Laying the Foundation: Important Terminology. encompasses: syntax, morphology, phonology and semantics )

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1 REFERENCE GUIDE # 1 (MAKE A COPY OF THIS TO KEEP IN YOUR ENGLISH 101 FOLDER) BASIC GENERAL INFORMATION FOR REFERENCE IN MRS. WHITE S ENGLISH GRAMMAR 101 CLASS (3 PAGES) Laying the Foundation: Important Terminology Grammar (a noun) the whole system and structure of a language in general (It encompasses: syntax, morphology, phonology and semantics ) Parse (an action verb) a relatively antique word which means analyzing a sentence into its parts and describe their syntactic roles. (Interestingly, our technology world has borrowed this term to discuss app needs from the core to the analytics; however, we will be analyzing the core of Grammar using the words of the original author, God!) Diagramming (an action verb) similar to parse, but involves drawing lines to analyze (Personally, I find it to have quite an artistic flair in its own grammatical way, of course) Parts of Speech these parts which we are going to be analyzing are called by names and can also have various roles just as we do. These parts are known as follows: Noun which can be a person, place, thing, idea, or feeling; (There are types or rather kinds of nouns which we will learn about later); next, Verb which is an action word, but also can link, help or be a being verb; (Verbs are very interesting because they can have moods, tenses and voices which we will learn more about, later ); Pronoun which can take the place of a noun and can be used just like the noun; (There are different types and cases of pronouns which we will find out more about later, as well) Adjective can modify or describe a noun or pronoun by telling how much, which one, or what kind ; Adverb can modify a verb or another adverb by telling how, when, why, wher e and to what extent ; Preposition will show the relationship between other parts in the sentence. (There are a great number of them and they always have an object which is always a noun or pronoun, but prepositions are easy to recognize as we will see later) ; Conjunctions are words that are used as connectors to the other parts in a sentence. (There are two types : coordinating and subordinating which are also easy to recognize. ); Interjection is a word that shows all types of emotion and expression in the sentence. (These words usually stands alone and many times are followed by an exclamation point!!!!! ); a final part of speech which I am including because it is significantly meaningful in the KJV, and that part is the Article. ( A, an and the are used frequently, as we will see. An article can be definite or indefinite which makes a significant difference in the meaning of the sentence.) Syntax ( sin taks ) (a noun) the arrangement of words and phrases to create well informed sentences (We call these arrangements patterns, and there are a number of these patterns as you will see when we begin parsing and analyzing.) Morphology ( mor fal e je ) (a noun) the study of the forms of words and the ways in which words are related (perhaps think and compare family relationships

2 Phonology ( fen al e je ) (a noun) the study of how sounds are organized Semantics (a noun) the study of the meanings of the targeted language Phonetics ( fe net iks ) (a noun)--the study of sounds utterances in a language Linguistics ( ling gwis tiks ) (a noun) the scientific study of language and its structure, which includes the study of morphology, syntax, phonetics, and Semantics (There are several specific areas of linguistics if you enjoy research.) Etymology ( et e mal e je ) (a noun) the study of the origin of words and the way in which their meanings have changed throughout history (Wikipedia has an on-line Etymology Dictionary) Laying the Foundation: Important Basic Grammar Terminology Sentence a group of words ( clause ) having a subject and predicate and makes a complete thought. Subject the word or words which tell who or what the sentence is about. The Subject can only be a noun or pronoun. (A noun is a person, place, thing or idea.--a pronoun is a word that can substitute for a noun such as : I, he, she, it, they, we, these, and more.) Predicate tells what the subject is doing and functions as the main verb in the sentence. (The predicate can also be a being verb like: am, is, are, be, being, been, was, and were. These same verbs can also link words back to the subject or help other verbs.) Clause is a group of words that has a subject and predicate. (It can be independen t or dependent ; if it can stand alone by itself and make sense, it is called independent, and it can become a sentence ; however, if it cannot stand by itself, but needs the help of another clause, then we call it a dependent clause.) Coordinating Conjunction these words connect words, independent clauses, and phrases together (Some of the most common are: and, but, or, nor, for and yet ) Subordinating Conjunction these words generally connect a dependent clause with an independent clause ; (of course there can be a number of clauses in one sentence as long as the clauses are connected with the appropriate conjunctions and punctuation to all the clauses in the sentence.) (This arrangement of clauses develops a variety of sentence patterns which we will be analyzing throughout this course.) (The greatest examples of all patterns are found in the KJV!) Sentence Patterns the arrangement of the parts of speech provide the different types of sentence patterns; each type of pattern has a special purpose; (There are four types of purposes: declarative which gives information; interrogative which asks questions; Page 2

