CAUSES OF PRISON OVERCROWDING. I. INTRODUCTION Imprisonment rates

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1 CAUSES OF PRISON OVERCROWDING I. INTRODUCTION Imprisonment rates 43

2 Occupancy and overcrowding 44

3 45

4 Factors contributing to overcrowding and overuse of imprisonment to the general use of imprisonment II. OVERCROWDING AND THE ROLE OF PRE-TRIAL DETENTION 46

5 47

6 48

7 III. THE RELEVANCE OF CRIME as a means to reduce crime 49

8 50

9 IV. BEHIND PRISON OVERCROWDING I - MACRO LEVEL FACTORS affected by other factors 51

10 Economic wealth 52

11 Social indicators and general well-being 53

12 Trust and legitimacy 54

13 Discussion V. BEHIND OVERCROWDING II: MICRO LEVEL CASE STUDY OF FINLAND 55

14 Social and economic background Ideological and legislative background Unnecessary criminalization and overuse of default imprisonment for unpaid fines 56

15 Severe sanctions for minor property offences Mechanical recidivism rules 57

16 Rigid early release practices Juveniles in prison 58

17 More alternatives to imprisonment Prison rates and crime rates 59

18 60 V. CONCLUSIONS

19 Appendix. Countries by prisoner rates and occupancy levels (ICPS) 61

20 Relevant litterature Mass Imprisonment. Social Causes and Consequences Penal Systems. A Comparative Approach Scandinavian Studies in Criminology 2 Perspectives on Punishment: The Contours of Control 62

21 Crime and Justice: A Review of Research The Culture of Control. Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society The Criminology of Criminal Law Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology International Annals of Criminology The Prisoners' Dilemma. Political Economy and Punishment in Contemporary Democracies Punishment and Penal Systems in Western Countries Crime and Justice: A Review of Research Crime and Justice: A Review of Research Patterns of Democracy. Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-six Countries Changing Attitudes to Punishment. Public opinion, crime and justice The British Journal of Criminology Punishment & Society. The International Journal of Penology Penal Populism and Public Opinion. Lessons from fi ve countries Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 63

22 American Sociological Review Punishment & Society. The International Journal of Penology Thinking about Crime. Sense and sensibilities in American penal culture Crime and Justice: A Review of Research Crime and Justice. A Review of Research Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective. Key Findings from the ICVS and EU ICS 64

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