Q: Where will the facility be located? A: It will be located at the Port of Tacoma on Alexander Avenue East (see map).

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1 Tacoma LNG Frequently Asked Questions Q: What type of facility is Puget Sound Energy (PSE) proposing? A: PSE plans to build a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facility to provide PSE customers with natural gas reserves to maintain dependable service on the coldest days of the year. It will also provide commercial customers with a cleaner fuel alternative. Q: Where will the facility be located? A: It will be located at the Port of Tacoma on Alexander Avenue East (see map). Q: When will the facility be completed and operational? A: We have been in the planning stages of this project since An extensive environmental review is nearing completion; with the final Environmental Impact Statement released by the City of Tacoma in late Design and engineering is in process; with the expectation the facility will be completed and operational in early Q: What exactly is LNG? A: Natural gas is currently used in millions of homes and vehicles. When cooled, natural gas becomes a liquid (LNG) one six-hundredth of the volume of the gas. In its liquid state LNG is easier and safer to store and transport.

2 Q: Is LNG explosive? A: LNG is not explosive. If it is warmed above -260 degrees F, it turns back into the natural gas we are familiar with in our homes and businesses. Once this happens, the same safety precautions for natural gas are required. Natural gas vapors for a facility like PSE s LNG facility are regulated by federal law. Those regulations require PSE to design the Tacoma facility for safe dispersion of any natural gas vapor that might occur at the plant and contain any LNG spill on the site of the plant. Q: Is the design of the PSE LNG storage tank safe? A: Yes. In the industry there are single walled tanks, double walled tanks and full containment tanks. We are building the most robust type of tank a full containment tank. A full-containment tank is a nickel steel tank fully encapsulated by a two to three foot concrete outer tank designed to withstand a total failure of the inner tank. Q: Are tank top fires a possibility using full containment tanks? A: Although unlikely, federal regulations require a tank fire to be modelled and that event is factored into the thermal exclusion zone (550 feet) required as part of the siting analysis. A collapse of the tank roof and a fire would be similar to lighting a can of sterno. There will be no explosion, but the entire surface of LNG would burn and would continue to burn until the tank was empty. The tank is designed to withstand the fire and it could be left to burn itself out.

3 Q: Is LNG harmful to the environment? A: Quite the opposite, LNG has many environmental benefits over conventional fuels. LNG improves air quality and reduces health risks. When LNG is used to replace diesel fuel, it reduces sulphur (SOx) emissions by 100%, harmful particulate matter released into the air by over 90%, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx) emissions by 90% and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 35%. TOTE is using LNG to fuel their ships to help exceed the Environmental Protection Agency s (EPA) new air emissions standards and improve air quality for the people and communities they serve. LNG is also endorsed by the American Lung Association. Another environmental benefit includes using LNG as fuel eliminates the potential for harmful diesel fuel spills in Commencement Bay. In the unlikely event of a spill in the water, it turns back into natural gas when exposed to air and has no lasting effects on marine life or the water. Q: What customers will the LNG facility serve? A: The facility will serve PSE's existing customers by providing a dependable natural gas source during times of peak demand. The LNG produced at the facility will also provide a cleaner fuel alternative for regional businesses, including TOTE, a local shipping company operating cargo ships between Tacoma and Alaska. This innovative step will help them comply with new, stricter federal low-sulfur emission requirements.

4 Q: How does the Tacoma LNG facility compare with an export terminal? A: The first LNG export facility in the US is the Sabine Pass terminal in Cameron Parish, LA. That facility sits on over 1000 acres (as compared to 30 acres for Tacoma LNG) and has 5 LNG storage tanks totaling approximately 205 million gallons (as compared to 8 million gallons for Tacoma LNG). Q: Will the LNG facility be an export facility? How do we know you won t decide to export LNG later? A: The Tacoma LNG project is designed to meet the needs of PSE s gas utility customers by providing additional gas supply during times of peak demand and to provide a cleaner alternative to diesel and marine fuels used by the transportation industry. The facility is not economically or physically capable of serving the export market. As an example, an average LNG carrier (i.e., an ocean-going tanker ship designed to transport export volumes) holds approximately 43 million gallons, while the PSE LNG facility has storage for 8 million gallons. At full production, the facility is capable of producing 250,000 gallons per day. Even if the plant was entirely dedicated to filling an LNG carrier, it would take approximately 6 months to fill a single ship. When TOTE s contracted fuel requirements and PSE s own LNG storage requirements are taken into consideration, it would take over a year to fill a carrier. Recent data suggests there are about 360 LNG tankers in service worldwide, with a going price of around $200 million each, so waiting a year to take on a single cargo load is not an economically feasible or realistic scenario. Q: What is the maximum amount of LNG that can be shipped out from the facility? A: PSE s small LNG facility is not an export facility. In addition to storing LNG for use during the cold winter months, it is a fueling facility for a limited number of ships that no longer want to burn diesel. The facility has a contract with TOTE to provide approximately 900,000 gallons of LNG per week. The facility has about the same amount of currently uncontracted capacity that will eventually be sold to another transportation customer such as the Washington State Ferries or another ship operator. Q: Why does the tank need to be this big? What is a peak shaving facility? A: Peak shaving means that PSE will be ensured to have natural gas to serve local customers on the coldest days of the year. PSE requires six million gallons of storage for the peak shaving function; the rest will serve transportation customers. As far as LNG tanks go, the PSE LNG facility tank is small by industry standards, holding 8 million gallons. In comparison, the Sabine Pass export terminal in Louisiana has 5 LNG storage tanks totaling approximately 205 million gallons. Q: Does the LNG facility have a 3-mile blast zone? If not, what is the blast zone for the facility and why is there a map that shows a 3 mile blast zone for an LNG Tank? A: The illustration circulating on social media is false information that appears to be taking information from a 2004 study that measured the impacts of a catastrophic failure of an LNG supertanker ship (carrying over eight times more LNG than will be stored at the PSE facility) and superimposing it over the PSE project site. Strict federal regulations and National Fire Protection Association standards require extensive hazard analysis of all possible leak, spill, fire, and explosion scenarios at any LNG facility, all of which must be contained on the project site. Nearly 200 possible failure scenarios were evaluated and analyzed specific to the PSE LNG project site. The proposed facility passed all of these regulations. Software simulations

