# PH 221-1D Spring Force and Motion II. Lecture Chapter 6 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition)

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1 PH 221-1D Spring 2013 Force and Motion II Lecture Chapter 6 (Halliday/Resnick/Walker, Fundamentals of Physics 9 th edition)

2 Chapter 6 Force and Motion II In this chapter we will cover the following topics: Describe the frictional force between two objects. Differentiate between static and kinetic friction, study the properties of friction, and introduce the coefficients for static and kinetic friction. Study the drag force exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid and calculate the terminal speed of the object. Revisit uniform circular motion and using the concept of centripetal force apply Newton s second law to describe the motion.

3 Friction: We can explore the basic properties of friction by analyzing the following experiment based on our every day experience. We have a heavy crate resting on the floor. We push the crate to the left (frame b) but the crate does not move. We push harder (frame c) and harder (frame d) and the crate still does not move. Finally we push with all our strength and the crate moves (frame e). The free body diagrams for frames a-e show the existence of a new force fs which balances the force F with which we push the crate. This force is called the static frictional force. As we increase F, f s also increases and the crate remains at rest. When F reaches a certain limit the crate "breaks away" and accelerates to the left. Once the crate starts moving the force opposing its motion is called the kinetic frictional force f. f f. Thus if we wish the k k s crate to move with constant speed we must decrease F so that it balances f (frame f). In frame (g) we plot f versus time t k

4 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces When the object moves, or attempts to move along the surface, there is also a component of the force that is parallel to the surface the friction force Nature of the friction force: Even when two highly polished surfaces are in contact, they touch only at a relatively few points. At these contact points the molecules of the different bodies are close enough together to exert strong attractive intermolecular forces on one another. 4

5 F N F mg Properties of friction: The frictional force is acting between two dry unlubricated surfaces in contact Property 1. If the two surfaces do not move with respect to each other, then the static frictional force f balances the applied force F. Property 2. s The magnitude f of the static friction is not constant but varies s from 0 to a maximum value f F The constant is known as s,max s N s the coefficient of static friction. If F exceeds fs,m ax the crate starts to slide Property 3. Once the crate starts to move the frictional force f is known as kinetic friction. Its magnitude is constant and is given by the equation: is known as the coefficient of kinetic friction. We note that: k Note 1: The static and kinetic friction acts parallel to the surfeces in contact The direction opposes the direction of motion (for kinetic friction) or of attempted motion (in the case of static friction) k f k f F k k N f s,max Note 2: The coefficient does not depend on the speed of the sliding object k f s,max sfn 0 fs sfn k k N f F

6 During a shuffleboard game (played on a horizontal surface) a disk is given an initial speed of 6.80 m/s. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the disk and surface is How much time passes before the disk comes to rest?

7 A Mercedes-Benz 300SL (m = 1700kg) is parked on a road that rises 15 degrees above the horizontal. What is the magnitude of the static frictional force exerted on the tires by the road?

8 A girl is sledding down a slope that is inclined 30.0 degrees with respect to the horizontal. A moderate wind is aiding the motion by providing a steady force of 105 N that is parallel to the motion of the sled. The combined mass of the girl and sled is 65.0kg and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the runners of the sled and the snow is How much time is required for the sled to travel down a 175 m slope, starting from rest?

9 Problem: A student presses a book between his hands. The forces that he exerts on the front and back covers of the book are perpendicular to the book and are horizontal. The book weighs 31 N. The coefficient of static friction between his hands and the book is To keep the book from falling, what is the magnitude of the min. pressing force that each hand must exert?

10 Problem: The drawing shows a large cube (mass = 25kg) being accelerated across a horizontal frictionless surface by a horizontal force P. A small cube (mass = 4.0kg) is in contact with the front surface of the large cube and will slide downward unless P is sufficiently large. The coefficient of static friction between the cubes is What is the smallest magnitude that P can have in order to keep the small cube from sliding downward?

