Gillespie County Historical Society. The Pioneer Museum and Vereins Kirche. Fredericksburg, Texas. Teacher s Packet. TEKS Related Lesson Plans

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1 Gillespie County Historical Society The Pioneer Museum and Vereins Kirche Fredericksburg, Texas Teacher s Packet TEKS Related Lesson Plans 4 th and 7 th Grades 1

2 Fourth Grade TEKS 4.2 The student understands the causes and effects of European exploration and colonization of Texas and North America. The student is expected to: 2(A) summarize motivations for European exploration and settlement of Texas, including economic opportunity, competition, and the desire for expansion; Area to visit for these questions is the Vereins Kirche. 1. Study the map of the European separate principalities of Germany in the 1840s and read the explanation of conditions in that part of Europe at that time. List at least three reasons Europeans were interested in land grants by the Republic of Texas. a. b. c. 2

3 TEKS 4.3 The student understands the importance of the Texas Revolution, the Republic of Texas, and the annexation of Texas to the United States. The student is expected to: 3(A) analyze the causes, major events, and effects of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of the Alamo, the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Runaway Scrape, and the Battle of San Jacinto; 2. Although the Republic of Texas gained control of huge tracts of land after the revolution, there were consequences. Read the explanation of the war and explain how the Republic of Texas was going to find money to pay for the effects of the war. TEKS 4.4 The student understands the political, economic, and social changes in Texas during the last half of the 19 th Century. The student is expected to: 4(A) describe the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on Texas; 3. Read the story of the effects of the Civil War on the citizens of Gillespie and Kendall County. Did they fully support the Civil War? Explain what actions some of the citizens took either to support or not support the Confederacy. 3

4 4(C) identify the impact of railroads on life in Texas, including changes to cities and major industries; and 4. Did Fredericksburg ever have a railroad? 5. For how long did the railroad exist? 6. Why was the railroad discontinued and for what purpose? 4(D) examine the effects upon American Indian life resulting from changes in Texas, including the Red River War, building of U. S. forts and railroads, and loss of the buffalo. Area to visit for these questions is the Social Hall at the Pioneer Museum. 7. Explain the relationship between the people of Fredericksburg and Gillespie County and the Comanche Indians. TEKS 4.15 The student understands important ideas in historical documents of Texas and the United States. The student is expected to: 15 (A) identify the purposes and explain the importance of the Texas Declaration of Independence, the Texas Constitution, and other documents such as the Meusebach-Comanche Treaty; 8. How did the Meusebach-Comanche Treaty affect the relationships between the people of Fredericksburg and Gillespie County and the Comanche Indians? 4

5 TEKS 4.10 The student understands the basic economic activites of early societies in Texas and North America. The student is expected to: 10(B) explain the economic activitities early immigrants to Texas used to meet their needs and wants. Areas to visit for the next two questions are the grounds of the Pioneer Museum. 9. Find at least 10 artifacts in the Fassel Roeder House, Kammlah House, Kammlah Barn, and the Arhelger Bath House the early immigrants used to make money, produce and store their own food and obtain goods they could not make themselves. TEKS 4.12 The student understands patterns of work and economic patterns in Texas. The student is expected to: 12(B) explain how geographic factors such as climate, transportation, and natural resources have influenced the location of economic activities in Texas; 10. Under the wagon shed and in the barn are examples of modes of transportation in the early days of the county. Explain the use of this form of transportation in early Fredericksburg. 5

6 Fourth Grade Vocabulary 1. annexation 2. climate 3. colonization 4. competition 5. confederacy 6. consequences 7. economic 8. expansion 9. exploration 10. impact 11. natural resources 12. political 13. primary source 14. principalities 15. provenance 16. republic 17. secondary source 18. social changes 19. societies 20. transportation 6

7 ARTIFACTS Materials: Overhead transparency of artifacts to show to the students. Artifacts Key: 1. Fruit press 2. Coffee mill 3. Tool used to cut tenon in wagon wheel spoke 4. Butter churn 5. Tin oil lamp 6. Washboard Present and define the vocabulary words: provenance, primary source, and secondary source. Provenance: The source and ownership history of a work of art, literature, or artifact. Primary source: Original materials from the time period that have not been filtered through interpretation or evaluation. Usually the first formal appearances of results in physical, print or electronic format, which present original thinking, report a discovery, or share new information. Secondary Source: Accounts written after the fact with the benefit of hindsight that provide interpretations and evaluations of primary sources. Divide the students into groups of four. Assign an artifact photo to each group. Ask the students to observe their assigned artifact and each one write down their observation. In their groups, students should then discuss their observations. Next, have the students write down the name of the object, tell when it was made, where it was used, who used the artifact, and why the artifact was used. The students are creating a history or provenance of the artifact. Allow students to share their provenance with the class. After the share time, discuss with the students the primary sources and secondary sources used when reporting about and placing an artifact in a museum. 7

8 (Courtesy Gillespie County Historical Society) 8

9 Gillespie County Historical Society The Pioneer Museum and Vereins Kirche Fredericksburg, Texas Teacher Packet TEKS Related Lesson Plans 7 th Grade 9

