1 A rede de pesquisa do PPBio: Filosofia e alguns Resultados Dra Flávia Costa Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia
2 PPBio The Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), understanding that studies of biodiversity need to be integrated and conducted over large areas by its Institutes and their partners, established in 2004 the Program for Planned Biodiversity Studies PPBio The PPBio includes: (1) Surveys (2) Collections (3) Biodiversity commercial applications (4) Strengthening Regional Centers (5) Capacity building of human resources
3 Financing Initially PPBio was financed by MCT (Ministry of Science and Tecnology) Nowadays, MCT (through CNPq) finances especially the regional hubs and the coordination of the network Most of the financing comes from projects submited by individual or groups of researchers to many agencies
4 Partnerships Partnerships include not only Research Institutes and Universities, but the Environmental Agencies in states and the federal government IBAMA, ICMBio and SFB are important partners and have adopted PPBio as model for biodiversity research and monitoring in many of they areas Partnerships with other international efforts, such as RAINFOR International PPBio in Australia
5 O PPBio uses the RAPELD method, which integrates RAP rapid inventories and PELD (LTER) long-term research
6 RAPELD Grids and modules 25 km 2 30 permanent plots
7 PPBio research sites in Brazil Grid Module
8 An efficient system for studying biodiversity must: (1) Be standardized. (2) Permit integrated inventories. (3) Be large, to permit inventory and monitoring of all elements of biodiversity and ecosystem processes (4) Be modular, to permit comparisons with less intensive sampling over large study areas. (5) Be compatible with other existing initiatives. (6) Be implementable with the existing manpower. (7) Make data available quickly and in a usable form to managers and other stakeholders
9 (1) Standardization Data collected on different geographical scales generally cannot be compared (Urban 2005). Biodiversity measures, such as species richness, community composition, genetic variability, biomass change, and productivity are all strongly scale dependent. It is more important to standardize sampling design than collection methods.
10 Why do we need standardized plots and not only occurence points? Occurence points allow mapping species distributions And to calculate species richness Why are they not enough?
11 Calathea zingiberina Let s see...
12 This is a widely distributed species, 0 a 83 ind/parcela 509 individuos em 170 parcelas correct? 0 a 477 ind/parcela 1750 ind em 105 parcelas Destruction of any area within this distribution is equally relevant for this species?
13 Occurence x Abundance Occurence points do not provide abundance information, but conversely, from quantitative samples it is also possible to get occurence information The last example shows that abundance information is necessary for decision making
14 Occurence points allow mapping of species habitats? Attalea attaleoides (Barb. Rodr.) Wess. Boer L-O: 6 L-O: L-O: 9 N km
15 Distribution of Attalea attaleoides at Reserva Ducke Trilhas: 1 L-O: 1 2 L-O: 2 L-O: 3 3 L-O: 4 L-O: 5 L-O: 6 L-O: 7 L-O: 8 L-O:
16 Occurence points are not always enough to understand the relationships between species and environment, and therefore to predict impacts of climate or other anthropogenic changes.
17 Why does PPBio uses plots following contour lines?
18 Permanent plots follow contour lines o Soil properties and distance to the watertable tend to change in accordance with altitude o Therefore, plots following contour lines minimize internal soil variation.
19 Permanent plots follow contour lines If each plot sample only one environment, it is possible to determine the relationships between species or ecosystem processes and these environments These relationships may be used to model species distributions or processes and make predictions for unsampled areas It is also possible to tease apart the environmental effect when the interest is to determine if some impact occured
20 Complementarity Studies need standardized designs Example: Alter do Chão
21 Complementaridade studies only make sense when the number of samples is constant among the potential conservation areas NÚMERO DE AMOSTRAS TOTAL SAVANA FLORESTA PEIXES ORDEM DE PRIORIDADE Tese Doutorado Ana Albernaz INPA 2002
22 Biodiversidade Decision Makers Conservation planning Land-use planning Impact evaluation Natural resources management (wood, nontimber products, medicinal products, game animals ) Modelers Prediction of impacts from human disturbances Industry Live collections for bioprospection 22 Academic Community Studies on ecology and evolution
23 (2) Integration Since there are many potential biodiversity targets and users, integrated surveys are much more efficient than isolated studies.
25 Plots are 250 m long, but the width is adjusted according to the size of the organisms to be sampled Plot central line, following a contour line
26 Plots have fixed lenght but variable width, which is inversely proportional to the abundance of the organisms. High land 4 m: DAP>1 cm 20 m: DAP>10 cm 40 m: DAP>30 cm Valey
27 Some examples of integrated studies at Reserva Ducke
28 Plant community composition x soil and topography (~ 800 sp studied, 6 different researchers worked in the same 72 plots) Habit Taxon Soil Fertility* Soil Clay % = Altitude * Slope* r2 Herbs Ferns Poales Zingiberales Shrubs Understory Palms Piper Psychotria Lianas Bignoniaceae Trees Burseraceae Chrysobalanaceae Euphorbiaceae Fabaceae Lauraceae Lecythidaceae Canopy Palms Sapotaceae * Standardized b Costa et al. unpubl.
