1 Annals of the University of Petroşani, Economics, 14(2), 2014, ASPECTS REGARDING PUBLIC DEBT SHARE IN GDP AT THE LEVEL OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES ANA-PETRINA PĂUN, PETRE BREZEANU ABSTRACT: The way in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and it will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the dregree of indebtedness and its implications on the social wellness are very present at national level as also at the European Union level. In this paper it is presented the share of public debt in the Gross Domestic Product in the member countries of European Union, and, respectively, the degree of indeptedness of each member country of the European Union, at the level year of KEY WORDS: budget deficit, public debt, GDP, degree of indebtedness JEL CLASSIFICATION: H62, H63 The European Union as a free exchange zone represented in the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a stand-alone organism, has the largest economy in the world, providing a GDP expressed in tens of thousands of trillion euros. GDP level is reached with the contribution of all the 28 member states, also counting Romania, from 2007, with performances that vary from a member state to another. There is an Economical Growth and Stability Pact which regulates the fiscal politicy of the European Union, both at the level of economical free exchange (EU-28), and especially on the euro monetary zone (EU-17) which forecasts explicitely the fact that the level of public debt in GDP, afferent to each Union state, EU-28, to not exceed 60% from the backed up GDP with a maximum budget deficit of 3% from GDP. Even if they are specified, black on white, the maximum approved limit of the public debt and of the budget deficit, the foresights have been infringed by many member states which have constantly announced budget deficits bigger than 3%, and Ph.D. Student, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania, Prof., Ph.D., Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania,
2 196 Păun, A.P.; Brezeanu, P. attained a level of 60% of the GDP in public debt, those have been only utopian stories for some member states, figure 1 and figure 2 pointing out this case. Figure 1. Graphic representation of public debt level as a percentage from GDP, for the E.U. member states, E.U.-28, in Figure 2. Graphic reprezentation of the public debt level as percentage from GDP, of E.U member states, E.U.-28, in At a glance, the graphic above portrays easily the fact that the European Union average share, in what regards the public debt is, in 2013, over 80% from GDP, more exactly 87,4 % approximately equal with England s level, which had registered in 2013 a public debt level of 87,2%, this level being registered as an average share of the public debt afferent to members states.
3 Aspects Regarding Public Debt Share in GDP at the Level of Because of the fact that the public debt average level at a Union level is so high, it has been dealt with by positioning the majority of member states under the average level per Union. In what regards the eminent states for the public debt chapter, these are presented in Chart 1: Chart 1. Public debt level % from GDP, of E.U. member states, E.U.-28, in 2013 No Country Public debt % from GDP 1. Greece 174,9 2. Portugal 128,0 3. Italia 127,9 4. Ireland 123,3 5. Belgium 104,5 6. Cyprus 102,2 7. France 92,2 8. Spain 92,1 EU-28 87,4 1. England 87,2 From the above chart it can be observed that the first 6 positions are occupied by countries that have a public debt percentage, reported to the GDP, of over 100%, the most aggravated situation being the case of Greece, which had arrived at a debt level of 174,9% from GDP. On the same page of public debt is Portugal, second place, with 128,0% debt and Italy, third place, with a level of 127,9%, being followed at close distance by Ireland with a level debt of 123,3%. If we can report to the imposed level through Common Community Politics in what regards the public debt level at Union level, that of 60%, it can be noted the fact that it is respected only by 12 Union states (Chart 2). Between all these, 3 states are close to exceeding the 60% limit, from GDP afferent to public debt, respectively Finland with a 56,0% public debt, Poland with a 55,7% debt level and Slovakia with a percentage of 54,6%. Relating to the classification laggards, in what regards the public debt level reported to GDP, the best performant of all is Estonia with a debt level of only 10,1% from GDP, followed at a distance of 8 percentage points by Bulgaria which had registered in 2013 a public debt of 18,3percentage points from GDP and at a distance of over 10 percentage from Luxemburg which has reported in for 2013 a public debt of 23,6% from GDP.