10 TEKS 7.1 The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to: 1(A) identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain why historians divide the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction: Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights and Conservatism; and Contemporary Texas; 1. As you tour the museum and the Vereins Kirche, identify major eras in Texas History starting with statehood that pertain to the founding, settlement and growth of Fredericksburg. Find defining characteristics and explain why Fredericksburg fits into these eras. 7.3 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues related to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to: 3(D) explain how the establishment of the Republic of Texas brought civil, political, and religious freedom to Texas. 2. Use a graphic organizer to explain the components of the Republic of Texas History. Divide your paper into four parts and label Social, Economic, Political, and Geographic. Write your explanations for each component. 10

11 7.4 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of the Republic of Texas and early-texas statehood. The student is expected to: 4(B) analyze the causes of and events leading to Texas annexation; and 3.Describe the Europeans in the early days of their immigration to Texas. Texas had a huge debt incurred by the war with Mexico and promoted the settlement of the area north of San Antonio and west of Austin to make money to pay the debt. Include the problems the Europeans faced when they accepted the opportunity to come to Texas and how they coped with the problems of the new country. 4. Texas was in the final years as a Republic when the immigrants came to Fredericksburg and Gillespie County. What were the effects on the new citizens of the state of Texas in the events leading to annexation? 11

12 TEKS 7.5 The student understands how events and issues shaped the history of Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The student is expected to: 5(B) analyze the political, economic, and social effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas; and 5. How did the Germans in Texas feel about slavery and why? 6. What were the various actions these Germans took to show their support or nonsupport of the Civil War? 12

13 TEKS 7.7 The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the 20 th and early 21 st centuries. The student is expected to: 7(B) define and trace the impact of boom-and-bust cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20 th and the early 21 st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology; Materials: Overhead transparencies no. s 1-3. Teacher shows transparencies and gives background information. 7. Describe what you see in each picture after you have listened to the background for each picture. Use the optic strategy to give an overview, the parts, compose a title, bring out the relationships, and draw a conclusion. 8. When cotton as the main crop failed in Gillespie County, farming did not come to an end. Instead farmers were encouraged by the first county extension agents to diversify their crops. Explain what it means to diversify. 13

14 Transparency Background for Teacher to read aloud: Picture #1: Cotton farming was, and still remains, a major source of income in Texas. However, it is no longer a major source of income in Gillespie County. During the late 1870s many small farms had cotton fields planted and picked by the farmers themselves. This picture shows an entire family in the fields picking cotton when the cotton is ready for harvest. Each cotton boll had to be picked from the plant by hand and put into long sacks. People were proud of how much cotton they could pick in one day. For most children, it was a happy day when they could pick 100 pounds of cotton a day. Everyone got paid, including the children. The children contributed their money to the family to help buy food, clothing, and other unnecessary things. Picture # 2: Farms were worked mostly by hand until the later half of the 20 th century. This picture shows a mule-drawn plow, which was used before the invention of the tractor. The plow broke up the soil so the farmer could plant the seeds. Mules pulled the plow, but the farmer had to walk along behind and use the reins to control the animals. Cotton plants take about 8 months to grow to maturity. Lots of hard physical labor was needed to make a living on a farm. Even though farmers in Gillespie County use machinery today, farming is still hard work and the size of the harvest is always unpredictable. Picture #3: This picture shows bales of cotton loaded on wagons pulled by horses or mules. Each bale of cotton weighs approximately 500 pounds. The raw cotton was taken from the field to a special processing plant called a gin. The gin removed the seeds from the cotton fiber. Then the fiber was bundled into a bale. The bales were then sold to a cotton buyer who then sold the bundled fibers to a textile mill to make into cloth. The cash crop of cotton grew so large that at one time seventeen cotton gins operated in Gillespie County, and the New York Stock Exchange maintained a cotton futures board office in Fredericksburg. But this moneymaker lasted only a few years. In the 1920s, the boll weevil brought calamity to the cotton farmer. The small pestilence defeated the cotton industry in Gillespie County. 14

15 Optic Overview PARTS Title Interrelationships Conclusion 15

16 . Picture No. 1 - A family of women and children in a cotton field near Bear Creek in Gillespie County (Courtesy of Gillespie County Historical Society) 16

17 Picture No 2 - Man woman plowing field near Fredericksburg. (Courtesy of Gillespie County Historical Society) 17

18 Picture No. 3- Bales of cotton loaded on wagons at Doss, Texas in Gillespie County (Courtesy of Gillespie County Historical Society) 18

19 7(E) analyze the political, economic, and social impact of major events, including World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II, on the history of Texas; and 9. During all of the wars, Gillespie County furnished more of its quota of good men. The young men stood the highest mental and physical tests. Back home citizens furnished money all the while denying themselves common luxuries, and complying with food and gas rationing. Yet quite often other Americans subjected them to harassment. Explain in your own words the ways the people of Fredericksburg who less than one hundred years ago had been citizens of European countries coped during the war years? 19

20 Vocabulary Seventh Grade 1. boom-and-bust 2. analyze 3. annexation 4. background 5. civil 6. cycles 7. diversify 8. economic 9. eras 10. geographic 11. political 12. primary source 13. production 14. provenance 15. reconstruction 16. religious 17. secondary source 18. social 19. calamity 20. pestilence 20

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