3 imperative which makes requests or commands; and the exclamatory which expresses excitement or emotion.) (When we express ourselves orally, we use various patterns with various reflections (changing the pitch, tone or volume of our voice), but when we are writing, we use punctuation to communicate these inflections. Laying the Foundation: Important Punctuation Rules All sentences start with a capital letter. Titles of books, magazines, movies, particular places, names and other particular things are capitalized. Every sentence needs end punctuation depending on the sentence purpose : ( a period (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!) A comma (, ) is used in a series of things listed, after introductory words at the beginning of a sentence, or can be used before a coordinating conjunction between two or more independent clauses, between after the month and day before the year and in the separation of other elements in the sentence which may need to be separated. A colon (: )is used to list items, or is used between a first sentence which explains the second sentence, (the KJV often use a colon in this way) or the colon is used to introduce a long quote. The colon is also used with reference to time. A semicolon ( ; )is used at times to take the place of a conjunction in closely related sentences; a semicolon is also placed before a conjunctive adverb ; like however, therefore, consequently ; a semicolon is also used with longer detailed lists. Parenthesis ( ) enclose words, phrases or sentences that clarify or would not normally fit in the flow of the text Apostrophes ( ) are used to make contractions, show ownership and at times make plurals. Dash ( ) is a mark which is used to indicate a break in thought or structure. It can also be used to denote omission. Hyphen ( ) is used to create compound words or when writing numbers like twenty one. Ellipsis ( ) is used when you re quoting and want to leave out a few words. Brackets ([ ] ) are used to include explanatory words in phrases within quoted language. Page 3

4 Quotation Marks ( ) indicate the beginnin g and end of exact words. Italics are used for titles of publications, and to clarify or to emphasize Basic Grammar Guide Continued: Page 4 for English 101 Laying the Foundation for Verbs There are two main categories of verbs; Regular -verbs which form their past and past participle by adding ed and Irregular -verbs which may change their spelling or do not change anything when forming their past and past participle. Examples of Regular Verbs : Base Verb Past Tense Past Participle learn learned learned pray prayed prayed preach preached preached Examples of Irregular Verbs : grow grew grown lead led led read read read You can go online and find lists for both categories of verbs and review their conjugations through the tenses. (Conjugation is the inflections of time given to the verb though the variances of tense, person, number, mood and voice.) There are three main Tenses : present, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect and perfect progressive tenses. Examples of these tenses using the regular verb finish for 1 st person I: Present Past Future Simple Tense I finish I finished I will finish Progressive I am finishing I was finishing I will be finishing Page 4

5 Perfect I have finished I had finished I will have finished Perfect Prog. I have been finishing I had been finishing I will have been finishing Basic Grammar Guide: page 5 English 101: Note : The Present Perfect tense describes an action that started in the past and continues to the present time. (You use has or have plus the past participle form of the verb) Example: I have learned much about grammar parsing this semester. The Past Perfect tense describes an action that started and ended in the past. (You use had plus the past participle form of the verb.) Example : I had learned the basics of grammar in my earlier years of education. The Future Perfect tense describes future actions that will occur before some other action. (You use will have plus the past participle form of the verb,) Example : I will have learned much more about English grammar when I have finished this semester. Note: The Progressive tense involves action that is, was, or will be in progress at a certain time. ( These tenses are always formed with a be verb plus ing. Example of the Present Progressive: I am studying for my exam right now. Example of the Past Progressive : I was planning for college at this time last year. Example of the Future Progressive : I will be preaching at a convention next Sunday. CHARACTERISTICS (PROPERTIES) OF VERBS: Number (Singular or Plural); Person (1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd ) Tense (Present, Past, Future, Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect, Present Progressive, Past Progressive, Future Progressive, Present Perfect Progressive, Past Perfect Progressive, Future Perfect Progressive, Conditional ); Voice ( Active The subject is the doer.) or Passive The action is the focus and is passed back to the subject (the subject is mainly the receiver of the action); The active voice Page 5

6 generally shows more clarity and even more assertiveness or aggression; whereas, the passive voice may sound less aggressive and perhaps even more polite. Mood ( Indicative states actuality or fact Example : The KJV Bible is God s Word! Imperative makes a request Example : Read your Bible every day., Subjunctive expresses a hypothetical or contrary to fact condition Example : If I were lost, I would certainly want to get saved! Page 6

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