SOCIOLOGY. Gender Equality

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1 SOCIOLOGY Gender Equality 1

2 Position of women in society 1. Women's Emancipation 2. Adequate representation of women in different spheres of human activity. 3. Protecting the rights of women in work and family, domestic violence, sexual harassment and abuse. 2

3 Feminism The term derives from the Latin word femina = female. Feminism can be understood as a philosophy, social theory, political movements and ideologies seeking equality for women. Feminism is along, with environmental or ethnic movement, a leading social current at present. It is a movement with considerable emancipatory potential. 3

4 Critique of patriarchy Feminists consider gender, i.e. the differences between the sexes, to be the most important and serious social dividing line. Inequality is caused by the dominant patriarchal system in almost all societies. Patriarchy = dominance of men in society and in the family. Sexism is the same form of oppression such as racism. 4

5 Major feminist statements 1. Cultural system is patriarchal in nature. The patriarchate has been created by a small group of men, while the victims are not only women but also ordinary men. Human history has been developed by men for men. 2. This order keeps both sexes equally eagerly. It is not right to blame only men, because women themselves accept this order. Also, they carry their own cultural control over them. 5

6 Major feminist statements 3. Men benefits from their domination in society. It is attributed to them greater significance. They are automatically considered more capable. They have an easier career. In households they may opt out of the ungrateful, time-consuming and stereotypical work. 4. Men must constantly compete to maintain their positions. It makes their emotional life poor. In contrast, nothing is expected from women. 6

7 Stages of feminism First Wave ( ) This period is mainly the struggle for civil rights for women in public life. The right to vote, property rights, general equality before the law (e.g., the right to divorce), the right to education and freedom of access to employment. 7

8 Stages of feminism Second Wave (60th-80th years of the 20th century) Feminism focuses on issues of private and family life. The traditional division of roles is rejected. "Gender studies" are developed - the promotion of equal treatment of the sexes. It is enforced the right of self-realization, free choice of profession and career. They are uncovered the previously taboo topics - female sexuality, contraception, abortion. 8

9 Stages of feminism Third Wave (80's to the present) They are further developed the issues of violence against women - domestic violence, prostitution, sex. harassment, female genital mutilation, pornography. Focus on lesbian and ethnic women's movement. Requirements for female beauty are considered modernday oppression of women. It is promoted the participation of women in politics and important institutions. 9

10 Main feminist currents Liberal Socialist (Marxist) Radical Postmodern Third World 10

11 Feminist theories 1. Theory of gender differences 2. Theory of gender inequality 3. Theory of gender oppression 11

12 Theory of gender differences The theory of gender differences has as its main theme the finding that inner mental life of women is different from the inner life of men. Women's experience gained during their career are different from that of men. Women construct according to this view social reality differently than men in many areas - the values and interests, value judgments, motivation, success, power, literary creativity, sexual fantasies, sense of identity. 12

13 Theory of gender inequality The theory of gender inequality indicate that the position of men and women in society is not only different, but it is unequal. Women in an identical position as the men have less money, material resources, power and opportunities for self-fulfillment. The cause of this inequality is not in biological predestination, but in the organization of society. Everyone - man and woman - desire for freedom and selfrealization. It is therefore necessary to change this situation and this change is possible. 13

14 Theory of gender oppression According to the theories of oppression, men have a clear, conscious and direct interest in keeping women in a subordinate position. Patriarchy is not just something secondary, which is based on biological factors, socialization process or roles in a class society. Male power structure was created intentionally. 14

15 Gender It is socially shaped by a complex of typical characteristics, behaviors, interests, activities and appearance, which is in a society associated with men and women. Thus, while gender refers to the physical differences of the human body, gender refers to psychological, social and cultural differences between men and women. Each culture in different historical periods produces a set of generally applicable formal and informal norms that determine how men and women are supposed to behave in the society. 15

16 Gender issues Examples: Gender equality Relationships between men and women Success of women in the labor market Discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation Reconciliation of work and private life Family functioning 16

17 Gender stereotypes Stereotype is stagnant idea in people's consciousness, usually received from sources other than the social experience. It's a simplistic conception of how the men and women are supposed to behave and look. Stereotypes influence our perceptions and thoughts and condition our own behavior in social interactions. Stereotyping harms women and men. Language, generic masculine. 17

