Sunlight and Temperature

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Sunlight and Temperature"

Transcription

1 Sunlight and Temperature Name In a previous lab, you studied interactions between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Many of these interactions involve energy exchanges ultimately derived from sunlight. Sunlight energy pours onto the Earth and shifts from system to system before ultimately departing Earth back to space Purpose: Study microclimate differences due to sunlight exposure, location, and surface; practice environmental measurements; study natural energy flows; compare measurements; and make inferences from findings. When sunlight enters the Earth system, most of it passes through the atmosphere and reaches the surface. Some is then reflected back to space and the remainder is absorbed, heating the ground. This heating is uneven, however, and can vary a great deal over a small area. These variations help produce distinct microclimates, that is places with different temperature, humidity, and sunlight within a small area. In this lab, we will study local variations in surface heating from sunlight. Equipment (provided): thermometer, hole digging tool, water container Ideally, we also would like a hot, sunny day and an area with dry grass, trees, asphalt, bare dry soil, and concrete or rock surfaces nearby. Part 1: Observation 1.Time Date Sky Conditions 2. Survey your area visually. Imagine walking around the area in bare feet. Which surfaces would you prefer to walk on? Which do you think would be coolest? Which would you avoid because you imagine they would be too hot? If the area received a light rain, how do you think that would affect the surface temperature?

2 Part 2: Measurement Ambient Air Temperature Air temperature as reported by meteorological services around the world is recorded in a white, shaded box called a Stevenson screen, with open airflow and a thermometer mounted at two meters above the surface, hence sometimes called 2m-temperature. We are going to compare the standard air temperature measurement with the infrared thermometer measurement in the shade of various objects. 3. air temperature in the shade at head height using the thermometer 4. IR temp on shaded side of a tree in deep shade at head height 5. IR temp on shaded side of a sunlit tree at height height 6. IR temp on shaded side of a post at head height 7. IR temp on shaded side of building at head height Heat Flow from Soil and Air Temperature profile In nature, heat flows from areas of higher temperature toward areas of lower temperature. We will explore the direction of heat flow near the surface on a sunny day. In an open (exposed to sunlight) area of bare dry soil, measure the temperature using the IR thermometer at the following places. For the below-ground measurements, use the digging tool to expose the soil at the listed depths and then use the IR thermometer to measure the temperature in the hole. 8. bare, dry soil surface temperature 9. about 1 cm (1/2 inch) below the surface 10. about 7 cm (3 inches) below the surface Albedo, Surface Characteristics, and Surface Temperature Now measure the temperature of several different surfaces that have been exposed directly to sunlight for at least several minutes. Simply point the IR thermometer at the surface and take the reading. 11. bare, dry soil 12. open grassy area 13. concrete 14. asphalt 15. any other surface of your choosing

3 Effect of Evaporation on Temperature For this measurement, we will measure the temperature of an open surface exposed to sunlight, then mist it with water, wait until the water evaporates away and then measure the temperature again 16. concrete 17. concrete after water has evaporated 18. tree trunk 19. tree trunk after water has evaporated Clouds and Greenhouse Warming Clouds are an important part element of greenhouse warming. For these measurements point your IR thermometer at blue sky and clouds, but DO NOT POINT DIRECTLY AT THE SUN!!!!! or you will destroy the instrument. 20. patch of blue sky directly overhead 21. patch of blue sky at about 45 degrees above the horizon 22. patch of blue sky near the horizon 23. cumulus clouds nearly directly overhead (near the base if possible) 24. cumulus clouds over the mountains. 25. thin clouds (if available) Finally, feel free to measure anything you wish. How about your skin at different locations? Different parts of a tree? Part 3: Discussion Answer the following questions. Some of the answers will be speculative so do not be afraid to use your imagination. 26. Which IR measurement was closest to the glass thermometer measurement (#3)? Was the shaded open tree measurement (#5) different from the deep shaded tree (#4) measurement? If so, why do you think they were different? Was the shaded post measurement (#6) different from the open shaded tree (#5) measurement? If so, why do you think they were different?

