection, Conduction & Radiation There are three basic ways in which heat is transferred: convection, conduction and radiation. In gases and liquids, heat is usually transferred by convection, in which

More information

Lecture 30 - Chapter 6 Thermal & Energy Systems (Examples) 1

Lecture 30 - Chapter 6 Thermal & Energy Systems (Examples) 1 Potential Energy ME 101: Thermal and Energy Systems Chapter 7 - Examples Gravitational Potential Energy U = mgδh Relative to a reference height Increase in elevation increases U Decrease in elevation decreases

More information

The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering

The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering Section 5: Reflow Oven Heat Transfer The Three Heat Transfer Modes in Reflow Soldering There are three different heating modes involved with most SMT reflow processes: conduction, convection, and infrared

More information

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C 1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

More information

Chapter 17: Change of Phase

Chapter 17: Change of Phase Chapter 17: Change of Phase Conceptual Physics, 10e (Hewitt) 3) Evaporation is a cooling process and condensation is A) a warming process. B) a cooling process also. C) neither a warming nor cooling process.

More information

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

More information

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat GOALS When you have mastered the contents of this chapter, you will be able to achieve the following goals: Definitions Define each of the following terms, and use it an

More information

14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS

14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS CHAPTER 14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS 469 14 HEAT AND HEAT TRANSFER METHODS Figure 14.1 (a) The chilling effect of a clear breezy night is produced by the wind and by radiative heat transfer to cold

More information

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

More information

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10 Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force

More information

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K

1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 1. At which temperature would a source radiate the least amount of electromagnetic energy? 1) 273 K 3) 32 K 2) 212 K 4) 5 K 2. How does the amount of heat energy reflected by a smooth, dark-colored concrete

More information

Chapter 3. Thermal Energy

Chapter 3. Thermal Energy Chapter 3 Thermal Energy In order to apply energy conservation to a falling ball or a roller coaster in the previous chapter, we had to assume that friction (with the air or the track) was negligible.

More information

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture

Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture Preview of Period 5: Thermal Energy, the Microscopic Picture 5.1 Temperature and Molecular Motion What is evaporative cooling? 5.2 Temperature and Phase Changes How much energy is required for a phase

More information

REASONING AND SOLUTION

REASONING AND SOLUTION 39. REASONING AND SOLUTION The heat released by the blood is given by Q cm T, in which the specific heat capacity c of the blood (water) is given in Table 12.2. Then Therefore, T Q cm 2000 J 0.8 C [4186

More information

Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

More information

The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

The Ideal Gas Law. Gas Constant. Applications of the Gas law. P = ρ R T. Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Lecture 2: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ideal Gas Law (Equation of State) Hydrostatic Balance Heat and Temperature Conduction, Convection, Radiation Latent Heating Adiabatic Process Lapse Rate and Stability

More information

Potential and Kinetic Energy

Potential and Kinetic Energy Potential and Kinetic Energy What is Energy? The ability to cause change Energy notes entry # 4 11/5 Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Definitions Dependent on Examples Forms of Potential Energy Definition

More information

Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal

Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal Staten Island Technical High School Vincent A. Maniscalco, Principal The Physical Setting: CHEMISTRY Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal - Unit 1 - Matter and Energy Lessons 9-14 Heat,

More information

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.

A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to

More information

Physics PH1FP. (Jun15PH1FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June 2015. Unit Physics P1. Unit Physics P1 TOTAL

Physics PH1FP. (Jun15PH1FP01) General Certificate of Secondary Education Foundation Tier June 2015. Unit Physics P1. Unit Physics P1 TOTAL Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Question Mark Science A Unit Physics P1 Physics Unit Physics P1 Friday 12 June 2015 General

More information

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version

Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing Point Depression: Why Don t Oceans Freeze? Teacher Advanced Version Freezing point depression describes the process where the temperature at which a liquid freezes is lowered by adding another

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 3 Energy and Its Effects The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological

More information

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics

Specific Heat Capacity and Latent Heat Questions A2 Physics 1. An electrical heater is used to heat a 1.0 kg block of metal, which is well lagged. The table shows how the temperature of the block increased with time. temp/ C 20.1 23.0 26.9 30.0 33.1 36.9 time/s

More information

Energy & Conservation of Energy. Energy & Radiation, Part I. Monday AM, Explain: Energy. Thomas Birner, ATS, CSU

Energy & Conservation of Energy. Energy & Radiation, Part I. Monday AM, Explain: Energy. Thomas Birner, ATS, CSU Monday AM, Explain: Energy MONDAY: energy in and energy out on a global scale Energy & Conservation of Energy Energy & Radiation, Part I Energy concepts: What is energy? Conservation of energy: Can energy

More information

Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

More information

UNIT 1 GCSE PHYSICS 1.1.1 Infrared Radiation 2011 FXA

UNIT 1 GCSE PHYSICS 1.1.1 Infrared Radiation 2011 FXA 1 All objects emit and absorb thermal radiation. The hotter an object is the infrared radiation it radiates in a given time. It is continually being transferred to and from all objects. The hotter the

More information

Heat. Chapter 4. 1. What is the difference between heat and temperature? 2. Why does an ice cube melt in your hand?

