What s in here? Hi, my name is Michael Faraday.

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1 Your energy

2 Hi, my name is Michael Faraday. Over 160 years ago I discovered how to generate electricity by experimenting with rotating a magnet inside a coil of wire. Imagine your life without electricity! No TV, computers, mobile phones, lights...things would be very different. Let's go on a journey to find out more about your energy. What s in here? 01. How do we make it? 02. How do we get it to you? 03. Saving energy 04. The future of energy 05. What have we learned? 01

3 01. How do we make it? To make electricity we use different types of power stations. Some use wind, others water and some even use waste paper. Turn over to find out about the different ways of making energy. 01. How do we make it? 02

4 The sun The sun gives out heat and light. Solar panels can convert the light into electricity. You can sometimes see solar panels on the roof of a house, school or other building. Look out for them in your area! Oil and gas platforms Oil or gas is brought up from under the sea bed by pipes and machinery. An oil platform in the sea controls how this is done. Oil is turned into things like petrol. Gas is used for things like heating our homes. Oil and gas are non-renewable this means they may run out one day. Wind turbines A wind turbine is a huge fan on top of a tall pole. The wind pushes the arms of the fan round and this generates electricity. Wind turbines can be on land or at sea. Wind power is renewable energy which means it will never run out. Are there any wind turbines near you? 01. How do we make it? 03

5 Power station cooling towers These are cooling towers in a power station. A power station turns a material such as coal into steam to make electricity. Then cooling towers turn the steam back into water which is returned to the river or sea. Coal mines Coal is extracted from the earth by machines. Coal is called a fossil fuel as it is made from the fossils of plants and animals from millions of years ago. Coal is non-renewable this means it may run out one day. Hydro electricity Hydro electricity is produced when water falls from a great height onto a turbine, which is like a big fan for water. The turbine goes round and generates electricity. Hydro electricity is renewable energy which means it will never run out. There are lots of hydro electric power stations in the UK. Have you ever seen one? 01. How do we make it? 04

6 Energy efficiency We are using the earth s resources more quickly than we can replace them. What will happen if coal and oil run out one day? Scientists also believe we are causing the earth to heat up because of all the energy we use. This might sound nice we all love sunny days! but it could be very dangerous for us and the animals and plants on Earth. So we have to use more renewable energy energy from sources which won t run out, such as the sun, the wind or water. But we also have to use less energy all round! 01. How do we make it? 05

7 02. How do we get it to you? Here is a landscape showing the ways that energy companies get the generated electricity to you. It travels in different ways - up hills, on the bed of a lake or the sea bed, and over miles and miles of land. 02. How do we get it to you? 06

8 The National Grid The National Grid connects power stations and substations together and makes sure that everyone can get electricity when they need it even in the evening when everyone s having dinner. Step-up transformer Electricity has to go through a step-up transformer to make sure that just the right amount gets to where it s needed. Warning! Farmers and other people working outside have to make sure their machinery does not touch overhead wires. Touching the wires could give them an electric shock. 02. How do we get it to you? 07

9 Towers Tower lines normally carry very high voltages. So they can distribute large amounts of power and are used to carry lots of power over long distances. Substation Electricity has to go through substations to make sure that just the right amount gets to where it s needed. Warning! Never enter a substation to get a football or anything else that s gone in there. Ask an adult to contact us and we will return your item safely to you. 02. How do we get it to you? 08

10 Underground cables Underground cables are used in built-up urban areas where it would be unsafe to put up lots of overhead lines. They can also be used to cross areas of water, because some activities (eg water sports) may be unsafe to do if there were overhead lines. Overhead wooden poles Overhead wooden pole lines are used to carry lower voltages than tower lines. They are often used to cross rural areas. Warning! Don t play with kites or other flying objects near overhead lines. You could get an electric shock if you catch them on the lines. 02. How do we get it to you? 09

11 Warning! Be careful if you are climbing trees - some are very near to electric cables. Remember, electricity can jump gaps, so even getting close to gaps can be dangerous. Your energy Wires and cables carry electricity to the city and send it to the buildings and street lights. It gives us light, power for our machines and heat in our homes. 02. How do we get it to you? 10

12 Energy efficiency A lot of towns and cities have ways to help you save energy you can get the bus, get the train or use a cycle path to get around, rather than going by car. How easy is it to do this where you live? 02. How do we get it to you? 11

13 03. Saving energy It s so important to save energy in the home. It ll help the earth and save lots of money. Do you do anything to save energy? Do you think you could use some of our ideas? What do you think uses the most and least energy in your house? 03. Saving energy 12

14 Oven Remove the shelves in your cooker you re not using all they do is soak up the heat. So your cooker has to make more heat to cook your food. Warning! Take care with pans on the cooker they could contain boiling water or oil. Make sure the handles don t stick out. Ask an adult to move or remove them when the food s ready. Warning! Food coming out of the microwave can be very hot and could burn you. Use oven gloves or ask an adult to remove the food for you. 03. Saving energy 13