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13 Equilibrium An object is in equilibrium when it has zero acceleration Strategy: 1) Select an object 2) Free body diagram 3) Choose a set of x an y axis and resolve all forces into components 4) Apply F x =0; F y =0; 5) Solve equations of step 4 for the unknown quantities Concept at a glance External Forces Non-Equilibrium 1. Gravitational Force Newton s No 2. Normal Force 3. Friction Force 4. Tension Force Second Law F=ma Is acceleration a=0? Yes Equilibrium

14 Given W=3150 N

15 Equilibrium at Constant Velocity This geometry occurs often in physics.

16 A single pulley T = constant T = mg There is no gain of mechanical advantage. The only benefit is that pulling is more comfortable than lifting the load directly Block and Tackle several pulleys linked together The axles of the two upper pulleys are lifted together. They are linked by a single rope and the mechanical advantage is 3. 1) 2) T + T + T mg = 0 T = mg/3

17 Given: m = 300 kg T =? to hold the load steady There are four ropes holding the weight up resulting in a mechanical advantage of four 4T = mg T = mg/4 = (300)(9.8)/4 = 735 N

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19 Drag force and terminal Speed When an object moves through a fluid (gas or liquid) it experiences an opposing force known as drag. Under certain conditions (the moving object must be blunt and must move fast so as the flow of the liquid is turbulent) the magnitude of the drag force is given by the expression: 1 D C Av 2 2 Here C is a constant, A is the effective cross sectional area of the moving object, ρ is the density of the surrounding fluid, and v is the object s speed. Consider an object (a cat of mass m in this case) start moving in air. Initially D = 0. As the cat accelerates D increases and at a certain speed v t D = mg At this point the net force and thus the acceleration become zero and the cat moves with constant speed v t known as terminal speed 1 2 D C Avt mg 2 v t 2mg C A

20 C Uniform Circular Motion, Centripetal force In chapter 4 we saw that an object that moves on a circular path of radius r with constant speed v has an acceleration a. The direction of the acceleration vector always points towards the center of rotation C (thus the name centripetal) Its magnitude is constant 2 and is given by the equation: v a r If we apply Newton s law to analyze uniform circular motion we conclude that the net force in the direction that points towards C must have F mv r 2 magnitude: This force is known as centripetal force The notion of centripetal force may be confusing sometimes. A common mistake is to invent this force out of thin air. Centripetal force is not a new kind of force. It is simply the net force that points from the rotating body to the rotation center C. Depending on the situation the centripetal force can be friction, the normal force or gravity. We will try to clarify this point by analyzing a number of examples

21 C. r Recipe for problems that involve uniform circular motion of an object of mass m on a circular orbit of radius r with speed v y m v x Draw the force diagram for the object Choose one of the coordinate axes (the y-axis in this diagram) to point towards the orbit center C Determine Set F ynet F ynet mv r 2

22 A hockey puck moves around a circle at constant speed v on a horizontal ice surface. The puck is tied to a string looped around a peg at point C. In this case the net force along the y-axis is the tension T of the string. Tension T is the centripetal force. Thus: F ynet T mv r 2 y C

23 Sample problem 6-9: A race car of mass m travels on a flat circular race track of radius R with speed v. Because of the shape of the car the passing air exerts a downward force F L on the car x C C If we draw the free body diagram for the car we see that the net force along the x-axis is the static friction f s. The frictional force f s is the centripetal force. Thus: F xnet f s mv R 2

24 C x y Sample problem 6-8: The Rotor is a large hollow cylinder of radius R that is rotated rapidly around its central axis with a speed v. A rider of mass m stands on the Rotor floor with his/her back against the Rotor wall. Cylinder and rider begin to turn. When the speed v reaches some predetermined value, the Rotor floor abruptly falls away. The rider does not fall but instead remains pinned against the Rotor wall. The coefficient of static friction μ s between the Rotor wall and the rider is given. We draw a free body diagram for the rider using the axes shown in the figure. The normal reaction F N is the centripetal force. 2 mv Fxnet, FN ma = (eqs.1), R F f mg 0, f F mg F (eqs.2) y, net s s s N s N If we combine eqs.1 and eqs.2 we get: s 2 mv 2 Rg Rg min R s s mg v v

