1 Gender and Policies Hyunjoo Song, Ph.D. KIGEPE
2 Illustration I
3 Illustration II
4 Sex vs. Gender
5 Sex Sex is the biological difference between men and women Sex differences are concerned with men s and women s bodies Men produce sperm; women bear and breastfeed children; also visible differences in genitalia, the related differences in procreative functions Sexual difference are the same throughout the human race.
6 Gender Sex is a fact of human biology; gender is not The experience of being male or female differs dramatically from culture to culture
7 Gender The concept of gender is used by sociologists to describe all the socially given attributes, roles, activities, and responsibilities connected to being a male or a female in a given society; that is, the social classification into masculinity and femininity Our gender identity determines how we are perceived, and how we are expected to think and act as women and men, because of the way society is organized.
8 Gender Quiz Women give birth to babies, men do not. SD Girls are gentle, and boys are tough. GS women are paid 40% of the male wage in Korea (2007). GD Women can breastfeed babies; men can bottlefeed babies. SD Men are better than women at math, physics, and science. GS Men make decisions about family planning and the number of children a couple will have. GRGD GD
9 Gender Quiz In Ancient Egypt men stayed at the home and did weaving while women handled family business. Women inherited property and men did not GR Men s voices break at puberty, women s voices do not SD According to UN statistics women do 67% of the world s work, but their earnings amount to only 10% of the world s income GD Taking care of children is a women s role. GR Most building site workers in Korea, are men. GR
10 Gender (power) relations Gender relations are concerned with how power is distributed between the sexes. They create and reproduce systematic differences in men s and women s positions in a given society. They define the way in which responsibilities and claims are allocated and the way in which each is given a value.
11 Gender (or sexual) division of labour In all societies, men and women are assigned tasks, activities, and responsibilities according to what is considered and suitable and appropriate. Because in most societies, gender power relations are skewed in favor of men, different values are ascribed to men s tasks and women s tasks A distinction can be made between productive work and reproductive work
12 Production This includes the production of goods and services for income or subsistence. It is this work which is mainly recognized and valued as work by individuals and societies, and which is most commonly included in national economic statistics. Both women and men perform productive work, but not all of this is valued or rewarded in the same way
13 Reproduction This encompasses the care and maintenance of the household and its members, such as cooking, washing, cleaning, nursing, bearing children and looking after them, building and maintaining shelter. This work is necessary, yet it is rarely considered the same value as productive work. It is normally unpaid and is not counted in conventional economic statistics. It is mostly done by women
14 Patriarchy / Feminism
15 Patriarchy A system of male authority which oppresses women, minors, and less privileged men through its social, political and economic institutions Patriarchy has power from men s greater access to, and mediation of, the resources and rewards of authority structures inside and outside the home.
16 Feminism No single definition, but incorporates both a doctrine of equal rights for women and an ideology of transformation aiming to create a world for women (and men) beyond simple equality
17 A realization of what has been natural so far is not definitely natural, rather it has been constructed. A movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression Political struggle for women s equality
18 Gender Equality vs. Gender Equity
19 Gender Equality Women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and for contributing to, and benefiting from, economic, social, cultural and political development.
20 Gender Equality Gender equality is therefore the equal valuing by society of the similarities and the differences of men and women, and the roles they play. It is based on women and men being full partners in their home, their community and their society.
21 Gender Equality The result of the absence of discrimination on the basis of a person s sex
22 Gender Equity The process of being fair to women and men To ensure fairness, measures must often be put in place to compensate for the historical and social disadvantages that prevent women and men from operating on a level playing field.
23 Gender Equity Equity is a means. A means for a society to overcome inequalities Equality and equitable outcomes are the results.
24 Gender Analysis
25 Gender analysis Gender analysis is the collection and analysis of sex-disaggregated information. Men and women both perform different roles.this leads to women and men having different experience, knowledge, talents, and needs. Gender analysis explores these differences
26 Gender analysis Gender analysis explores these differences so policies, programs and projects can identify and meet the different needs of men and women. Such an analysis explores and highlights the relationships of women and men in society, and the inequalities in those relationships, by asking: Who does what? Who decides? How? Who gains? Who loses?
27 Practical needs Practical needs are immediate, material daily needs such as water, shelter, health and food. If these were met, the lives of women (or men) would be improved without changing the existing gender division of labor or challenging women s subordinate position in society.