4 27. In nature, heat flows from warmer areas toward colder areas. Using the soil temperature measurements (numbers 8-10 above), draw a graph showing the relationship between temperature (horizontal axis in degrees C) and depth (vertical axis in centimeters). Temperature (Day) Temperature (Night) 28. Based on your measurements, which direction is heat flowing? From the surface into the soil, or from the soil up to the surface? Let's assume that at night, the bare soil surface temperature falls to 22 degrees C. Draw another graph on the right for the situation at night, using your measurements at 1 and 7 cm (#9, #10) and substituting 22 degrees C for your measurement of the bare soil surface temperature (#8). Look at the graph. At night, does heat flow from the surface into the soil, or from the soil up to the surface? 29. Which is higher, the soil surface temperature (#8) or the air temperature (#3)? Does that mean heat is flowing from the surface into the air, or from the air down to the surface? Does that mean the ground heats the air, or does it mean that the air heats the ground during the daytime? During the daytime, what heats the air near the surface, the ground or the sunlight? 30. Which surface was hotter, concrete or asphalt? Which was darker? Do you think darker or lighter surfaces will be hotter in general? Why? If you do not know, guess.

5 31. What effect did wetting the surface have on your measurements (#16-19)? Try to explain why (guessing is OK). Did concrete or the tree cool more when wet? Why do you think there was a difference? 32. Compare your measurements of the open grass and bare soil areas, which was hotter? Both are exposed to the same amount of sunlight and grass has a lower albedo than bare soil, so why do you think there was a difference? 33. Which surface was hotter, grass or asphalt? Why do you think it was the hottest? 34. Ever hear of an "urban heat island?" The phrase refers to the observation that urban areas are almost always hotter than the surrounding rural areas. Give two reasons that urban areas might be hotter than rural (country) areas. First Reason: Second Reason: 35. There was a lot of variation in the surface temperature measurements. Under what conditions would you expect all of your measurements to be approximately the same? 36. Compare your surface temperature measurements to your initial beliefs given in # 2 above. Did the measurements prove you right for the coolest and hottest surfaces?

6 If not, what were the differences? 37. Many plants and animals cannot tolerate uncontrolled temperature fluctuations caused by direct sunlight exposure. Based on the various measurements you took in this exercise, suggest at least three (3) ways that plants and animals might keep try to reduce their surface heating due to direct sunlight. (HINT: which measurements had the lowest temperatures?) Which was warmer, clouds or clear sky? Clouds can have an important effect Earth's surface temperature. Based on your measurements, do you think the surface would be warmer at night under clouds or clear sky? Explain your reasoning. 39. Which was cooler, the clear sky overhead or the clear sky near the horizon? Why do you think there is a difference? 40. What is the difference between the air temperature (#3) and the cloud temperature (23)? The air cools at about about 6 degrees C per kilometer. Based on this information, how high was the cloud that you measured?

7

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Have you ever jumped in a puddle or played in the rain? If so, you know you can get very wet. What you may not know is that a dinosaur could have walked through that same water millions of years

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test.

6 th Grade Science Assessment: Weather & Water Select the best answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this test. Select the be answer on the answer sheet. Please do not make any marks on this te. 1. Weather is be defined as the A. changes that occur in cloud formations from day to day. B. amount of rain or snow that

More information

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION

(Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION Convection (Walter Glogowski, Chaz Shapiro & Reid Sherman) INTRODUCTION You know from common experience that when there's a difference in temperature between two places close to each other, the temperatures

More information

Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

3 Temperate and Polar Zones

3 Temperate and Polar Zones Name CHAPTER 17 Class Date Climate SECTION 3 Temperate and Polar Zones BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What biomes are found in the temperate

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow

Heating the Atmosphere. Dr. Michael J Passow Heating the Atmosphere Dr. Michael J Passow Heat vs. Temperature Heat refers to energy transferred from one object to another Temperature measures the average kinetic energy in a substance. When heat energy

More information

Temperature and Humidity

Temperature and Humidity Temperature and Humidity Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many things like condensation and the formation of clouds and rain, as well as how hot or cold

More information

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation

Chapter 6. Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation Chapter 6 Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation The Hydrosphere Hydrosphere water in the earth-atmosphere atmosphere system Oceans and Salt Lakes 97.6% Ice Caps and Glaciers 1.9% (Not available for humans)

More information

I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle.