18 Gender studies Interdisciplinary science dealing with identity and the representation of gender as central categories of analysis. Major fields of interests: Women s studies Men s studies LGBT studies The issues of relations between men and women are engaged in sociology, law, political science, linguistics, anthropology, medicine.. 18

19 Gender studies, o. p. s. Non-profit organization, serves primarily as an information, consultation and education center in the area of relations between men and women and their position in society. It seeks changes in the following fields: Elimination of gender stereotypes in society, in upbringing and education, in the family. Labor market without discrimination based on gender and age. Promoting reconciliation of work and family life. Increased representation of women in decision-making processes. Stop violence against women. Free decisions about their own bodies. 19

20 Males and females in the labor market Division of labor into male and female. Responsible and specialized positions are attributed to men. Women in important positions are viewed with suspicion. Women have lower incomes. Woman's work is often considered as complementary one. With women it is automatically associated parental leave and the need to care for their children in case of illness. 20

21 Man and woman in the family The traditional model of division of labor still exists in the family. Housework and childcare are still seen as primarily the responsibility of women. However, the society is changing. The traditional view of family roles according to sociological researches lingers in people older than 60 years, while the equality duties for both sexes is already reflected in people under the age between years and people with higher education. 21

22 Gender and the European Union The European Commission adopted in 2006 a document in the field of equal opportunities. In this document, the EC set out six priority areas on which to focus. In 2007 was founded the European Institute for Gender Equality. 22

23 Gender mainstreaming European Union strategy for the implementation of equal opportunities for women and men in institutions, organizations and politics. Taking into account gender equality in all areas and at all levels of social life. 23

24 Strategy for achieving gender equality Institutional mechanisms for the implementation of gender equality and gender mainstreaming. To achieve economic and social justice for women. To promote the position of women in decision-making - to move towards parity democracy in Europe. To eradicate violence against women and to implement women's human rights. Role of Europe in promoting women's rights in an international context. To eliminate patriarchal gender roles and stereotypes. 24

25 Priority areas of the European Commission 1. Achieving equal economic independence for women and men Reaching the Lisbon employment targets and promotion of women's employment. Eliminating the gender pay gap. Promoting of women entrepreneurs. Gender equality in social protection and the fight against poverty. Recognising the gender dimension in health care. Combating multiple discrimination, in particular against immigrant women and ethnic minority women. 25

26 Priority areas of the European Commission 2. Enhancing reconciliation of work, private and family life Flexible working arrangements for both women and men. Increasing care services (children, seniors, people with disabilities). Better reconciliation policies for men. Parental leave: to be further developed. 26

27 Priority areas of the European Commission 3. Promoting equal participation of women and men in decision-making politics economics science and technology. 4. Eradicating gender-based violence and trafficking 5. Eliminating gender stereotypes in society in education, training and culture in the labour market in the media. 27

28 Priority areas of the European Commission 6. Promotion of gender equality outside the EU Enforcement of EU legislation in acceding, candidate and potential candidate countries Promotion of gender equality in the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), external and development policies. 28

29 Literature A Roadmap for Equality between Women and Men In: EUR-LEX 52006DC0092 [online]. 3rd January 2006 [cit ] Dostupné z: EXnumdoc&numdoc=52006DC0092&lg=en DANICS, Š., J. DUBSKÝ, T. KAMÍN a L. URBAN. Základy sociologie a politologie. Plzeň: Nakladatelství a vydavatelství Aleš Čeněk, ISBN JANDOUREK, J. Úvod do sociologie. 2.vyd. Praha: Portál, ISBN

30 Literature KŘÍŽKOVÁ, A. a K. PAVLICA. Management genderových vztahů. Praha: Manage-ment Press, ISBN NOVÁK, Tomáš. Feminismus a společenské vědy. E-LOGOS: Electronic Journal for Philosophy [online] [cit ]. ISSN Dostupné z: První a druhá vlna feminismu. In: femin.blog.cz [online]. 19. srpna 2008 [cit ] Dostupné z: VALDROVÁ, J. Gender a společnost. Ústí na Labem: Univerzita J. E. Purkyně, ISBN

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