15 Toaster If you re making toast, use the toaster instead of the grill. It ll use less energy and it s safer. Warning! If toast gets stuck in the toaster, never use a metal object such as a knife to get it out. Metal conducts electricity so the toaster would pass electricity on to you, giving you an electric shock. Just switch off the electricity and ask an adult for help. Switch off taps Make sure taps are switched off fully when you re not using them. If the tap s dripping, ask an adult in the house if they can fix it. 03. Saving energy 14

16 Warning! Always use oven gloves and protective mats for hot dishes. Better still - let an adult take care of hot dishes. Freezer It costs more to freeze air than solid stuff so fill up empty spaces in your freezer with cardboard boxes stuffed with newspaper (yes, really!). Light blubs An energy-saving lightbulb can last up to 10 times longer than an ordinary lightbulb and use about a fifth of the electricity. But they ll still light up your life! 03. Saving energy 15

17 Radiators Ask an adult at home if you can stick tin foil down the back of your radiators. It s clever stuff it reflects the heat back into the room so you could turn the heat down and stay warm! Warning! Never use an appliance that has bare wires showing. Touching bare wires could give you an electric shock. TV Remember not to leave your TV on standby it uses almost as much energy as when it s fully on! 03. Saving energy 16

18 Warning! If you smell gas, do not use any electrical switch or gadget, as it could cause a spark which would light the gas and cause an explosion. Ask someone outside the house to call for help. Warning! Never overload a plug socket. It could overheat and cause a fire. Lights If no one else is in the room, switch the light off when you leave. Maybe your family could set you a challenge with a small reward, to help you remember? 03. Saving energy 17

19 Windows If you re too warm, don t open the window. Turn the heating down first and see how you get on. Computer Say bye bye to standby. When you re not using your PC, switch it off. Leaving it on standby uses almost as much electricity as when it s on. Taps Save water when brushing your teeth! Don t keep the tap running the whole time just switch it on when you need to. 03. Saving energy 18

20 Toilet Ask an adult in the house to put a brick in the cistern. Eh? It s true stick a brick in there and you ll be flushing less water and less money away! Solar panels Solar panels collect light from the sun and turn it into electricity, helping us to light and heat our homes. They can also be used on spacecraft in the solar system! Warning! Don t mix water and electricity - never take an electrical appliance into the bathroom. This could cause an electric shock. 03. Saving energy 19

21 Shower You use loads less water when you have a shower rather than a bath. So grab that shower gel and save energy! Warning! Don t play near adults when they are using electrical equipment in the garden and never try to use the tools yourself. 03. Saving energy 20

22 04. The future of energy Come with me into the future! This is what our world might look like in 50 or 100 years time. How old would you be then? Do you think you d like to drive an electric car or use solar panels? What do you think it would be like? 04. The future of energy 21

23 Hydro-electric Our newest hydro-electric station near Loch Ness produces enough electricity to power up to 250,000 homes. Heat pumps It s hot underground and these pumps take the heat from pipes in the ground and use it to warm up water for radiators or boilers. Solar panels It s likely that more and more people in the future will have solar panels connected to their houses, schools or places of work. 04. The future of energy 22

24 Renewable energy We know supplies of coal, gas and oil are running out so we think we will need to generate more electricity from wind and water in the future. Electric cars Electric cars will not need petrol. Instead they will have batteries which get charged, like a mobile phone battery. So they will not give out carbon monoxide fumes and we won t need to rely on oil so much. But we will need to make more electricity to run the cars. Wave power Wave power works when waves rush into chambers in the sea. The air in these chambers gets moved at high speed to turn pistons which make electricity. Wave power is a renewable energy source. Wind power We will need more renewable power in the future so you may see more wind farms near where you live, or in the sea. 04. The future of energy 23

25 05. What have we learned? You ve discovered the ways we make energy and get it to you. You also know lots of ways to save energy, and what energy use could be like in the future. Let s see what we ve learned. 05. What have we learned? 24

26 How do we make it? We have learned that: Electricity and gas come from many different sources. Some sources are renewable and some are non-renewable. Do you remember what this means? 05. What have we learned? 25

27 How do we get it to you? We have learned that: We need overhead poles, electricity towers, and many other things to get electricity to you You have to be really careful near substations and overhead lines as they are dangerous areas if you get too close. 05. What have we learned? 26

28 Saving energy We have learned that: There are so many ways you can save energy in the home and many of them are really easy! There are lots of places in the house where your actions could make a real difference and help keep everyone safe. 05. What have we learned? 27

29 The future of energy We have learned that: We will need to change the way we produce and use energy in the near future. We will see more solar panels and wind farms in the UK. There will be more electric cars on the road. 05. What have we learned? 28

30 What next? Have you completed your energy workbook? To find this and more resources, check out our online resource centre at What have we learned? 29

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