I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle. The Water Cycle I can build a model to simulate parts of the water cycle. I will be able to recognize and explain the essential elements of the water cycle. Background Water, in its different forms, cycles

More information

Miami-Dade County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction (Science)

Miami-Dade County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction (Science) Miami-Dade County Public Schools Curriculum and Instruction (Science) Required GRADE 5 ESSENTIAL SCIENCE Laboratory Activities QUARTER 2 LABORATORIES LAB # 8: AROUND AND AROUND IT GOES! Grade 5 Essential

More information

The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t

The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t The Water Cycle Now You See It, Now You Don t Unit: Salinity Patterns & the Water Cycle l Grade Level: Elementary l Time Required: Introduction - 30 min. - Activity as groups 45min Wrap Up 20 min l Content

More information

1. Theoretical background

1. Theoretical background 1. Theoretical background We consider the energy budget at the soil surface (equation 1). Energy flux components absorbed or emitted by the soil surface are: net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat

More information

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles

CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles CHAPTER 5 Lectures 10 & 11 Air Temperature and Air Temperature Cycles I. Air Temperature: Five important factors influence air temperature: A. Insolation B. Latitude C. Surface types D. Coastal vs. interior

More information

Seasonal Temperature Variations

Seasonal Temperature Variations Seasonal and Daily Temperatures Fig. 3-CO, p. 54 Seasonal Temperature Variations What causes the seasons What governs the seasons is the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground What two primary factors

More information

EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION

EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION EXPLANATION OF WEATHER ELEMENTS AND VARIABLES FOR THE DAVIS VANTAGE PRO 2 MIDSTREAM WEATHER STATION The Weather Envoy consists of two parts: the Davis Vantage Pro 2 Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) and the

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING 5-1 Introduction Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time. The condition of the atmosphere

More information

Section 1 The Earth System

Section 1 The Earth System Section 1 The Earth System Key Concept Earth is a complex system made up of many smaller systems through which matter and energy are continuously cycled. What You Will Learn Energy and matter flow through

More information

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork

Figure 2.1: Warm air rising from SAPREF stacks, October 2002 Source: GroundWork 13 CHAPTER TWO SOME CONCEPTS IN CLIMATOLOGY 2.1 The Adiabatic Process An important principle to remember is that, in the troposphere, the first layer of the atmosphere, temperature decreases with altitude.

More information

Temperature affects water in the air.

Temperature affects water in the air. KEY CONCEPT Most clouds form as air rises and cools. BEFORE, you learned Water vapor circulates from Earth to the atmosphere Warm air is less dense than cool air and tends to rise NOW, you will learn How

More information

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity

Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity Earth Science Name Date Per. Study Guide: Water Cycle & Humidity 1. Explain the difference between Specific Humidity and Relative Humidity. Specific humidity refers to the actual amount of water vapor

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

Dance of Earth and Moon

Dance of Earth and Moon Science Benchmark: 03 : 01 Earth orbits around the sun, and the moon orbits around Earth. Earth is spherical in shape and rotates on its axis to produce the night and day cycle. To people on Earth, this

More information

The Sun and Water Cycle

The Sun and Water Cycle reflect Think of the last time it rained in your city. When the rain stopped, you probably saw puddles on the ground. After a few hours, though, the ground was dry again. Where did all that rainwater go?

More information

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools

Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Partnerships Implementing Engineering Education Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Public Schools Supported by: National Science Foundation Weather: 4.H.3 Weather and Classical Instruments Grade

More information

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE

WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE 7 WEATHER, CLIMATE AND ADAPTATIONS OF ANIMALS TO CLIMATE TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q.1. Why weather changes so frequently? Ans. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The movement of the

More information

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate

Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere. Weather & Climate Interactions Between the Atmosphere & Hydrosphere Weather & Climate ~occur every 3-7 years ~can last weeks or years! ~cooler/wetter conditions in SE US ~dry weather in southern Africa, Southeast Asia,

More information

Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction

Scientist Guide. Let s Talk About the Weather. Introduction Scientist Guide Let s Talk About the Weather Introduction Agriculture is highly dependent on the weather. Ever since the first seed was sown, farmers have been watching the sky and hoping for good weather.

