DNA Lecture II Protein Synthesis Notes. Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA. Page #1 (Stratton 2010) Name: 2. : production of proteins

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1 Page #1 Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA Slide #2 Two process involve DNA : making an copy of DNA a. purpose: b. occurs: c. uses: DNA : production of proteins a. purpose: & b. occurs: between nucleus & c. uses: both & Slide #3 Replication Making Exact Copies of DNA Slide #4, #5, &#6 Videos DNA Unzip Replication of Helix Mechanism of Replication Basics Slide #7 & #8 Replication Creates an exact copy DNA Steps: DNA unzips Free-floating in cytoplasm fill slots along existing strand of DNA Two double strands formed. A more detailed diagram.

2 Page #2 Slide #9 Comparing DNA & RNA DNA Stranded Sugar Phosphate Nitrogenous bases RNA Stranded Sugar Phosphate Nitrogenous bases Slide #10 Protein Synthesis Slide #11 to #14 Why Do We Need Proteins? Cell Structure Cell = % Cell Processes (signals) (speed up reactions) Channels (remember transport?) (carry nerve/brain messages) Slide #14 to #18 What Do We Need For Protein Synthesis? DNA Template for making mrna during Transcription RNA a. messenger RNA makes & takes copy of DNA to cytoplasm. b. transfer RNAMatches w/ mrna on ribosome. Carries AA to add to protein chain. Ribosome a. b. mrna trna Creates peptide bonds between AAs makes polypeptide (protein) chain

3 Page #3 Slide #17 & #18 What Do We Need For Protein Synthesis? (AAs) Building blocks of proteins (20 AAs exist) Protein = AA chain = polypeptide chain! AA order determines function of protein Amino Acids Slide #19 to #21 Steps of Protein Synthesis (writing the message ) DNA makes mrna messenger carries code to (reading the message ) mrna and trna make protein (AA chain) message translated into a Slide #22 to #27 Transcription Transferring the DNA Code to mrna DNA to mrna Video Transcription Basics Transcription DNA to mrna Location = binds to DNA, unzips it mrna makes a copy of gene from DNA template *U replaces T in RNA A is a three-letter word of instruction Codons are made of mrna They attach to _ at Anticodons are attached to like structures which carry a specific. DNA nucleotides ( ) turn into mrna

4 Slide #28 Transcription Video Slide #29 Slide #30 Page #4 Writing the Code to form Amino Acids (Proteins) mrna to trna (writing) bonding of amino acids to form proteins mrna and trna make protein (AA chain) Location = Slide #31 Video Basic Slide #32 to #35 Steps of mrna moves to cytoplasm, binds to ribosome. trna brings AA (amino acid) to mrna on ribosome. Ribosome moves down mrna to next. trna picks up & at- taches next AA with peptide bond. leaves ribosome once AA attached. Steps 1-5 repeated, adding AAs until signals end of protein. Polypeptide chain (protein) released from ribo- some. Slide #36 Video Slide #48 AMINO ACID FUN!! DNA Triplet: ACC mrna codon: UGG trna anti-codon: ACC Amino acid: Tryptophan DNA Triplet TAC GGA CCT TAT ACT mrna Codon trna Anti-codon

5 Page #5 Movie Narrative (Advanced Look) Transcription Movie Narrative (Advanced Look) Transcription is the process of making RNA from a DNA template. Several key factors are involved in this process. Including, DNA, transcription factors, RNA polymerase, and ATP. Transcription begins with a strand of DNA. It is divided into several important regions. The largest of these is the transcription unit. This portion of the DNA will be used to produce RNA. Upstream of the transcription unit is the TATA box. An enhancer region may also be involved. Several complexes, known as transcription factors, are required for successful transcription. The first is TFIID, the largest of the general factors. A component of this factor, TBP, binds to the DNA using the TATA box to position TFIID near the transcription initiation site. Other transcription factors, including TFIIA and TFIIB, then attach. These complexes prepare the DNA for the successful binding of RNA polymerase. One RNA polymerase is bound, other transcription factors complete the mature transcription complex. Now, energy must be added to the system for transcription to begin. This energy is provided by the reduction of ATP into ADP and Pi. RNA polymerase then synthesizes an RNA template from the strand of DNA. Most factors are released after transcription begins. When the end of the transcription unit is reached, the RNA polymerase dissociates, and the newly formed strand of RNA is released. is the synthesis of a protein from an mrna template. This process involves several key moelcules including mrna, the small and large subunits of the ribsome, trna, and finally, the release factor. The process is broken into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. Let s see the process in action... Eukaryotic mrna, the substrate for translation, has a unique 3 -end called the poly-a tail. mrna also contains codons that will encode for specific amino acids. A methylated cap is found at the 5 -end. initiation begins when the small subunit of the ribosome attaches to the cap and moves to the translation initiation site. trna is another key molecule. It contains an anticodon that is complementary to the mrna codon to which it binds. The first codon is typically AUG. Attached to the end of trna is the corresponding amino acid. Methionine corresponds to the AUG codon. The large subunit now binds to create the peptidyl (or P) site and the aminoacyl (or A) site. The first trna occupies the Psite. The second trna enters the A-site and is complementary to the second codon. The methionine is transferred to the A-site amino acid, the first trna exits, the ribosome moves along the mrna, and the next trna enters. These are the basic steps of elongation. As elongation continues, the growing peptide is continually transferred to the A-site trna, the ribosome moves along the mrna, and new trnas enter. Whena stop codon is encountered in the A-site, a release factor enters the A-site and translation is terminated. When termination is reached, the ribosome dissociates, and the newly formed protein is released.

6 Page #6 Codon / Amino Acids Chart Name Amino Acids Essential: Abbreviation Isoleucine I Ile Leucine L Leu Lysine K Lys Methionine M Met Phenylalanine F Phe Threonine T Thr Tryptophan W Trp Valine V Val Essential In Certain Instances: Cysteine C Cys Glutamine Q Gln Glycine G Gly Proline P Pro Selenocysteine U Sec Serine S Ser Tyrosine Y Tyr Arginine R Arg Histidine H His Nonessential: Alanine A Ala Asparagine N Asn Aspartic Acid D Asp Glutamic Acid E Glu 3 Letter Abbreviation

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