This paper describes the use of the PmodCLS Serial LCD Display Module and serial interfaces like SPI and RS232 for peripheral communication.

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1 Lab Project 7: Displaying Text on the LCD Module For more info: Revision: September 2, 2009 Overview This paper describes the use of the PmodCLS Serial LCD Display Module and serial interfaces like SPI and RS232 for peripheral communication. Bold numbers in brackets refer to the bibliography below. PmodCLS Serial LCD Display Module The PmodCLS can be used to display important information during program development or as a user interface after the project has been completed. The module is ideally suited for projects that include a Digilent embedded-avr board. The module is capable of executing a variety of instructions, such as erasing specific characters, setting different display modes, scrolling, and displaying user-defined characters. These instructions are specified using escape sequences to send commands to the board s embedded Atmel ATmega48 microcontroller. The display of the module is driven by this AVR device and controls all of the features of the board. [2] Functionality Communication with the embedded AVR on the PmodCLS is established using a UART, SPI, or TWI (Phillips I²C compatible) serial connection. Characters are written to the display simply by sending characters over the communication link. The characters appear on the display at the current location of the board s cursor. You set the cursor location, and send other instructions, by sending escape sequences. An escape sequence is specified by first sending the escape character followed by a left square bracket [, zero or more numeric parameters separated by semicolons ; followed by the command character for the specific command. All of the possible instructions are listed in the Instruction Set section of the PmodCLS manual. [2] Communication Settings You can set the board s communication method by setting the mode jumpers MD0, MD1, and MD2 on the board. Possible mode jumper configurations are listed in the table below. For Rev D boards, a missing jumper is represented by 0 and a connected jumper is represented by 1. For Rev E boards, a missing jumper is represented by 1 and a connected jumper is represented by 0. For choosing a certain communication interface, the jumpers have to be connected as shown in Figure 1. [2] page 1 of 10

2 Figure 1 Settings for Communication Jumpers Connector J1 is used for SPI communication. Connector J2 can either be used for UART or TWI communication. Connectors J4 and J5 can be used for daisy chaining other TWI devices. Power Supply Options The module is rated for external power ranging from 2.7 to 5.5 volts DC. Using voltage outside this range could damage the PmodCLS and connected devices. The PmodCLS can be powered through the board s 6-pin headers J1 or J2, or through connectors J6 or J7. When the module is connected to another Digilent microcontroller or FPGA board, that board can power the PmodCLS through a Pmod connector. The jumper JP1 of the host board should be set to the normal position to provide 3.3V on the VCC pin of the connector being used. The module is then powered by the host board s power supply. The pins of each connector are named as shown in Figures 2, 3, and 4. Figure 2 Connector J1 Configuration page 2 of 10

3 Figure 3 Connector J2 Configuration Figure 4 Connectors J4 and J5 Configuration The PmodCLS is also capable of storing characters in the EEPROM and displaying customized characters. More information about storing and displaying custom characters, as well as EEPROM storing, can be found in the PmodCLS manual. [2] SPI Interface The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a versatile communication interface which allows high speed data transfer between devices and a relatively easy to implement protocol. The interface is hardwareimplemented in the ATmega64L microcontroller. Consult the datasheet for information about registers and their usage. The SPI interface is full duplex, has master and slave operation, programmable bit rates and the possibility of setting different operation modes. [1] The communication in this case is from master (ATmega64 microcontroller) to slave (ATmega48 microcontroller). The master is the transmitter, and the slave is the receiver in this case. So the MISO (Master Input Slave Output) line of the interface will be left unused, and data will be transmitted via the MOSI (Master Output Slave Input) line. Because the two shift registers for both transmitter and receiver are linked together, data sent through the MOSI line will return to the master transmitter through the MISO line. The SS signal is active low and initiates communication. It signals the master to start generating the SCLK signal and to transmit data. [1] In Slave mode, the SS pin is configured always as input, while in Master mode the direction of the pin is user-defined. [1] page 3 of 10

4 Example Project The project uses the SPI interface and a PmodCLS to create an application which is often used in advertising displays: string text moving from right to left. In order to do that, the SPI has to be initialized and set for a certain communication speed, the order of the bits from a byte (LSb or MSb first), as well as interrupt enable and other settings. Main Function Software Diagram Start SPI and ports initialization SPI move string function call Figure 5 SPI Main Function Diagram The main function is shown above and the moving string function is shown below. SPI Initialization The function which performs the actions described above is SPI_MasterInit and has the following code: void SPI_MasterInit(void) // Set MOSI, SS and SCK output, all others input DDRB = (1 << bnjd1) (1 << bnjd2) (1 << bnjd4); prtjd3 &= ~(1 << bnjd3); prtjd1 = (1 << bnjd1); //hold SS line high // Enable SPI, Master, set clock rate fck/64 =~125k bps SPCR = (1 << SPE) (1 << MSTR) (1 << SPR1); The meaning of the bits from the microcontroller s registers is explained in detail in the datasheet. The function is called in main and performs the SPI port initializations as required for the chosen settings. SPI Character Sending Function After the interface is set to Master transmitter with SCK generation, another function (SPI_sendChar) can be implemented to transmit bytes using the following code: void SPI_sendChar(char spidata) BYTE i; page 4 of 10

