# Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns

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1 Kingdom Schools Science Department Grade 5- Term 2 Name: Date: Section: Summary Booklet Topic 8 Weather Patterns Lesson 1 :How does Air move? Skill 8-1: Understand that air pressure is related to altitude, convection currents and the water cycle. Layers of Air Take a very deep breath. You now probably have about 3 liters of air in your lungs. The air has many gases in it. About 8/10 of the air is nitrogen and about 2/10 is oxygen. A very small part of the air is carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases. There are five layers of Earth s atmosphere. Most weather conditions happen only in the bottom layer, the troposphere. As you go up through the five layers, temperatures and air pressure change. Air pressure decreases as you go up through the atmosphere. This decrease happens because the gas particles in the air get farther apart and there is less air above you Layers of Earth s Atmosphere: 1) Troposphere 2) Stratosphere 3) Mesosphere 4) Thermosphere 5) Exosphere Have you ever walked over hot sand to get to the cool water of a lake or ocean? Land gets warm more quickly in sunlight than does water. At night, land cools faster than water. This causes the air above the land and water to have different temperatures. Differences in the temperatures of air result in winds, storms, and all sorts of weather. Different temperatures also cause convection currents to form. In a convection current, gases or liquids rise and sink in a circular path.

2 In cool air, gas particles are closer together than in warm air. This means that every liter of cool air is heavier than every liter of warm air. When the two kinds of air are next to each other, the cool air will sink and force the warm air to rise. The combination of the movement of the huge convection currents and the spinning of Earth cause regional surface wind patterns. Lesson 2:What are Air Masses? Skill 8-2: Explain what happens when air masses meet. Air masses If air stays over an area for some time, it takes on properties of that area and becomes an air mass. An air mass is a large body of air with similar properties all through it. The most important properties are temperature and amount of water vapor. An air mass keeps its original properties for a while as it moves to a new area. The kind of weather you have at any time is because of the air mass in your area. If you are having several warm, clear days, the weather will remain that way until a new air mass comes into your area. Some kinds of weather usually happen only at the edges of air masses. Air masses move because of winds. Have you ever seen a line of clouds move from the horizon until it is overhead? What you have probably seen is the arrival of a front. A front is a boundary between two air masses. A front gets its name from the kind of air that moves into the area. A cold front brings colder air into an area. A warm front brings warmer air into an area. Sometimes a front does not move very much or it moves back and forth over the same area. This kind of front is called a stationary front. Notice in the pictures in book (p.236),that both fronts have rising warm air. Areas of rising air near the fronts have lower air pressure than areas in the middle of the air masses. Rising air at fronts often causes rain or snow. Fronts Cold Warm Stationary

3 Why does precipitation result when warm air is forced up quickly by a cold front? The warm air contains water vapor. As the warm air rises, it cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds. Eventually, precipitation falls. When cooler air moves in, it forces warmer air to move up quickly. The rising air forms cumulus clouds along the steep boundary. Heavy precipitation often falls at a cold front. You know you have a stationary front in your area, when the weather in your area would change little over an extended period of time. Lesson 3- What causes severe weather? Skill 8-3: Compare and contrast the causes of different types of severe weather. How are Thunderstorms formed? 1. Moist air raises quickly 2. Air condenses clouds are formed 3. Precipitation Rain falls How are Tornados formed? 1. Layers of wind blow at different speeds (and / or at different directions) 2. Column of air in between starts to spin (funnel cloud) 3. Upward winds lift one end up (of the funnel cloud) 4. Downward winds push other end down How are Hurricanes formed? 1. Get energy from warm, ocean water 2. Water vapor condenses clouds are formed Releases energy ( which are like fuels for winds) 3. Lose energy over land

4 Compare and Contrast between Hurricane & Tornado Tornado Hurricane - Meters wide - Faster winds - Lasts for minutes - Severe Weather storms - Highly destructive - 100's km wide - Lasts for days

5 Lesson 4: How are weather forecasts made? Skill 8-4: Understand how weather data is collected and analyzed and list the tools used in predicting and analyzing the weather. What exactly is weather? How would you define it? To completely describe a weather system at any particular place and time, you need to describe all its parts: the temperature, moisture, clouds, precipitation, wind speed, air pressure, and wind direction. All of these parts may interact with each other and change during the course of a day. They may change even more quickly than that! Many kinds of tools measure all these parts of the weather. Some of these instruments might even be in your home. What weather-measuring tool have you used that is not shown here? Weather Tool What it Measures Barometer Wind Vane Anemometer Hygrometer Rain gauge Air pressure Tells which direction wind is coming from Wind speed Moisture in air (Humidity) Measures how much rain or snow has fallen

6 Barometer Wind vane Anemometer Hygrometer Rain gauge

7 Lesson 5 :What is Climate? Skill 8-5: Differentiate between Climate and Weather. Explain how climate have changed over time and some causes of this change. Weather and Climate Weather and climate are not the same thing. The climate of an area does not change as often as the weather. The words weather and climate do not have the same definitions. Weather is made up of all the conditions in one place at a single moment. Weather changes very often. Climate is the average of weather conditions over a long time, usually thirty years. Climate includes things like the average amount of precipitation, the average temperature, and how much the temperature changes during the year. Climates do not change as much as the daily weather does. Landforms Affect Climate Mountain ranges may have different climates than areas around them. Higher land is cooler because temperature decreases with height in the troposphere. But that is not the only way that climate varies around mountains. Areas on opposite sides of a mountain range can have very different climates Ocean Affect climate Oceans can affect a climate by slowing the rise and fall of the air temperature. Remember that bodies of water become warm and cool more slowly than land. Because of this, the temperature of the air near an ocean does not change as quickly as air inland. In the winter, ocean beaches often do not get as cold as areas just a few miles inland. In the summer, the air over ocean beaches is often cooler than air over areas inland.ocean currents can make a climate warmer or cooler Past Climates Climates are determined by many years of weather. Climates have changed many times throughout history, sometimes quickly, but usually slowly.looking at fossils is one way that scientists try to learn about climates in times before written records. Scientists assume that if an ancient plant looks very much like a modern plant,the two plants need the same kind of climate. For example, suppose a scientist working in a desert finds a fossil that looks like a fern. Since modern ferns do not survive in deserts, this fossil would be a clue that the area was once more wet than it is today

8 How Climates Change There are many events that might cool a climate. The Little Ice Age may have occurred because the Sun produced less energy. Volcanic eruptions and asteroid or meteorite impacts may have quickly caused cooler climates in the distant past. They could have done this by putting dust and other materials into the upper atmosphere. These materials can cool the climate by blocking sunlight or reflecting sunlight back into space. Carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor also can make climates warmer. They can be produced by human activities, such as burning coal and gasoline. These gases can also enter the atmosphere naturally, such as through decaying matter, forest fires, volcanoes, and the water cycle.many different events help to form a climate. Because of this, it is hard to determine why a climate has changed. Causes of Climate Change Volcanic Eruptions Asteroid or meteorite impacts Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Water vapor

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Humidity Activity Background Water is the common name for a chemical that has two atoms of hydrogen (H) for each atom of oxygen (O). The chemical formula for water, then, is H 2 O. Water has some special

### Understanding weather and climate

Understanding weather and climate Weather can have a big impact on our day-to-day lives. On longer timescales, climate influences where and how people live and the lifecycles of plants and animals. Evidence

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Holt Ch. 6 Biomes Section 6.1 pg 153-155 # 1-6 1. Describe how plants determine the name of a biome. Scientists name biomes after their vegetation because the plants that grow in an area determine what