28 Strategic needs Interventions addressing strategic gender interests focus on fundamental issues related to women s (or less often men s) subordination and gender inequalities. If these were met, the existing relationship of unequal power between men and women would be transformed They include legislation for equal rights, reproductive choices, and increased participation in decision-making
29 Gendered allocation of resources Access :This is defined as the opportunity to make use of a resource Control : This is power to decide how a resource is used, and who had access to it Women often have access to resources but not have control of benefits
30 WID / GAD / GMS
31 Women in development (WID) The WID approach aims to integrate women into the existing development process by targeting them, often in women-specific activities. Women are usually passive recipients in WID projects, which often emphasize making women more efficient producers and increasing their income.
32 Women in development (WID) Although many WID projects have improved health, income or resources in the short term, because they did not transform unequal relationships, a significant number were not sustainable. A common shortcoming of WID projects is that they do not consider women s multiple roles or that they miscalculate the elasticity of women s time and labor.
33 Gender and development (GAD) The GAD approach focuses on intervening to address unequal gender relations which prevent inequitable development and which often lock women out of full participation. GAD seeks to have both women and men participate, make decisions and share benefits.
34 Gender and development (GAD) This approach often aims at meeting practical needs as well as promoting strategic interests. A successful GAD approach requires sustained long-term commitment. The biggest difference between WID and GAD is that WID projects traditionally were not grounded in a comprehensive gender analysis; The GAD approach is gender-analysis driven.
35 Gender mainstreaming UN ECOSOC Resolution 1997/2 describes gender mainstreaming as the process of accessing the implications for women and men of many planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels.
36 Gender mainstreaming It is a strategy for making women s as well as men s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality
37 Empowerment Empowerment is about people both women and men taking control over their lives, setting their own agendas, gaining skills, building self-confidence, solving problems and developing selfreliance No one can empower another: only individual can empower herself or himself to make choices or speak out.
38 Gender Classifications of Policies
39 Gender-blind policies These recognize no distinction between the sexes. They make assumptions, which leads to a bias in favor of existing gender relations. Therefore, gender-blind policies tend to exclude women.
40 Gender-aware policies This type of policy recognize that women are development actors as well as men; that the nature of women s involvement is determined by gender relations which make their involvement different, and often unequal; and that consequently women may have different needs, interests, and priorities which may sometimes conflict with those of men.
41 Gender-aware policies 1. Gender-neutral policies use the knowledge of gender differences in a given society to overcome biases in development intervention, in order to ensure that interventions target and benefit both sexes effectively to meet their practical gender needs. Gender-neutral policies work within the existing gender division of resources and responsibilities
42 2. Gender-specific policies use the knowledge of gender differences in a given context to respond to the practical gender needs of women and men; they work within the existing gender division of resources and responsibilities. 3. Gender-redistributive policies are 3. Gender-redistributive policies are intended to transform existing distributions of power and resources to create a more balanced relationship between women and men, touching on strategic gender interests. They man target both sexes, or women or men separately.
43 Status of Korean Women Gender-Related Index (GDI) Of 157 Countries26 26 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Of 93 Countries 64 (UNDP, 2007 Human Development Report)
45 The starting point: A person or a group of people decide a form of gender inequality must end. The disparity will no longer be passively accepted. The disparity is analyzed and proven. The harmful effects of the disparity are made visible. Data is collected as evidence. This is the process of gender analysis. The gender data is used to get others to commit to change. Often the first tier of change is an equity mechanism. For example: equal pay legislation; mandatory free education for all girls and boys; quotas for women in local government. These create the permissive structures and formal environments for men and women to perform the same roles and have the same rights.
46 However, equity mechanisms alone often do not lead to gender equality. They are often only an important step in the process. Just because legislation says all girls and boys should be in school, does not mean that all children are. Deeper gender analysis is now needed into what are the barriers. Socio-cultural, economic and/or political realities may need to change. (If the issue of inequity is within an organization/structure, then the deep culture of that organization will need a comprehensive and sensitive gender analysis.) A good gender analysis will identify who needs to be engaged as an ally for change. It will also identify engagement mechanisms to bring these people on side. These engagement mechanisms often include: mentoring, networking, sensitizing, recognizing, collaborating, publishing, advocating. Successful engaging of enough of the right influential people will bring action: girls and boys into the class; more male teachers into a femaledominated profession; more women in political office etc.
47 When males and females are both in the boardroom, in the classroom, on the community water committee.. the dialogue starts. It is through communication that men and women get to know the ideas, contribution and skills the other sex possess. It is this sharing the same space that leads to women and men equally valuing the other. That is the essence of gender equality.
48 Steps to Gender Equality Gender equality ENGAGEMENT MECHANISMS Gender analysis EQUITY MECHANISMS Commitment to act Gender analysis Gender inequity/inequality 2003 Linda Pennells
49 UNDP Status of Women in the World Labor hours 67% Of whole income 10% Of whole fortune 1% Of poor population 70%