LCA of palm oil biodiesel (PME): Life cycle comparison

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1 LCA of palm oil biodiesel (PME): Life cycle comparison PME Pesticides Seedlings Fertilizer fuel extraction and processing Oil palm plantation Extraction, Palm kernel oil Alternative land use Fodder Natural forest Fibres & Shells Power Power mix POME Biogas Power mix Empty fruit bunches Mulch Min. fertilizer Transesterification Raw Chemicals Convent. biodiesel Product Process Reference system - 1 -

2 LCA: Credit method vs. allocation method Fossil diesel JME Credit Allocation Land use change extraction and pre-treatment Cultivation Alternative land use Cultivation Capsules Capsules Dehusking Husks Mineral fertiliser Dehusking Husks Seeds Seeds 45 % Processing () Extraction & refining De-oiled cake Mineral fertiliser Extraction & refining De-oiled cake Jatropha oil Jatropha oil Chemicals Transesterification Transesterification 2 % JME JME 53 % Use Use Use Product Residue Process Reference system Source: IFEU 2008

3 LCA of PME: Results of greenhouse gas balance Greenhouse effect Credits CO 2 Expenditures biodiesel CH 4 Conventional diesel Advantage Disadvantage for PME PME t CO 2 equiv. / (ha*yr) Expenditures: Tractor N-fertiliser Other ancillary products N 2 O field emissions C-loss N 2 O & CH 4 All transports POME CH 4 Process refining & transesterification Utilisation Cultivation Land use change Production Credits: Conventional diesel: Production Utilisation - 3 -

4 LCA of palm oil biodiesel (PME): Life cycle comparison PME Pesticides Seedlings Fertilizer fuel extraction and processing Oil palm plantation Alternative land use Palm kernel oil Natural forest Extraction, Fodder Fibres & Shells Power Power mix POME Biogas Power mix Empty fruit bunches Mulch Min. fertilizer Transesterification Raw Chemicals Convent. biodiesel Product Process Reference system - 4 -

5 LCA of PME: Optimisation of palm oil production Oil palm plantation Mulch Empty fruit bunches Fresh fruit bunches Sterilisation, Threshing CHP Surplus power Fibres Shells Fruit mill digestion, Pressing Kernels Cracker Power Oil clarification POME Anaerobic waste water treatment Methane Kernels Palm kernel oil mill Crude palm oil Crude palm kernel oil

6 LCA of PME: Optimisation of palm oil production Option Typical Cultivation* Optimised Cultivation* Biogas utilization 0 % 100 % Sell-out of surplus energy (by-products) 0 % 100 % Oil yield (cultivation) 3.5 t/ha 4.0 t/ha Field preparation Open burning Zero burning * Plantation / palm oil mill management

7 LCA of PME: Optimisation of palm oil production Greenhouse effect Credits Expenditures PME (typ. practice) Conventional diesel PME (good practice) Conventional diesel Advantage Disadvantage Balance (typ. practice) Balance (good practice) Range tonnes CO 2 equiv. / (ha*yr) Expenditures: Tractor N-fertiliser Other ancillary products N 2 O field emissions C-loss N2O & CH4 Cultivation Land use change Plantation burning / mechanical clearing All transports POME CH 4 Process refining & transesterification Utilisation Production Credits: Biogas Power Conventional diesel: Production Utilisation - 7 -

8 LCA of palm oil biodiesel (PME): Life cycle comparison PME Pesticides Seedlings Fertilizer fuel extraction and processing Oil palm plantation Alternative land use Palm kernel oil Natural forest Extraction, Fodder Fibres & Shells Power Power mix POME Biogas Power mix Empty fruit bunches Mulch Min. fertilizer Transesterification Raw Chemicals Convent. biodiesel Product Process Reference system - 8 -

9 LCA of PME: Land use change (LUC) Natural forest Peat forest Oil palm plantation Coconut plantation Rubber plantation Coconut oil Natural rubber Fodder Synth. rubber Oil palm plantation Palm kernel oil Edible oil Rapeseed oil Trop. fallow Fodder - 9 -

10 LCA of PME: Alternative land use / Land use change Greenhouse effect Advantage Disadvantage for palm oil Natural forest Peat forest Oil palm (nutr.) Coconut Nat. rubber Tropical fallow tonnes CO 2 equiv. / (ha*yr) Source: IFEU 2008

11 LCA of palm oil biodiesel (PME): Summary & conclusions LCA results depend on management of plantations & oil mills: Yield improvement Zero burning Energetic use of co-products Energetic use of POME biogas Land use changes have a major influence on: Greenhouse gas balance Impact depending on magnitude of carbon stock change and depreciation period Land use changes (direct and indirect) should be avoided, except for establishment of oil palms on degraded land Existing palm oil production (plantations + oil mills) should be significantly optimised Biodiversity Irreversible loss

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