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Test 2 f14 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Carbon cycles through the Earth system. During photosynthesis, carbon is a. released from wood

More information

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

More information

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere

Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog. Water in the Atmosphere Humidity, Condensation, Clouds, and Fog or Water in the Atmosphere The Hydrologic Cycle Where the Water Exists on Earth Evaporation From the Oceans and Land The Source of Water Vapor for the Atmosphere

More information

Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot.

Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot. Equipment: Activity 1: 2 butter cartons, scissors, cling film, thermometer, water, a sunny spot and a shady spot. Activity 2: 3 thermometers, black paper, white paper Suggested Class Level: 3rd 6th Preparation:

More information

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert?

But, could we force these clouds to create rain in the desert? Clouds Exploration Phase How do clouds form? Above are fair weather cumulus (heaped/cotton ball) clouds. They do not form a single layer, as stratus clouds. They do not resemble wisps of hair, as cirrus.

More information

The Earth, Sun, and Moon

The Earth, Sun, and Moon reflect The Sun and Moon are Earth s constant companions. We bask in the Sun s heat and light. It provides Earth s energy, and life could not exist without it. We rely on the Moon to light dark nights.

More information

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B.

6. Base your answer to the following question on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperature of two cities A and B. 1. Which single factor generally has the greatest effect on the climate of an area on the Earth's surface? 1) the distance from the Equator 2) the extent of vegetative cover 3) the degrees of longitude

More information

How Much Water? OBJECTIVES PREPARATION SCHEDULE VOCABULARY MATERIALS BACKGROUND INFORMATION. For the class. The students.

How Much Water? OBJECTIVES PREPARATION SCHEDULE VOCABULARY MATERIALS BACKGROUND INFORMATION. For the class. The students. activity 7 How Much Water? OBJECTIVES Students use cobalt paper to compare the amount of water vapor in the air in different locations and over a period of time. The students observe the reaction of cobalt

More information

Cool Spaces. earth-wise guide to. green strategies: light strategies: Keep Austin Cool

Cool Spaces. earth-wise guide to. green strategies: light strategies: Keep Austin Cool earth-wise guide to Cool Spaces green strategies: 1. Trees and leafy plants 2. Green roofs 3. Green walls light strategies: 4. Reflective roofs 5. Permeable pavement 6. Shade structures Keep Austin Cool

More information

FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK

FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK FOURTH GRADE WORKBOOK student Math/Science Nucleus 1990,2001 WATER CYCLE - WATER (4) TRY AND LOCATE THE PARTS OF THE WATER CYCLE ON THE ABOVE CARTOON. USE THE NUMBERS. DRAW IN ITEMS THAT MIGHT NOT BE DRAWN.

More information

First Grade Science Vocabulary

First Grade Science Vocabulary data conclusion predict describe observe record identify investigate evidence recycle dispose reuse goggles air cloud precipitation temperature weather wind precipitation property season temperature weather

More information

Solar Heating and You

Solar Heating and You Solar Heating and You DOE/CH10093-272 FS 118 August 1994 The sun gives us energy in two forms: light and heat. For many years, people have been using the sun s energy to make their homes brighter and warmer.

More information

Making a Terrarium. fairchild tropical botanic garden 1

Making a Terrarium. fairchild tropical botanic garden 1 Making a Terrarium What is a Terrarium? A terrarium is a collection of small plants growing in a transparent, sealed container. A terrarium is a closed environment, and can actually be used to illustrate

More information

Project TECHNOcean Lesson/Activity Plan

Project TECHNOcean Lesson/Activity Plan Heat Transfer Hayley Vatcher Anna Reh-Gingerich Murray Middle, 7th Objective: Students should be able to: Define and describe conduction Define and describe convection List some good conductors, and poor

More information

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

More information

Be a Weather and Climate Watcher

Be a Weather and Climate Watcher Be a Weather and Climate Watcher This education resource was developed through support from the Midwestern Regional Climate Center, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant, and the Illinois State Water Survey. Molly

More information

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 Some scientists estimate that by 2025 over 60 percent of the global human population will live in urban areas. Urban residents experience a variety

More information

Empirical study of the temporal variation of a tropical surface temperature on hourly time integration

Empirical study of the temporal variation of a tropical surface temperature on hourly time integration Global Advanced Research Journal of Physical and Applied Sciences Vol. 4 (1) pp. 051-056, September, 2015 Available online http://www.garj.org/garjpas/index.htm Copyright 2015 Global Advanced Research

More information

Overview. Suggested Lesson Please see the Greenlinks Module description.