29 Tree composition (MDS axis1) Tree composition Tree composition vs Topographical Descriptors in Central Amazonia 2D Graph 3 2D Graph altitude vs tree_sc1d hand30 vs tree_sc1d Y Data 0.0 Y Data R2= R2= D Graph X Data Elevation (m) 1.5 DEM vs tree_sc1d X Data Height Above the Nearest Drainage - HAND (m) Y Data R2= X Data SRTM (m) The same applies for Palms and Lianas Plant Composition = y0+a*exp (-b*topographical descriptor) Schietti et al., in prep.
30 Diurnal Nocturnal Palms Herbs Piper Psychotria Lianas Bees Ants Mesofaunal Lizards Diurnal Nocturnal Diurnal Nocturnal Palms Herbs Piper Psychotria Lianas Bees Ants Mesofaunal Lizards Palms Herbs Piper Psychotria Lianas Bees Ants Mesofaunal Lizards r (correlation) r (correlation) r (correlation) r (correlation) r (correlation) Diurnal Nocturnal Palms Herbs Piper Psychotria Lianas Bees Ants Mesofaunal Lizards r (correlati r (correlati How far can we go in simplifying biomonitoring assessments? An integrated analysis of taxonomic surrogacy, taxonomic sufficiency and numerical resolution in a megadiverse region Landeiro + 23 researchers at Reserva Ducke mantel.normal mantel.log protest.normal
31 (4) Modularity
32 Rio Jatapu Rio Trombetas Rio Curuá Ilha do Risco Rio Urucará Rio Urucará Rio Amazonas Rio Amazonas JURUTI Rio Arapiuns Lagoa dos Botos Ilha Grande do Tapará Ilha do Arapiri BELTERRA Evaluation of the Sustainable Forest District BR-163 Rio Abacaxis ITAITUBA TRAIRAO AVEIRO RUROPOLIS Rio Iriri Rio Curuá-Una Rio Iriri 30 módulos sobre 600 x 200 km Project coordinated by Ana AlbernazRio Tapajós JACAREACANGA Rio Jamanxim NOVO PROGRESSO Rio Teles Pires Rio Juruena Rio Iriri Rio Juruena Rio Iriri
33 Wood Potential basal area (m²/ha) Wood Volume (m³/ha)
34 Herb Richness Palm Richness
35 Ecohidrology project at BR research modules 110 plots Partnership between INPA and INPE for vegetation dynamics coupled to hydrological research
36 (5) Compatibility with other iniciatives TEAM: Conservation International 100 ha CTFS: Smithsonian 50 ha LBA: NASA <50 ha Mammal Transects: Carlos Peres UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA UK WCS: Wildlife Conservation Society Jaguars: 3,600 ha
37 Long- Term Studies
38 Biomass x soil/topography 20-21% of variation in biomass could be predicted by topography or soil
39 Biomass change The relationship with soil depends on the time period While, on average, plots gained around the same amount of biomass already shown in other studies, in rainy years sandy plots lost biomass while clayey plots gained. Castilho et al. Biotropica 2010
40 Temporal variation in the litter-fungi community at Reserva Ducke The relationship between fungal richness and soil conditions changes seasonally
41 Seasonal Fish-community change in small streams The fish community in the forest small streams changes seasonally in a predictable pattern, possibly due to the migrations between streams and marginal pools Espírito-Santo et al. Freshwater Biology 2008
42 Large Scale Studies
43 Species X Environment Relationships at the large scale Herbs (Zingiberales) 175 plots distributed over 800 km Dissertação de Fernando Figueiredo - INPA
44 ISOMAP Species X Environment Relationships at the large scale Herbs (Zingiberales) Composition Richness M M M M M V M M M M M M M MM M M M V V V M V V V V V V U U U U U U D PPP D P D U U U P P PPP P PP D P D D P D I DD P E U U P P P D D D D PEE D D D D E I E II III I II E I E D P D U P UU U U U U U U U densidade de sp estimada (parcial) Indice de Walsh (parcial) Soil Fertility ISOMAP 1 At the large-scale, Herb composition is related to climate and soil fertility, but alfa-diversity (richness) is only related to climate
45 Environmental impact studies: The impact of selective logging on fish-community ood- exploitation areas at Mil Madeireira (Amazonas)
46 There was a continuous change of fish community along time after logging, with no tendency to return to the original composition.
47 Environmental impact studies: Impact of ilegal wood extraction at the Anavilhanas Archipelago Disertação de mestrado de Andressa Scabin - INPA
48 High-valued species are explored over the entire archipelago, while low-valued species are explored close to the human concentrations
49 (7) Make data available quickly Data collected under PPBio is public Data and metadata are freely assesible through internet
50 Metadata are essential to data management Metadadta describe data and how they were collected. They should be made available as soon as possible, to allow other researchers to know what is being studied and where. PPBio uses the Ecological Metadata Language (EML), which is also used by LTER
54 Data flow - How it works today Field work Metadada Data 30 days 1 year Review Review Site
55 Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity (KNB) Morpho: a tool to create, administrate and share metadata. Metacat : a tool to store, browse and recover data
56 Integration & Synthesis Annual meetings to share results among regional hubs Workshops for analysis & writing of papers I workshop on vegetation studies in 2009 had 8 researchers and produced 3 papers II workshop on vegetation studies in 2010 will have 18 researchers and the potential for 7 papers
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