5 prtjd1 &= ~(1 << bnjd1); //lower SS pin for (i = 0; i < 4; i ++) //waste some clock cycles asm volatile("nop"); SPDR = spidata; //Start transmission while(!(spsr & (1 << SPIF)) ) //Wait for transmission to complete ; prtjd1 = (1 << bnjd1); //return SS pin high for (i = 0; i < 4; i ++) //waste some clock cycles asm volatile("nop"); The function has as a parameter the character to be transmitted. Because the ATmega64L is configured as master in this case, the user and the software initiate communication by pulling the SS line low, waiting for a while, and then loading the SPI data register with the transmitting byte. After this operation, the program enters a while loop in which it waits for the SPI end of transmission flag to be set. The SPI clock generator stops after shifting one byte. SPI String Sending Function In some cases, there is the need to send not just one character at a time, but several. Therefore, a special function for sending a character string can be created. This function calculates the length of the string and stores it in a variable. The function also calls the character sending function for each element of the string. The parameter taken is a string of characters, the code is the following: void SPIsendString(char string[]) unsigned int length, i; length = strlen(string); //calculates the length of the string. for(i = 0; i < length; i++) SPI_sendChar(string[i]); //send byte return; page 5 of 10

6 SPI Move String Function As mentioned previously, this function is implemented for an application which is often used in advertising displays: string text moving from right to left. The string is continuously moved on the first line of the display, using the LCD s capabilities and C language performance. Start Save first character Shifts characters from string to the left Switch the first character with the last one Send escape sequence Send command for clear display and home cursor Send string Delay function call Return Figure 6 Moving String Function Diagram The function code is shown below. The escape sequence means sending the ESC character, then the corresponding character for the left square bracket and the zero character (all in hexadecimal value). After this sequence, one of the commands for the LCD is sent. Commands can be chosen from the table in the PmodCLS manual. void SPImoveString(char s[]) tmp=s[0]; //save first character page 6 of 10

7 for (int i=0;i<strlen(s); i++) s[i]=s[i+1]; // shifts characters to the left s[strlen(s)]=tmp; //switch the first character with the last one /* escape sequence */ SPI_sendChar(0x1B); // ESC character SPI_sendChar(0x5B); // [ character SPI_sendChar(0x30); // zero SPI_sendChar(0x6A); // j- command for clear display and home cursor SPIsendString(s); // sends the string _delay_ms(1000); // aproximately 1 sec delay _delay_ms(1000); In this case, the j character is sent, corresponding to the clear display and home cursor command, after each string has been sent. The delay is necessary for slowing down the transmission and the movement of the string on the screen, so a person can see it. Warning! When programming the board through the SPI/JTAG interface, always be careful to remove the cable after you ve programmed the board. Because the JTAG pins are shared by the SPI pins of port B, if you keep the cable connected to the board, the SPI signals will be pulled by the other lines from the JTAG. On the other hand, make sure to set the jumper JP1 to the normal position to assure a 3.3V power supply. The header declaring part of the project, the variable declaration, and the main function body are shown at the end of the document. Proceed to the task section for solving the requirements. Tasks 1. Create a new project with two headers as in the previous projects and then in the text editor copy the functions presented above and the lines from the first part of the project found at the end of the document. 2. In this lab project you were presented the module s capabilities and the SPI interface, and you have also learned that the module supports other types of serial interfaces such as USART. Because this type of communication was covered in Lab Project 5, you can now implement the same project using the UART communication. Tips: Use the same moving string function as for the SPI application. The USART initialization can be made using the function: void AppInit() //sets up UART1 UCSR1A=0x00; UCSR1B=0x08; UCSR1C=0x06; UBRR1H=0x00; UBRR1L=0x33; sei(); //8 data bits,1 Stop bit, no parity //9600 Baud rate //enable global interrupts. page 7 of 10

8 Consult the datasheet if you want another baud rate or parity bits or other changes. Be careful to set the TX pin as output. 3. Implement the same type of application using more of the module s capabilities. Tips: Inside the function, you first wrap the line at 16 characters, then bring the cursor home and clear the display. After that, in a for loop you can send the move cursor command with the parameter I, which decrements each time the loop is executed, and has the initial value 16. Finally, you send the string and call a delay function. Bibliography [1] [2] [3] page 8 of 10

9 Application Source Code /* Include File Definitions */ #include <stdio.h> #include <avr/io.h> #include <inttypes.h> #include <string.h> #include <util/delay.h> #include <avr/interrupt.h> #include "CerebotII.h" #include "StdTypes.h" /* Local Type Definitions */ /* Global Variables */ /* Local Variables */ char s[]="cls Demo Project "; char tmp; /* Forward Declarations */ void SPI_MasterInit(); void SPI_sendChar(char spidata); void SPIsendString(char string[]); void SPImoveString(char s[]); /* Interrupt Service Routines */ /* Procedure Definitions */ /*** main ** Description: ** Main program module. Performs basic board and SPI interface ** initialization and then enters the main program loop. ** */ int main(void) cli(); SPI_MasterInit(); sei(); for(;;) SPImoveString(s); page 9 of 10

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