Overview. Suggested Lesson Please see the Greenlinks Module description. Overview Plants interact with their environment in many ways that we cannot see. Children often enjoy learning about these hidden secrets of plant life. In this lesson, children will learn about role of

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Sample Mid-Term 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) If you double the frequency of a vibrating object, its period A) is quartered.

More information

SECOND GRADE WEATHER

SECOND GRADE WEATHER SECOND GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the properties of water. LAB: Experimenting with different soap mixtures. POST:

More information

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds

Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds Name: Pd: Read and study the following information. After reading complete the review questions. Clouds What are clouds? A cloud is a large collection of very tiny droplets of water or ice crystals. The

More information

60 minutes total (two 30 minute sessions)

60 minutes total (two 30 minute sessions) Lesson Plan 9 Mini Water Cycle Brief description Students observe the water cycle in action inside a mini solar still. The still consists of a plastic tub filled with a layer of moist soil or sand, and

More information

ADAPTATION: A WAY OF LIFE

ADAPTATION: A WAY OF LIFE PLANT AND ANIMAL DESERT ADAPTATIONS Activities that show how desert plants and animals are welladapted to life in the desert and thrive with little moisture and high temperatures. ARIZONA SCIENCE STANDARDS

More information

8.2 Cells and Energy. What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts. CHAPTER 8. Solar cells and chloroplasts

8.2 Cells and Energy. What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts. CHAPTER 8. Solar cells and chloroplasts CHAPTER 8 CELL PROCESSES 8.2 Cells and Energy To stay alive, you need a constant supply of energy. You need energy to move, think, grow, and even sleep. Where does that energy come from? It all starts

More information

What is a Terrarium? Supplies Choosing your container Choosing your plants Building Your Terrarium

What is a Terrarium? Supplies Choosing your container Choosing your plants Building Your Terrarium What is a Terrarium? A terrarium is a collection of small plants growing in a transparent, sealed container. A terrarium is a closed environment, and can actually be used to illustrate how an ecosystem

More information

A Teaching Unit for Years 3 6 children

A Teaching Unit for Years 3 6 children A Teaching Unit for Years 3 6 children 1 SEREAD and ARGO: Concept Overview for Years 3-6 Teaching Programme This is the overview for the first part of the SEREAD programme link with ARGO. The overview

More information

Fry Instant Word List

Fry Instant Word List First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he

More information

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below.

UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW. 1. A weather instrument is shown below. UNIT 6a TEST REVIEW 1. A weather instrument is shown below. Which weather variable is measured by this instrument? 1) wind speed 3) cloud cover 2) precipitation 4) air pressure 2. Which weather station

More information

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008

Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 Teaching Sciences by Ocean Inquiry SMS 491/ EDW 472 Spring 2008 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE LAB: Part II 1. Thermal expansion/water thermometer A flask One-hole stopper A long glass tube A container filled with

More information

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Review 1. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Review 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When hydrogen nuclei fuse into helium nuclei a. the nuclei die. c. particles collide. b. energy

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation

Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection, and Radiation Introduction We have learned that heat is the energy that makes molecules move. Molecules with more heat energy move faster, and molecules with less

More information

MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT OF ORANGE COUNTY DISCOVERY SCIENCE CENTER

MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT OF ORANGE COUNTY DISCOVERY SCIENCE CENTER MUNICIPAL WATER DISTRICT OF ORANGE COUNTY DISCOVERY SCIENCE CENTER Third Grade ~ Teacher Packet Themes: Availability of Water ~ Scarcity and Introduction to Aqueducts California State Science Standard

More information

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE WEATHER 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing the different components of the water cycle. LAB: Contrasting water with hydrogen

More information

Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in the Appendix at the end of the lesson.