4 198 Păun, A.P.; Brezeanu, P. Chart 2. Degree of indebtedness % from GDP, of E.U. member states, Legislative regulation EU-28, in 2013 No Country Degree of indebtedness % from GDP 1. Netherlands 68,6 Legislative regulation EU-28 60,0 1. Finland 56,0 2. Poland 55,7 3. Slovakia 54,6 4. Czech Republic 45,7 5. Denmark 45,0 6. Lithuania 39,0 7. Sweden 38,6 8. Latvia 38,2 9. Romania 37,9 10. Luxemburg 23,6 11. Bulgaria 18,3 12. Estonia 10,1 In what concerns Romania, as regards the public debt reported to the entire Union it occupies an honorable fourth place in the laggards classification for public debt, with 37,9% debt, followed at small distance by Latvia 38,2% and Sweden 38,6%. In what concerns the public debt level at the European Union member states level the conclusion is clear: even if there is a legislation which limits the level of public debt at 60% of the GDP, it is respected only by 12 member states, from a total of 28, which allows us to declare the fact that this limit, of 60%, is more for guidance, recommended more than mandatory. If we report this to the average level of public debt at the European Union level, it can be observed that from the total of 28 member states, 8 had exceeded the average level registered at the Union level, 19 states are under Union average level and one state, England, had registered almost the same public debt level, 87,2% as the average level of the European Union of 87,4% (figure 3). If we make an overlay of the public debt level regulated at 60% and of the average level of public debt reached in the Union, EU-28, of 87,4%, it results that in the E.U. we have 3 zones, depending on the public debt level, namely: The red zone, where there are the states that have exceeded the regulated level of 60% as well as the one registered as average of 87,4% at the E.U. level, in this situation being 8 states. The grey zone, where are the states that have exceeded the regulated level of 60% of the public debt but are under the registered average level of public debt as 87,4% at the E.U. level, in this situation being also 8 states; The green zone, it is represented by the states of whose national public debt is under the 60% limit, limit regulated by the legislation.
5 Aspects Regarding Public Debt Share in GDP at the Level of Figure 3. Graphic representation of the public debt average level, of E.U. members states, E.U.-28, in 2013 In Chart 3 are presented these zones, the red one, grey and green. Chart 3. The degree of indebtedness and the budget deficit of the E.U. members states between for the three zones No Country Degree of indebtedness % from GDP 1. Greece 174,9 2. Portugal 128,0 3. Italy 127,9 4. Ireland 123,3 5. Belgium 104,5 6. Cyprus 102,2 7. France 92,2 8. Spain 92,1 Average public debt EU-28 87,4 9. England 87,2 10. Austria 81,2 11. Hungary 77,3 12. Germany 76,9 13. Croatia 75,7 14. Slovenia 70,4 15. Malta 69,8 16. Netherlands 68,6 Legislative regulation 60, Finland 56,0 18. Poland 55,7 19. Slovakia 54,6 20. Czech Republic 45,7
6 200 Păun, A.P.; Brezeanu, P. No Country Degree of indebtedness % from GDP 21. Denmark 45,0 22. Lithuania 39,0 23. Sweden 38,6 24. Latvia 38,2 25. Romania 37,9 26. Luxemburg 23,6 27. Bulgaria 18,3 28. Estonia 10,1 CONCLUSIONS Based on the facts presented above we can conclude that, at the level of 2013, 8 E.U. members states have registered a public debt level, as a percentage of the GDP, both over the E.U. average public debt level (87,4%), and over the agreed level in the Maastricht Treaty (60%). In the top of this classification are situated Greece, Portugal, Italy, followed by Ireland, Belgium, Cyprus, France and Spain. A number of 8 member countries have registered a public debt level, in percentage of the GDP, under the E.U.public debt average level (87,4%), but over the agreed level at Maastricht Treaty (60%). In the top of this classification are situated England, Austria, Hungary, followed by Germany, Croatia, Slovenia, Malta and The Netherlands. A number of 12 members countries have registered a level of public debt, in percentage of the GDP, both under the E.U. public debt average level (87,4%), and under the agreed level at Maastricht Treaty (60%). In the top of this classification are situated Finland, Poland and Slovakia. As for Romania, regarding the public debt reported at the entire Union, it occupies an honorable fourth place in the laggards classification for public debt, with a debt of 37,9%, followed at a small distance by Latvia 38,2% and Sweden 38,6%. REFERENCES: . Brezeanu, P. (1998) Introducere în finanțe publice și fiscalitate. ASE, București . Duran, V. (2006) Finanțe publice. Editura Eurostampa, Timişoara . Matei, G.; Marcel, D. (2008) Finanțe publice - teorie, grile, aplicaţii, Editura Sitech, Ediţia a III-a, Craiova . Moisica Preda, L.E. (2009) Finanţe publice, Editura Bibliotheca, Târgovişte . Moșteanu, T. (coord.) (2008) Finanțe publice. Note de curs și aplicații pentru seminar. Ediția a III-a, Editura Universitară, București . Moșteanu, N.R. (2011) Finanțe publice. Editura Universitară, București . Ristea, L.; Trandafir, A. (2005) Finanțe publice - între teorie şi practică, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine, Bucureşti . Văcărel, I. (coord.) (2007) Finanțe publice. Ediția a VI-a, Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București . Eurostat
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