Gender equality in the European Union

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1 Gender equality in the European Union EU Office to Hong Kong & Macao Maria CASTILLO 15 October 2011

2 Principles Gender equality is a fundamental right of the EU and also a necessary condition to meet the EU s economic and social objectives

3 Legal basis for gender equality at EU level Since 1957, the Treaty of the European Community provides a legal basis for equal pay for equal work New Treaty of the European Union (2010): gender equality is a "fundamental value" (art.2 TUE) and an objective (art.3tue) of the EU The Union is required to promote equality between men and women in all its activities The EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights also provides for equality and prohibits sex discrimination

4 Today we also have: High-level group on gender mainstreaming 2001 Strategy for Equality between men and women (+ action plan) 2020 Europe Strategy Inclusion of gender equality principle in EU policies European Institute for Gender Equality June 2010: to help EU countries and institutions to promote gender equality Women s Charter March 2010

5 Overview of the situation in the Member States 59% of graduates are women in the EU 62% of women across EU are employed (79% of men) Since 2000, EU employment rate for women has been rising significantly But in all EU countries the employment rate of men exceeds that of women

6 Women tend to have higher degrees than men

7 Higher employment rate for men than for women

8 However, they also tend to be less well paid than men!

9 Share of women and men in decision-making positions Leaders of corporate boards 97 European financial institutions 89 National parliaments EU-institutions (administrators) National government (senior ministers) European courts Leaders of businesses Supreme courts European parliament 76 75, , % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Women men

10 Women in the European Parliament

11 Women in National Parliaments

12 9 out of 27 ers are women Catherine Ashton Vice-President, High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Viviane Reding Vice- President, Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship Androulla Vassiliou Education, Culture, Multilingualism and Youth Neelie Kroes Vice- President, Digital Agenda

13 Máire Geoghegan- Quinn Research, Innovation and Science Maria Damanaki Maritime affairs and fisheries Cecilia Malmström Home Affairs Connie Hedegaard Climate Action Kristalina Georgieva International Cooperation, Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Response

14 Women in Hong Kong Politics The Legislative Council of Hong Kong - Out of the 60 legislators, 11 are female Emily Lau Margaret Ng Audrey Eu

15 The Government of Hong Kong - Out of the 14 principal government officials, 3 are female Denise Yue Carrie Lam Eva Cheng

16 Women account for less than 10% of world leaders. At a high-level side event during the 66 th session of the UN General Assembly in New York, women political leaders made a strong call for increasing women s political participation and decision-making across the world.

17 Gender (im)balance on the boards of the largest listed companies, EU-27, 2005 & men for every woman board member men for every woman board member

18 Gender (im)balance on the boards of the largest listed companies in the EU, % Female board members Male board members Share of women in total employment 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% MT LU CY IT PT EL EE IE AT ES SI BE BG PL EU- CZ FR DE LT UK HU NL DK RO SK LV FI SE TR RS HR IS MK NO 27 Gender (im)balance on the boards of the largest listed companies, EU and competing countries, 2010 Women Men 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 38.9% 30% 20% 10% 1.4% 14.5% 11.8% 7.2% 7.7% 5.3% 0% Justice Japan India China Brazil EU-27 USA Norway #

19 Measures directly aimed at supporting equality Legislation Financial support Integrating a gender perspective in all policies Strategy for equality between women and men Employment Strategy Structural funds

20 Recent developments A Women Charter 5 March 2010 Presented by President Barroso and Vice-President Reding Strengthened commitment to promote gender equality Equal economic independence Address gender pay gap Assist women in decision-making roles Promote dignity, eradicate violence against women Promote gender equality at international level

21 New Strategy for Equality Equal economic independence Equal pay for equal work and work of equal value Equality in decision-making Dignity, integrity and an end to gender-based violence Gender equality in external actions Horizontal issues

22 Equal economic independence Key Actions Support the promotion of gender equality in the Europe 2020 strategy Promote female entrepreneurship and selfemployment Assess remaining gaps in entitlement to familyrelated leave Report on the Member States performance with regard to childcare facilities Promote gender equality in all initiatives on integration of migrants

23 Equal pay for equal work and work of equal value Key Actions Transparency of pay, impact of arrangements such as part-time work and fixed-term contracts together with European Social Partners Support equal pay initiatives at the workplace European Equal Pay Day Seek to encourage women and men to enter nontraditional professions

24 Equality in decision-making Key Actions Initiative to improve the gender balance in decision making Support efforts to promote greater participation by women in European Parliament elections including as candidates

25 Dignity, integrity and an end to gender-based violence Key Actions Reinforce Commission actions on VAW Draw up a Men s Health report, following the 2010 Women s Health report, and the Report on Reproductive Health

26 Gender equality in external actions Key Actions Assist candidate countries with the transposition and enforcement of legislation Implement the EU Plan of Action on Gender Equality and Women s Empowerment in Development ( ) Continue to encourage ENP partner countries to promote gender equality Gender in EU humanitarian aid

27 Horizontal issues Key Actions Role of men in gender equality; Gender roles Monitor the correct implementation of EU equal treatment laws Governance: Present an annual report on progress on gender equality Will feed into annual top level gender equality dialogue (EP, MS, EC, key stakeholders)

28 Exemples of Commission initiatives Vice-President Viviane Reding wants to make rapid progress on women in management. She met (1st March) CEOs and Board members to discuss the under-representation of women in top positions in the private sector.

29 Exemples of Commission initiatives Ms Reding challenged all publicly listed companies to sign up to the «Women on the Board Pledge for Europe»: Companies are asked to make voluntary commitments to improve gender balance on corporate boards to 30% by 2015 and 40% by 2020.

30 We are problem solvers and excellent at multi-tasking Better use of women talents More women in work force will help Europe s economic engine moving again Women means business

31 Nobel Peace Prize Winners 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Leymah Gbowee Tawakkul Karman Ellen Johson Sirleaf is Africa's first democratically elected female president. She has contributed to securing peace in Liberia and empowering women besides promoting economic and social development in the region. Leymah Gbowee is famous for mobilising and organising activities among the women across ethnic and religious dividing lines to bring an end to the long war in Liberia, and ensuring women's participation in the elections. Tawakkul Karman has played vital role in the struggle for women's rights and for democracy and peace in Yemen.

32 Thank you for your attention!

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