25 y Sample problem 6-7: In a 1901 circus performance Allo Diavolo introduced the stunt of riding a bicycle in a looping-the-loop. The loop is a circle of radius R. We are asked to calculate the minimum speed v that Diavolo should have at the top of the loop and not fall We draw a free body diagram for Diavolo when he is at the top of the loop. Two forces are acting along the y-axis: Gravitational force F g and the normal reaction F N from the loop. When Diavolo has the minimum speed v he has just lost contact with the loop and thus F N = 0. The only force acting on Diavolo is F g The gravitational force F g is the centripetal force. Thus: 2 mvmin Fynet mg vmin Rg R C

26 Centripetal Force Problem : A swing ride at a carnival consists of chairs that are swung in a circle by 12.0 m cables attached to a vertical rotating pole, as the drawing shows. Suppose the total mass of a chair and its occupant is 220kg. a) Determine the tension in the cable attached to the chair. b) Find the speed of the chair.

27 Centripetal Force What is the minimum coefficient of static friction necessary to allow a penny to rotate along with a 33 1/3 rpm record (diameter = m) when the penny is placed at the outer edge of the record?

28 Banked curves When a car travels without skidding around an unbanked curve, the static frictional force between the tires and the road provides the centripetal force. The reliance on friction can be eliminated completely for a given speed, however, if the curve is banked at an angle relative to the horizontal. Friction free banked curve X: F c =F N sin =mv 2 /r (1) Y: F N cos -mg=0; F N cos = mg (2) (1) : (2) F N sin / F N cos = (mv 2 /r)/ mg tan =v 2 /rg For a given speed v, the centripetal force needed for a turn of radius r can be obtained from the normal force by banking the turn at an angle, independent of the mass of the vehicle

29 Banked Curves A racetrack has the shape of an inverted cone, as the drawing shows. On this surface the cars race in circles that are parallel to the ground. For a speed of 2.70 m/s, at what value of the distance d should a driver locate his car if he wishes to stay on a circular path without depending on friction?

30 Vertical circular motion A motorcycle driver drives his cycle around a vertical circular track with a constant speed v. Find the apparent weight of the cycle plus rider at points 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Total mass (rider + cycle) = m

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32 Circular orbit of a planet around the Sun F = GM s m/r 2 F = ma = mv 2 /r v 2 = GM s /r v = GM s /r There is only one speed that a satellite can have if the satellite is to remain in an orbit with a fixed radius. v = 2πr/T T period (time for 1 rev.) 4π 2 r 2 /T 2 = GM s /r T 2 = 4π 2 r 3 /GM s

33 A communication satellite in a circular orbit around the Earth T = 1 day r =? Synchronous geostationary orbit Since the radius of the earth is ~0.638X10 7 m the height above the earth s surface is H = 4.23X X10 7 = 3.59X10 7 m!!!

34 Global Positioning System (GPS) Used to determine the position of an object to within 15 m or less Each GPS satellite carries a highly accurate atomic clock whose time is transmitted to the ground continually by means of radio waves A car carries a computerized GPS receiver that can detect the waves and is synchronized to the satellite clock. The receiver determines the distance between the car and the satellite from the knowledge of the travel time of the waves and the speed of light

35 Apparent Weightlessness and Free Fall

36 Artificial Gravity The surface of the rotating space station pushes on an object with which is in contact and thereby provides the centripetal force that keeps the object moving along a circular path. At what speed must the surface of the space station r = 1700m move so that the astronaut at point P experiences a push on his feet that equals his earth weight?

37 Artificial Gravity Problem To create artificial gravity, the space station shown in the drawing is rotating at a rate of 1.00 rpm. The radii of the cylindrically shaped chambers have the ratio r a /r b = Each chamber A simulates an acceleration due to gravity of 10.0 m/s 2. Find values for: a) r a b) r b c) acceleration due to gravity that is simulated in Chamber B W AP N mv r 2 AS A

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