Standards A complete list of the standards covered by this lesson is included in the Appendix at the end of the lesson. Lesson 3: Albedo Time: approximately 40-50 minutes, plus 30 minutes for students to paint pop bottles Materials: Text: Albedo (from web site 1 per group) Small thermometers, at least 0ºC to 100ºC range

More information

Chapter 2 Student Reading

Chapter 2 Student Reading Chapter 2 Student Reading Atoms and molecules are in motion We warm things up and cool things down all the time, but we usually don t think much about what s really happening. If you put a room-temperature

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE ES 106 Laboratory # 6 MOISTURE IN THE ATMOSPHERE 6-1 Introduction By observing, recording, and analyzing weather conditions, meteorologists attempt to define the principles that control the complex interactions

More information

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group

More information

[7] SD3.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of cycles influenced by energy from the

[7] SD3.1 The student demonstrates an understanding of cycles influenced by energy from the Cloud Types Levels Overview: During this project, students learn about different types of clouds and determine which type of cloud is most commonly overhead in their area over a period of four weeks. Objectives:

More information

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA & GREEN ROOF RESEARCH. Utilizing New Technologies to Update an Old Concept. www.nasa.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA & GREEN ROOF RESEARCH. Utilizing New Technologies to Update an Old Concept. www.nasa. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA & GREEN ROOF RESEARCH Utilizing New Technologies to Update an Old Concept www.nasa.gov NASA Utilizes New Technologies to Update an Old Concept NASA s

More information

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP

UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP UNIT IV--TEMPERATURE-MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP Weather is the most variable and often the most critical determinant of fire behavior. This is the first of several units that will deal with weather and its

More information

Water Cycle. DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview... 123 Before Reading... 124 Guide the Reading... 125 After Reading... 130

Water Cycle. DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview... 123 Before Reading... 124 Guide the Reading... 125 After Reading... 130 Water Cycle T ABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction................... iii Teacher s Guide..................... iv Delta Science Readers............... vi Equipment and Materials

More information

1/2/3. Finding out about the Water Cycle

1/2/3. Finding out about the Water Cycle The Water Cycle 1/2/3. Finding out about the Water Cycle Aims: To enable pupils to learn and understand what happens at each stage of the Water Cycle To introduce specific vocabulary related to the Water

More information

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun zenith 90 summer solstice 75 equinox 52 winter solstice 29 altitude angles observer Figure 3.1: Solar noon altitude angles for Melbourne SOUTH winter midday shadow WEST summer midday shadow summer EAST

More information

A comparative study of the thermal performance of reflective coatings for the urban environment

A comparative study of the thermal performance of reflective coatings for the urban environment International Conference Passive and Low Energy Cooling 101 A comparative study of the thermal performance of reflective s for the urban environment A. Synnefa, M. Santamouris and I. Livada National and

More information

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast

ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast ATM S 111, Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast DARGAN M. W. FRIERSON DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES DAY 1: OCTOBER 1, 2015 Outline How exactly the Sun heats the Earth How strong? Important concept

More information

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions

7613-1 - Page 1. Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions Weather Unit Exam Pre-Test Questions 7613-1 - Page 1 Name: 1) Equal quantities of water are placed in four uncovered containers with different shapes and left on a table at room temperature. From which

More information

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate

CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Name: Date: Day/Period: CGC1D1: Interactions in the Physical Environment Factors that Affect Climate Chapter 12 in the Making Connections textbook deals with Climate Connections. Use pages 127-144 to fill

More information

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY The stability or instability of the atmosphere is a concern to firefighters. This unit discusses how changes in the atmosphere affect fire behavior, and

More information

Name Lab Partner Section

Name Lab Partner Section HUMIDITY Name Lab Partner Section Introduction Humidity refers to the amount of moisture or water vapor in the air. The air in our environment is rarely ever dry. The amount of moisture present varies

More information

Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle. Multiple Choice. 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D.

Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle. Multiple Choice. 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D. Grade 4 Standard 1 Unit Test Water Cycle Multiple Choice 1. Where is most water found on Earth? A. in glaciers B. in lakes C. in rivers D. in oceans 2. What source of energy evaporates the most water from

More information

[8] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by collaborating

[8] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by collaborating Convection and Wind Levels Overview: During this project, students observe convection current by performing a lab experiment. As a result of this activity, students develop an understanding of the process

More information

AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014

AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014 AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014 Name School Total Mark/50 Friday 14 th March Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

More information

HUMIDITY IN INCUBATION

HUMIDITY IN INCUBATION HUMIDITY IN INCUBATION Humidity is one of four primary variables which must be controlled during egg incubation - the others being temperature, ventilation and movement (or turning). Humidity is the most

More information

TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ASL720: Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing TERM PAPER TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION Group Members: Anil Kumar (2010ME10649) Mayank

More information

Best Practices for Managing Heat Stress in Feedyard Cattle

Best Practices for Managing Heat Stress in Feedyard Cattle Best Practices for Managing Heat Stress in Feedyard Cattle Prepared for Certified Angus Beef LLC by Dr. Terry L. Mader, Mader Consulting LLC, Gretna, Nebraska These guidelines have been developed based

More information

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered

Heat Energy FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7. Public School System Teaching Standards Covered FORMS OF ENERGY LESSON PLAN 2.7 Heat Energy This lesson is designed for 3rd 5th grade students in a variety of school settings (public, private, STEM schools, and home schools) in the seven states served

More information

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System

The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System NASA Facts National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov The Balance of Power in the Earth-Sun System The Sun is the major source of energy for Earth s oceans, atmosphere, land, and biosphere.

More information

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES SECOND GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES WATER CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE WATER WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the properties of water. LAB: Experimenting with different soap mixtures. POST: Analyzing

More information

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling

Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling Greenhouse Glazing Effects on Heat Transfer for Winter Heating and Summer Cooling David R. Mears, Ph.D. Bioresource Engineering Department of Plant Biology and Pathology Rutgers University 20 Ag Extension

More information

Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat Capacity

Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat Capacity Introduction Calorimetry Lab - Specific Heat Capacity Experience tells us that if a hot piece of metal is added to water, the temperature of the water will rise. If several different metals having the

More information

CHANGING EARTH K 12 Educator s Guide

CHANGING EARTH K 12 Educator s Guide CHANGING EARTH K 12 Educator s Guide HOW ARE WE A PART OF OUR CHANGING EARTH? Since its formation, the Earth has undergone dramatic changes. The powerful forces behind these changes are present today

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe

Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe 58 The Causes of Climate R E A D I N G Climates are described by the same conditions used to describe weather, such as temperature, precipitation, and wind. You now know that oceans have an important effect

More information

[4] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by observing,

[4] SA1.2 The student demonstrates an understanding of the processes of science by observing, Frost Depth Levels Overview: In this lesson, students explore the active layer above permafrost and begin a long-term investigation of frost depth. (NOTE: This lesson requires a frost tube in your community.

More information

Weather Under Pressure

Weather Under Pressure Primary Subject Integrated Subjects Grade Level Length of Unit Research Sources Science Math 5th 10 days Elementary Science with Vernier Book BrainPop www.areasonfor.com/site/1/docs/science_level_f_swt_lesson_20.pdf

More information

Heat Transfer. Convection. Introduction. Natural convection

Heat Transfer. Convection. Introduction. Natural convection Heat Transfer Convection Introduction Convection is defined as the circulation of fluids (liquids or gases), either natural or forced. Hot or cold fluids can add or remove heat. Natural convection is caused

More information

Lesson 5. Introduction Water We Talking About? Learning Outcomes & Assessment. Time. Resources. Activities. Handouts. Video.

Lesson 5. Introduction Water We Talking About? Learning Outcomes & Assessment. Time. Resources. Activities. Handouts. Video. Lesson 5 Introduction Water We Talking About? Learning Outcomes & Assessment Time Resources Activities Handouts Video every dr p counts 71 Lesson 5c: Water Actions: Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation

More information

Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction

Heat Transfer. Energy from the Sun. Introduction Introduction The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, but its exact path changes over the course of the year, which causes the seasons. In order to use the sun s energy in a building, we need to

More information