5 showed the largest fire scenario results in a thermal exclusion zone with a radius of 550 feet. The only possibility of explosion is from the refrigerant used to cool the gas to make LNG. A refrigerant explosion has a pressure wave radius of approximately 230 feet. Both of these scenarios are contained on the project site, per federal regulations. Q: How can we be sure the LNG tank won t collapse in the case of an earthquake or a lahar? A: Federal regulations prescribe the seismic requirements for the tank and entire facility and are much more stringent than the requirements for bridges and overpasses. In developing the seismic criteria, three earthquake sources were taken under consideration (Seattle Fault, Tacoma Fault, and Cascade Subduction Zone) and the most severe elements were taken from each and combined. The new high standard for infrastructure today is to build it to withstand a 1000 year earthquake. The Tacoma LNG facility exceeds that standard and is designed to withstand an earthquake that is expected to happen every 2450 years and still result in no loss of LNG. We are proud to help bring a safer and more environmentally friendly fuel to the Northwest. The entire facility will be constructed on top of ground improvements that consist of over 2,500 three foot diameter concrete columns extending to a depth of 80 to 100 feet. These columns create an island of improved soil that will remain in place during an earthquake. In addition, the tank will be set on 88 foundation isolators which will further minimize any shaking motion to the tank. Q: What would happen if a tsunami struck the facility? A: The project is designed to survive a tsunami from seismic events on either the Seattle fault or the Tacoma fault. These requirements are specified by the City of Tacoma and use data from NOAA and USGS.

6 Q: How much will the facility cost to build? A: We expect PSE s total investment in the project to be between $275 and $300 million. Q: How many jobs will be created at the facility? A: Hundreds of family-wage jobs will be created, both directly and indirectly, by the construction and operation of the facility. An independent analysis of the project estimated that construction would create at least 250 construction jobs on site, and that the associated economic activity would generate more than 300 indirect jobs in the area. Once the facility is up and running, its operation will generate economic activity to support 125 jobs throughout the area, as well as 18 jobs at the facility itself. In addition, the PSE LNG facility will generate millions of dollars in tax revenue for local schools, city services including fire safety and roads, and other state and local government services. Q: What role does the Port of Tacoma play in approving the facility or overseeing its operations? A: PSE is leasing land for the facility from the Port of Tacoma. Its ongoing role will be to ensure that PSE complies with the terms of the lease agreement. Q: How much experience does PSE have with LNG? A: In addition to providing natural gas service to some 800,000 customers throughout Western Washington, PSE has owned and operated an LNG storage facility in Gig Harbor for more than a decade. PSE also uses LNG reserves to meet increased gas demand on cold days. Q: Does PSE need to make any upgrades to its gas system in the surrounding area to support this facility? A: Yes. Approximately 5 miles of new natural gas pipeline and related infrastructure will be built to support this project, mostly at the Port of Tacoma. PSE maintains a regular schedule of upgrades to the natural gas lines throughout its service territory. Nearly half of the upgrades being made to our gas distribution system for the Tacoma LNG project are required improvements for reliability and to meet load growth and would be constructed on the same schedule. Q: Do other facilities like this exist elsewhere? A: There are more than 100 LNG production, storage and fueling facilities currently operating across the United States. Q: Where does PSE get the natural gas for this facility? A: PSE is a local natural gas distribution company that supplies gas within the State of Washington. PSE purchases its gas from interstate natural gas suppliers on the North American market. Q: Is PSE s Tacoma LNG facility similar to the methanol facility that has been proposed for the Tacoma area? A: No. The facilities are very different in size, product, and target customers. PSE s Tacoma LNG Facility will be smaller than the proposed methanol facility and will focus on serving local customers. (see the chart for a quick comparison.)

7 NWIW Tacoma Manufacturing and PSE LNG Facility Marine Export Facility (methanol) (liquefied natural gas) Product produced per day 2.6 to 4.4 million gals 0.25 to 0.5 million gals Cost ($millions) $3,600 to $5,200 $275 to $300 Water use per day 10,400,000 gals 13,000 gals Electricity use (constant) 400 MW load 15 MW load Purpose Through a chemical process and steam, this facility converts large volumes of natural gas into methanol to be shipped to China and used as a feedstock for the plastic industry. Website nwinnovationworks.com tacomacleanlng.com Through cooling and storing natural gas in liquid form, this facility provides a costeffective gas supply resource for PSE s local natural gas customers and a cleaner fuel alternative for maritime vessels travelling from Tacoma to Alaska. Q: Where can I get more information about the project? A: More information about the project can be found on our Resources page.

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