Heat. Chapter 4. 1. What is the difference between heat and temperature? 2. Why does an ice cube melt in your hand? Chapter 4 Heat Have you ever seen a hot air balloon float high above Earth s surface? What about a hang glider or a soaring bird of prey like a hawk? Each of these objects a hot air balloon, a hang glider,

More information

Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions

Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: Science Tutorial TEK 6.9C: Energy Forms & Conversions TEK 6.9C: Demonstrate energy transformations such as energy in a flashlight battery changes from chemical energy to electrical

More information

Energy Transformations

Energy Transformations Energy Transformations Concept Sheet Energy Transformations PS.6: The student will investigate and understand states and forms of energy and how energy is transferred and transformed. 1. Energy is the

More information

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 3 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 3. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics The Second aw of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that the energy has quality as well as quantity. The first law places no restriction

More information

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,

More information

Kinetic Theory. Energy. Transfers and Efficiency. The National Grid

Kinetic Theory. Energy. Transfers and Efficiency. The National Grid AQA P1 Revision Infrared Radiation Heating and Insulating Buildings Kinetic Theory Energy Transfers and Efficiency Energy Transfer by Heating Transferring Electrical Energy Generating Electricity The National

More information

Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer

Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer F L E X I B L E L E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H T O P H Y S I C S Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer 1 Opening items 1.1 Module introduction 1.2 Fast track questions 1.3 Ready to study?

More information

There is no such thing as heat energy

There is no such thing as heat energy There is no such thing as heat energy We have used heat only for the energy transferred between the objects at different temperatures, and thermal energy to describe the energy content of the objects.

More information

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory CHAPTER 12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids

More information

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

More information

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms

Module 2.2. Heat transfer mechanisms Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

Specific Heat (slope and steepness)

Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 1 Specific Heat (slope and steepness) 10 pages. According to the Physical Science text book, the Specific Heat of a material is DEFINED as the following: Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required

More information

Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report. Joshua Gutwill. October 1999

Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report. Joshua Gutwill. October 1999 Heat and Temperature: Front End Evaluation Report Joshua Gutwill October 1999 Keywords: 1 Heat and Temperature Front End Evaluation Report October 28, 1999 Goal:

More information

5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Energy and States of Matter 5 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 5.1 At the top of the hill, all of the energy of the car is in the form of potential energy. As it descends down the hill, potential

More information

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance. .1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

More information

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound

Energy - Heat, Light, and Sound Science Benchmark: 06:06 Heat, light, and sound are all forms of energy. Heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. Visible light can be produced, reflected, refracted, and separated

More information

Energy What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Any object that has energy has the ability to create force. Energy is one of the fundamental building blocks of our universe. Energy appears in

More information

Thermal Energy. Chapter Resources. Includes: Glencoe Science. Reproducible Student Pages. Teacher Support and Planning TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES

Thermal Energy. Chapter Resources. Includes: Glencoe Science. Reproducible Student Pages. Teacher Support and Planning TRANSPARENCY ACTIVITIES Glencoe Science Chapter Resources Thermal Energy Includes: Reproducible Student Pages ASSESSMENT Chapter Tests Chapter Review HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Lab Worksheets for each Student Edition Activity Laboratory

More information

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

More information

Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy 1/7 2009/11/14 上 午 11:10 Manage this Assignment: Chapter 16 Due: 12:00am on Saturday, July 3, 2010 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor's Grading Policy

More information

Introduction to Chapter 27

Introduction to Chapter 27 9 Heating and Cooling Introduction to Chapter 27 What process does a hot cup of coffee undergo as it cools? How does your bedroom become warm during the winter? How does the cooling system of a car work?

More information

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states. Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

More information

GATEWAY SCIENCE B651/01 PHYSICS B Unit 1 Modules P1 P2 P3 (Foundation Tier)

GATEWAY SCIENCE B651/01 PHYSICS B Unit 1 Modules P1 P2 P3 (Foundation Tier) F GENERAL CERTIFICATE OF SECONDARY EDUCATION GATEWAY SCIENCE B651/01 PHYSICS B Unit 1 Modules P1 P2 P3 (Foundation Tier) *CUP/T63931* Candidates answer on the question paper A calculator may be used for

More information

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science

Science Standard Articulated by Grade Level Strand 5: Physical Science Concept 1: Properties of Objects and Materials Classify objects and materials by their observable properties. Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 PO 1. Identify the following observable properties

More information

Worksheet #17. 2. How much heat is released when 143 g of ice is cooled from 14 C to 75 C, if the specific heat capacity of ice is 2.087 J/(g C).

Worksheet #17. 2. How much heat is released when 143 g of ice is cooled from 14 C to 75 C, if the specific heat capacity of ice is 2.087 J/(g C). Worksheet #17 Calculating Heat 1. How much heat is needed to bring 12.0 g of water from 28.3 C to 43.87 C, if the specific heat capacity of water is 4.184 /(g? 2. How much heat is released when 143 g of

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Tidal forces in general are the result of A) unequal forces acting on different parts

More information

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process

Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Practical Applications of Freezing by Boiling Process Kenny Gotlieb, Sasha Mitchell and Daniel Walsh Physics Department, Harvard-Westlake School 37 Coldwater Canyon, N. Hollywood, CA 9164 Introduction

More information

LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND

LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND 251 Name Date Partners LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS... the quantity of heat produced by the friction of bodies, whether solid or liquid, is always proportional to the quantity

More information

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy

Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Chapter 2: Forms of Energy Goals of Period 2 Section 2.1: To describe the forms of energy Section 2.2: To illustrate conversions from one form of energy to another Section 2.3: To define the efficiency

More information