Biology I: Study Guide # 3 Topics: Photosynthesis & Respiration

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1 Biology I: Study Guide # 3 Topics: Photosynthesis & Respiration Name: Biology Textbook: pg , PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1. Define: a. autotroph: b. heterotroph: c. ATP: d. ADP: e. Glucose: f. photosynthesis: 2. Describe the three parts of an ATP molecule (draw its structure below): 3. Explain the difference between ATP and ADP: 4. Write the energy storing reaction involving ATP and ADP: 5. Write the energy releasing reaction involving ATP and ADP: 6. How does a change from ATP to ADP provide an organism with energy? 7. Compare the amounts of energy stored by ATP and glucose: 8. How were Priestley`s and Ingenhousz`s discoveries about photosynthesis related? 9. Write the basic equation of photosynthesis using both, the words and the symbols: 10. What are the raw materials needed for photosynthesis? and 11. What are the products of photosynthesis? and 12. Why are light and chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis? 13. Describe the relationship between chlorophyll and the color of plants: 14. How well would a plant grow under pure green light? Explain.

2 15. Circle the letters of the regions of the visible spectrum in which chlorophyll absorbs light very well. a. blue-violet region b. green region c. red region d. yellow region 16. How do plans store glucose? 17. Label the structures in the diagram below: 18. In which structure(s) do the light-dependent reactions occur? 19. In which structure(s) does the Calvin cycle take place? 20. Explain the role of NADP + as an energy carrier in photosynthesis: 21. What is the role of ATP synthase? 22. How do the events in the Calvin cycle depend on the light-dependent reactions? 23. Complete the following flowchart about photosynthesis: Name at least three factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis:

3 25. Match each term with its description below. a. chlorophyll b. stroma c. pigment d.photosynthesis e. light-dependent reactions 11. molecule that absorbs light 12. produce oxygen gas and convert ADP to ATP 13. the region outside the thylakoid membranes 14. principal pigment found in plants 15. process by which autotrophs use sunlight to make highenergy sugar RESPIRATION 26. Label the diagram below which represents a cross section of a mitochondrion: Crista 27. Circle the organisms that contain mitochondria in their cells. a. an animal b. a plant c. a bacterium d. a fungus e. a prokaryote 28. Define cellular respiration: 29. Write the general equation of cellular respiration using both, the words and the symbols: 30. What are the raw materials needed for cellular respiration? and 31. What are the products of cellular respiration? and and 32. Define: a. glycolysis: b. pyruvic acid: c. NAD + : d. aerobic: e. anaerobic: f. fermentation: g. Krebs cycle: h. electron transport chain:

4 33. What is the net energy gain in glycolysis? a. 4 molecules of ATP b. 2 molecules of ATP c. 36 molecules of ATP d. 38 molecules of ATP 34. Which of the following causes a painful, burning sensation in muscles after vigorous exercise? a. alcohol b. glycolysis c. pyruvic acid d. lactic acid 35. What is another name for the Krebs cycle? a. the glycolysis cycle b. alcoholic fermentation c. the citric acid cycle d. the respiration cycle 36. Write equations to show how lactic acid fermentation compares with alcoholic fermentation. Which reactants do they have in common? 37. Summarize what happens during the Krebs cycle. What happens to the high energy electrons generated during the Krebs cycle? 38. On the lines provided, identify which phrase describes the following processes: cellular respiration, glycolysis, lactic acid fermentation, or alcoholic fermentation. a. important in baking bread b. builds up in muscles after a few seconds of intense activity c. requires oxygen and glucose d. produces 2 ATP molecules and pyruvic acid e. almost the opposite process of photosynthesis f. the reason why runners breathe heavily after a race 39. In the space provided, write the letter of the definition that best matches each term. 1. anaerobic a. process that releases energy by breaking down food in the presence of oxygen 2. aerobic b. amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 C 3. calorie 4. cellular respiration 5. fermentation 6. glycolysis 7. Krebs cycle 8. NAD+ c. chemical process that does not require oxygen d. chemical process that requires oxygen e. electron carrier of glycolysis f. process that releases energy from food molecules when no oxygen is present g. stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions h. process in which glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid 40. Which phrase best describes cellular respiration, a process that occurs continuously in the cells of organisms? (1) removal of oxygen from the cells of an organism (2) conversion of light energy into the chemical bond energy of organic molecules (3) transport of materials within cells and throughout the bodies of multicellular organisms (4) changing of stored chemical energy in food molecules to a form usable by organisms

5 41. How many molecules of ATP are produced in the entire breakdown of glucose? 42. In what way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar? (1) They both occur in chloroplasts. (2) They both require sunlight. (3) They both involve organic and inorganic molecules. (4) They both require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. 43. Compare and contrast the process of photosynthesis and respiration (use the chart provided) Function Raw materials Products Energy rich molecule produced Use of the energy rich molecule by an organism Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration State how a gas produced by each process is recycled in nature: 44. Complete the following concept map showing the flow of energy in photosynthesis and cellular respiration. 45. Certain types of bacteria thrive in conditions that lack oxygen. What does that fact indicate about the way they obtain energy? 46. Yeast cells can carry out both fermentation and aerobic cellular respiration, depending on whether oxygen is present. In which case would you expect yeast cells to grow more rapidly? Explain. 47. Which part of a cell is the site of glycolysis? 48. Where in a cell do Krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place?

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