1 Gender Issues in Development of Women Hyunjoo Song, Ph.D. KIGEPE
2 Feminism No single definition, but incorporates both a doctrine of equal rights for women and an ideology of transformation aiming to create a world for women (and men) beyond simple equality
3 A realization of what has been natural so far is not definitely natural, rather it has been constructed. A movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression Political struggle for women s equality
4 Patriarchy A system of male authority which oppresses women, minors, and less privileged men through its social, political and economic institutions Patriarchy has power from men s greater access to, and mediation of, the resources and rewards of authority structures inside and outside the home.
5 Sex vs. Gender
6 Sex Sex is the biological difference between men and women Sex differences are concerned with men s and women s bodies Men produce sperm; women bear and breastfeed children; also visible differences in genitalia, the related differences in procreative functions Sexual difference are the same throughout the human race.
7 Gender Sex is a fact of human biology; gender is not The experience of being male or female differs dramatically from culture to culture
8 Gender The concept of gender is used by sociologists to describe all the socially given attributes, roles, activities, and responsibilities connected to being a male or a female in a given society; that is, the social classification into masculinity and femininity Our gender identity determines how we are perceived, and how we are expected to think and act as women and men, because of the way society is organized.
9 Gender Quiz Women give birth to babies, men do not. SD Girls are gentle, and boys are tough. GS women are paid 48% of the male wage in Korea (2005). GD Women can breastfeed babies; men can bottlefeed babies. SD Men are better than women at math, physics, and science. GS Men make decisions about family planning and the number of children a couple will have. GRGD GD
10 Gender Quiz In Ancient Egypt men stayed at the home and did weaving while women handled family business. Women inherited property and men did not GR Men s voices break at puberty, women s voices do not SD According to UN statistics women do 67% of the world s work, but their earnings amount to only 10% of the world s income GD Taking care of children is a women s role. GR Most building site workers in Korea, are men. G
11 Gender (power) relations Gender relations are concerned with how power is distributed between the sexes. They create and reproduce systematic differences in men s and women s positions in a given society. They define the way in which responsibilities and claims are allocated and the way in which each is given a value.
12 Gender (or sexual) division of labour In all societies, men and women are assigned tasks, activities, and responsibilities according to what is considered and suitable and appropriate. Because in most societies, gender power relations are skewed in favor of men, different values are ascribed to men s tasks and women s tasks A distinction can be made between productive work and reproductive work
13 Production This includes the production of goods and services for income or subsistence. It is this work which is mainly recognized and valued as work by individuals and societies, and which is most commonly included in national economic statistics. Both women and men perform productive work, but not all of this is valued or rewarded in the same way
14 Reproduction This encompasses the care and maintenance of the household and its members, such as cooking, washing, cleaning, nursing, bearing children and looking after them, building and maintaining shelter. This work is necessary, yet it is rarely considered the same value as productive work. It is normally unpaid and is not counted in conventional economic statistics. It is mostly done by women
15 Gender Equality vs. Gender Equity
16 Gender Equality Women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development.
17 Gender Equality Gender equality is therefore the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society.
18 Gender Equality The result of the absence of discrimination on the basis of a person s sex
19 Gender Equity The process of being fair to women and men To ensure fairness, measures must often be put in place to compensate for the historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from operating on a level playing field.
20 Gender Equity Equity is a means. A means for a society to overcome inequalities Equality and equitable outcomes are the results.
21 Gender analysis Gender analysis is the collection and analysis of sex-disaggregated information. Men and women both perform different roles.this leads to women and men having different experience, knowledge, talents, and needs. Gender analysis explores these differences
22 Gender analysis Gender analysis explores these differences so policies, programs and projects can identify and meet the different needs of men and women. Such an analysis explores and highlights the relationships of women and men in society, and the inequalities in those relationships, by asking: Who does what? Who decides? How? Who gains? Who loses?
23 Women in development (WID) The WID approach aims to integrate women into the existing development process by targeting them, often in women-specific activities. Women are usually passive recipients in WID projects, which often emphasize making women more efficient producers and increasing their income.
24 Women in development (WID) Although many WID projects have improved health, income or resources in the short term, because they did not transform unequal relationships, a significant number were not sustainable. A common shortcoming of WID projects is that they do not consider women s multiple roles or that they miscalculate the elasticity of women s time and labor.
25 Gender and development (GAD) The GAD approach focuses on intervening to address unequal gender relations which prevent inequitable development and which often lock women out of full participation. GAD seeks to have both women and men participate, make decisions and share benefits.
26 Gender and development (GAD) This approach often aims at meeting practical needs as well as promoting strategic interests. A successful GAD approach requires sustained long-term commitment. The biggest difference between WID and GAD is that WID projects traditionally were not grounded in a comprehensive gender analysis; The GAD approach is gender-analysis driven.
27 Gendered allocation of resources Access :This is defined as the opportunity to make use of a resource Control : This is power to decide how a resource is used, and who had access to it Women often have access to resources but not have control of benefits
28 Practical needs Practical needs are immediate, material daily needs such as water, shelter, health and food. If these were met, the lives of women (or men) would be improved without changing the existing gender division of labor or challenging women s subordinate position in society.
29 Strategic needs Interventions addressing strategic gender interests focus on fundamental issues related to women s (or less often men s) subordination and gender inequalities. If these were met, the existing relationship of unequal power between men and women would be transformed They include legislation for equal rights, reproductive choices, and increased participation in decision-making
30 Gender mainstreaming UN ECOSOC Resolution 1997/2 describes gender mainstreaming as the process of accessing the implications for women and men of many planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels.
31 Gender mainstreaming It is a strategy for making women s as well as men s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality
32 Empowerment Empowerment is about people both women and men taking control over their lives, setting their own agendas, gaining skills, building self-confidence, solving problems and developing selfreliance No one can empower another: only individual can empower herself or himself to make choices or speak out.